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British Industrial History

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ICI

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May 1933.
August 1933. Degreasing Plant.
1937.
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Jan 1945. Paints Division.
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November 1950. Cassel.
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1957. Alkathene.
January 1957. Fluon.
1958. Alfloc.
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August 1958. Flypel.
November 1958.
February 1959. Liquid Carbon Dioxide.
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1964. New offices at Runcorn Heath, Cheshire.
Oct 1966.
November 1990. ICI Homecare. Soda Crystals.

Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd of Imperial Chemical House, Millbank, London, SW1. Telephone: Victoria 4444. Cables: "Impkemix, London". (1929)

Ditto Address and Telephone: Telegraphic Address: "Impkemix, Telex, London". As Imperial Chemical Industries. (1937)

of Nobel House, 2 Buckingham Gate, London, SW1. Ditto Telephone and Cables. As Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. (1947)

of Huddersfield, Manchester, Grangemouth and Birmingham

General

1926 Public company. The company was founded in December from the merger of four companies — Brunner, Mond and Co, Nobel Industries, the United Alkali Co, and British Dyestuffs Corporation. The merger was engineered by Harry McGowan, who had earlier managed the agglomeration of the British explosives companies into Nobel Industries and subequently had been involved in a similar concentration of dye companies into the British Dyestuffs Corporation. The formation in Germany, in the autumn of 1925, of IG Farbenindustrie had threatened to overwhelm the British chemical industry; McGowan, prodded by Reginald McKenna, proposed a defensive merger between the four largest British chemical businesses[1]. The new company was divided into main product areas for alkalis, dyestuffs, explosives, general chemicals (including chlorine, acids, and synthetic ammonia), and metals. It also concentrated on producing cellulose products, fertilizers, lime, and a rubberized fabric known as "leathercloth"[2]. In its first year turnover was £27m. ICI began business on January 1, 1927, with 33,000 employees. The newly formed company.

1926 ICI extended its interests in the manufacture of artificial leather by acquiring a very substantial interest in the British Leather Cloth Manufacturing Co[3]

1927 The ICI combine took over Cassel Cyanide Co by exchange of shares[4]. Also acquired Union Acid Co Ltd, Oliver Wilkins and Co Ltd, Casebourne and Co (1926) Ltd for which purchases extra shares were issued[5].

By 1928, staff had occupied the newly built, monumental headquarters on Millbank in London.

1928 ICI had controlling interest in 40 manufacturing and trading concerns and a large measure of control of 30 others[6]. The main "branches of industry served" by ICI were:

  • Heavy chemicals
  • Explosives
  • Dyestuffs
  • Metals
  • Cellulose products, such as leather cloth, varnishes, etc.

1929 ICI played a key role in the development of new products

1929 Listed Exhibitor British Industries Fair. Manufacturers of Acids, Alkalies and all Heavy Chemicals; Artificial Leathers; Cellulose Lacquers; Cellulose Preparations for various trades; Commercial and other Explosives and Accessories; Fertilizers; Non-ferrous Metals; Photographic and Pharmaceutical Preparations; Synthetic Dyestuffs. (Stand Nos. K.105, K.117 and K.118) [7]

1930 McGowan became chairman and sole managing director.

1930 Acquired full control of Elliotts Metal Co and Lighting Trades Ltd[8]

1930 Work on developing an oil-from-coal process was announced.

1931 Progress in reducing costs of the oil-from-coal process[9].

1932 Introduced the acrylic plastic Perspex.

1932 Formation of ICI (Explosives) which would include 11 companies controlled by ICI.

1932 Introduced Dulux paints (co-developed with Du Pont).

1933 British Titan Products company formed to make titanium dioxide pigments[10]. Jointly owned by ICI, Imperial Smelting Corporation, Goodlass, Wall and Lead Industries and National Lead Co of America. Acquired land from ICI at Billingham to erect a plant.

1933 Chloros - Disinfectant and Deodrant. Water Sterilisation.[11]

1935 The coal hydrogenation plant was completed at Billingham; petrol production began mid-year.[12]

1937 the newly formed Plastics Division took over polyethylene as a moulding compound; Dyestuffs Division would lead on textile uses; Alkali Division, which been responsible for its discovery, would lead on electrical and other uses.

