Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,946 pages of information and 233,606 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, ranking number one in sales (57.9 billion US$) among the world-wide industry in 2013.
1995 Novartis was formed by the merger of three Swiss companies: Geigy, which has roots back to 1758; Sandoz Laboratories which was founded in 1876; and Ciba, founded in 1884. Ciba and Geigy had merged in 1971 and had concentrated mainly on crop protection in its agro division, Sandoz more on seeds.