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Jean François Henri de la Morinière of France
1834-1836 Director of the Manufacture de Glaces de Saint-Gobain.
c.1834 Developed a 'travelling standards' metal planing machine (Machine à raboter à fosse - pit planing machine). The machine was located in a pit such that the slides were level with the ground. The workpiece was fixed on the static table, while the standards (comprising columns, cross slide, toolholder, etc.) moved over the workpiece on V-slideways. The standards were pulled back and forth by an endless pitch chain, one chain on each side of the machine. The tools were self-acting, being fed transversely by a ratchet acting on the cross-slide's leadscrew, or vertically by another ratchet working a worm on a transverse shaft which engaged with a wheel on the top of the vertical slide.
This arrangement became known in France as système français, in contrast to the type with fixed standards and moving table which became known as the système anglais. The machine at Saint-Gobain was used to plane cast iron cooling tables for casting glass sheet, the tables being 4 m long by 2.73 m wide. This type of machine was used by a number of French manufacturers, including Mariotte, Cavé, and Decoster. Machines in the naval arsenals could machine workpieces 9 m long, with a cutting speed of 4 m/minute.