Disposed of the Sunbeam motorcycle business which had come to ICI with Nobel Industries.

1937 Chemicals. "Trichlorethylene" Non-flammable solvent for degreasing. [13]

1939 First commercial production of polyethylene in UK by ICI

1939 See Aircraft Industry Suppliers

1940 The polymer for the new fibre, Nylon, would be produced at the Huddersfield plant of ICI Dyestuffs[14]

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [15]. Three catalogue entries:-

  • as ICI of Nobel House.
  • as ICI Industries Ltd, Leathercloth Division of Newton Works, Hyde, Cheshire.
  • as ICI Industries Limited, Plastics Division of Black Fan Road, Welwyn Garden City, Herts.

1952 Opening of the huge chemical complex at Wilton, which included a 4,000-ton nylon polymer unit, as well as ammonia and hydrogen plants, and production facilities for phenol and organic chemicals.

For a short period during the 1950s, ICI marketed a colour film for use by professional photographers. At this time ICI took some preliminary steps towards entering the amateur photography market.

1957 Because of success in pharmaceuticals, ICI formed ICI Pharmaceuticals.

1958 ICI acquired 32 percent of Ilford's shares and an agreement was concluded which gave Ilford access to ICI's colour film research and provided for further research on colour photographic products and processes to be undertaken by ICI on behalf of Ilford.

1961 Products include alkalis, heavy and fine chemicals, solvents, fertilizers, pest control products, salt, dyestuffs and pigments, textile auxiliaries, emulsifying agents, detergents, rubber chemicals, synthetic resins, plastics, synthetic fibres, paints, enamels and lacquers, leathercloth, pharmaceuticals, explosives and blasting equipment, non-ferrous wrought metals and alloys (copper, titanium, zirconium etc), semi-fabricated metal products, shotgun and metallic ammunition. [16]

1962 ICI and Courtaulds both had major interests connected with textiles and considered various mergers and take-overs. In 1964 the companies broke apart; ICI acquired British Nylon Spinners and Courtaulds carried on with another nylon range.[17]

1964 Formation of ICI Fibres, to take over the ICI interests in textile and fibres and British Nylon Spinners; this would be the third largest fibre group in the world[18]

1965 ICI began building major new plant, including an ethylene cracker in Britain, fibre spinning operations in Germany, and a huge PVC plant at Bayonne, New Jersey, USA. This permitted ICI to produce chemicals at a more competitive price.

1966 With Ciba, acquired all the outstanding shares in Ilford

1969 Sold all the shares owned in Ilford to Ciba

1969 ICI reversed its policy of non-involvement in textiles and announced a bid for Viyella and plan to merge it with Carrington and Dewhurst[19]

1970 ICI acquired Viyella and later in the year Carrington and Dewhurst, forming Carrington Viyella of which ICI owned 64 percent[20].

1971 ICI acquired 4 of the 10 companies licensed to spin Crimplene in order to form a strong yarn processing unit[21]; these were Qualitex, and 3 subsidiaries of Carrington Viyella: William Tatton, Aycliffe Textiles and Cheslene and Crepes[22]

From 1971 to 1988 ICI operated a small General Atomics TRIGA Mark I nuclear reactor at its Billingham site.

1974 Mr. Frank Whiteley, operations director of ICI Agricultural Division, was seconded to the company's head office as technical adviser to the main board. His duties included the responsibilities of engineering adviser and head of engineering services, which he took over from Dr. K. A. G. Miller.[23]

By 1975 ICI controlled over half of the British market in ammonium nitrate fertilizer.

1977 ICI decided to sell the remaining 62.8 percent of IMI because continued holding did not fit with the direction of the group as whole[24]

1982 John Harvey-Jones became chairman

1982 Strategic shift to higher margin products such as drugs and specialty chemicals, reducing importance of polyethylene. Profits doubled in 1983.

