Grace's Guide

British Industrial History

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 132,773 pages of information and 210,006 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Panama Canal

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Map of the Panama Canal Zone 1911.
1909. The Culebra cut.
Site of the Spillway through Gatum Dam, showing the Excavation practically complete Dec.1st 1908.
Work on the Gatun Locks - 1909 - 1910.
Gatun Locks - Cross Section Looking East from West Wall - January 15th 1910.
Upper Lock Looking South from East Wall - March 1910.
Gatun Locks - Concrete Work in Upper Lock Site. Looking West towards the Dam - January 3rd 1910.
1912. Culebra Cut; looking south from west bank.

The Panama Canal is a 77.1-kilometre (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. There are locks at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 metres (85 ft) above sea level. The current locks are 33.5 metres (110 ft) wide. A third, wider lane of locks is currently under construction and is due to open in 2015.[1]

The Culebra Cut was a particularly notorious nine-mile stretch which extends from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel.

1881 France began work on the canal after the success of the Suez Canal, but had to stop because of engineering problems and an extremely high mortality due to disease.

1904 The United States took over the project and took a decade to complete the canal.

1914 Opened on August 15, 1914.

From 1912, the construction of the canal was reported on in great detail in The Engineer by Percy F. Martin. Access the articles using the links below;

See Also


Sources of Information