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The Stanhope press was the first all-iron printing press, designed by Charles Stanhope. The altruistic Earl Stanhope allowed others to freely copy the design , and the machines were produced by a variety of makers in a number of countries. Interesting article about preserved Stanhope presses here.
The platen was forced down by a large square-threaded screw rotated by compound levers. The greater strength and higher force capability allowed larger areas to be printed. In some cases the applied force tested the cast iron frame to destruction, and some surviving examples have more or less discrete repairs to the frame.
The earliest surviving example is in Gunnersbury Park Museum. It is marked with "5", the date "1804", together with the designer "Stanhope" and the manufacturer (Robert)"Walker".
1810 Advert: 'To Smiths, Iron Turners, Engineers, and Others.
By Mr. BRIAND, on the Premises, No. 191, High Holborn, TO-MORROW, the 15th inst. at Eleven,
The valuable Stock of Fixtures, Working Tools, and Utensils in Trade, belonging to that ingenious and highly approved invention the Stanhope Press Machine Manufactory; comprising very capital and powerful turning lathes, engine for cutting screws of great dimensions, forges with patent backs, large bellows, iron troughs, vices, anvils tapes, dies, working benches, sledge and board hammers, a variety of top and bottom and other tools, together with the iron-work and furnace bars of a 50 barrel copper, and other effects. The whole of these articles are in excellent condition, and may viewed two days preceding the sale, when Catalogues may be had on the Premises; and of Mr. Briand Castle-street, Holborn.'