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British Industrial History

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P. D. Zakhavo

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Pavel Dmitrievich Zakhavo (or Zakhava) (1779 - 1839) was an ingenious Russian engineer and inventor, who served as a mechanic at the Tula Arms Factory (1810-1839). He was responsible for the development of many special machine tools, and also mathematical instruments at the factory.

For much more information, see Wikipedia entry [1] [2]

Some genealogical information is available online [3]

He started at the Tula factory in 1804, where he built on the work done there by Alexey Surnin (who had studied production methods in England[4]. The war with France in 1812 gave an impetus to increase production. Zakhavo intoduced two machines which allowed 25 gun barrels to be drilled per day, and machines for reaming the bores after drilling, together with measuring tools. In 1818-1819 he was instructed to reorganize the production of bayonets. He invented a machine for drilling bayonets, as well as for turning the surface of bayonet tubes. Many other devices were developed by this outstanding mechanic for the manufacture of the famous bayonet. Not until 1827 did the government recognize the need to use steam engines at the plant. Zakhava was sent to England to study the operation of steam engines. Returning to Tula, he proposed to power all the machines by steam.[5]

Between 1812 and 1825 Zakhavo developed and constructed special-purpose machine tools for producing gun parts. Machines designed by Zakhavo and by John Jones (1768-1835) for the Tula factory were described and illustrated in a book published in Moscow in 1826. See here. [6]. It appears that Zakhavo focused on machining processes, while Jones concentrated largely on the forging and stamping processes.

Zakhavo's machines included lathes for machining the outside of gun barrels. These lathes had opposing cross slides on each side of the tapered gun barrel. The carriage, guided by dovetail ways, was traversed by a central leadscrew geared down from the lathe spindle, and the lathe was stopped automatically at the end of travel. It appears from drawings that the transverse position of the tools was controlled by guide bars guiding the cross slides. It is not clear whether both cross slides held cutting tools, or whether one of them carried a travelling steady. The tools were supplied with coolant from a canister fixed to the carriage.


See Also

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Sources of Information

  1. [1] Google translation of Russian Wikipedia entry
  2. [2] Russian Wikipedia entry
  3. [3] Geni website: Павел Дмитриевич Захава
  4. [4] Google translation of Tula Brands webpage: Surnin Alexey Mikhailovich (Сурнин Алексей Михайлович)
  5. [5] Google translation of Tula Brands webpage: Pavel Dmitrievich Zakhava
  6. Описание Тульского оружейного завода в историческом и техническом отношении (Historical and technical description of the Tula arms factory) by Joseph Hamel, 1826