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Théodore Olivier (1793–1853) was a French mathematician.
He was a joint founder of the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, where he was professor of geometry and mechanics. He was also a professor at the École Polytechnique and a professor at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Métiers.
Olivier is known for the construction of three-dimensional geometrical models. He studied the theory of gears, writing an comprehensive treatise on the subject, and constructed models, which are preserved in the Musée des Arts et Metiers.
The above information is condensed from the Wikipedia entry.
Olivier's 1841 machine for cutting (or just finishing?) gear teeth is on display in the Musée des Arts et Metiers. See photos.