1982 Acquired Arthur Holden and Sons, paint makers to extend the can-coating activities in Europe[25]

1985 A joint venture between RHM and Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) to develop and market the mycoprotein-based food Quorn was launched, called Marlow Foods

1986 ICI undertook a major reorganisation; as part of this the bulk chemical businesses (agriculture, fibres, petrochemicals and plastics, and Mond general chemicals) were brought together into one Europe-wide group called Chemicals and Polymers; this demonstrated a commitment to bulk chemicals at the same time as the speciality businesses were talked about as the future of the group[26]

1986 Major acquisitions, especially in North America, including purchase of Beatrice Chemicals and of Glidden Paint.

1988 The company successfully fought off a hostile takeover bid from the Hanson conglomerate.

1993 The company decided to demerge its chemical business from the pharmaceutical bioscience divisions. Pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, specialities, seeds and biological products were placed into a new and independent company called Zeneca Group.

1990s The company moved away from bulk and industrial chemicals towards speciality chemicals in the hope of making its income less dependent on the business cycle, earning higher profit margins, and developing businesses with long term growth potential. However its financial performance in the 21st century was erratic.

1997 ICI made its biggest acquisition to date with the purchase of four businesses from Unilever: National Starch, Quest, Unichema, and Crosfield

1997 ICI sold its Australian subsidiary, ICI Australia, and the following year the former subsidiary changed its name to Orica.

Between 1997 and 2001, ICI sold the polyester businesses mainly to du Pont, acrylics to Ineos, and other product lines and holdings to PPG and Hunstman. It acquired catalyst science company Systenix and the specialty chemical company Uniqema.

1999 Zeneca merged with Astra AB to form AstraZeneca, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

2007 Akzo Nobel acquired ICI[27]

Alkali Division

1926 United Alkali Co had been one of the largest chemical companies at the time of its formation in 1890 but its members used the Leblanc process for soda manufacture which was inferior to the Solvay process used by Brunner, Mond and Co, another key member of the new combine, ICI.

1933 Fawcett and Gibson discovered polyethylene

1937 Alkali Division took the lead on development of electrical and other uses of polyethylene.

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [28]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

Cellulose Products

1926 ICI extended its interests in the manufacture of artificial leather by acquiring a very substantial interest in the British Leather Cloth Manufacturing Co[29]

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [30]

  • ICI Industries Ltd, Leathercloth Division of Newton Works, Hyde, Cheshire. Telephone: Hyde 651. Manufacturers of Rexine and "Vynide" brand Leathercloth. (Earls Court, 1st Floor, Stand No. 658)

Dyestuffs

Manufactured at Blackley, in Manchester

1926 British Dyestuffs Corporation was one of the main constituents of ICI when it was formed

1929 Developed phthalocyanine as a dye.

1937 Dyestuffs Division took the lead on development of textile uses for polyethylene

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [31]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

Explosives

1926 Merger of Nobel Industries with three other companies to form Imperial Chemical Industries; Nobel Industries continued as the ICI Nobel division of the company.

1932 Formation of ICI (Explosives) Ltd which included 11 companies already controlled by ICI including Nobel Explosives, Curtis's and Harvey, Bickford, Smith and Co, W. H. Wakefield and Co, Alexander Walker and Co, Sedgwick Gunpowder Co, Liverpool Magazines Co, British Westfalite, R. and T. Jack and Co, Patent Electric Shot Firing Co, Roburite and Ammonal, Lancashire Explosives Co[32].

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [33]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

1960 Advert for detonators, fuses and explosives from the Nobel Division, of 25 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. [34]

ICI Ardeer was commonly known locally as the 'factory'. At the time the company generally provided higher quality employment regarding terms and conditions and pension rights than other local firms. The Ardeer site was almost like a community; so many people were employed there that a bank, travel agent and dentist were at one time based on the site. The former Western Scottish Bus Company provided tens of buses per day to transport the workers to and from the site, and until the mid 1960s there was even two trains per day to transport workers to a station within the factory. In the late 1960s construction began on a nylon and nitric acid plant but this had a short life, closing down just 12 years later.

2002 The division, now named Nobel Enterprises, was sold to Inabata.

Fertilizers and Agriculture

1920 Brunner Mond, by arrangement with the Government, had formed Synthetic Ammonia and Nitrates Ltd. to build and operate a factory to extract nitrogen from the air to make ammonia, principally to provide a key feedstock for explosives but also to make ammonium sulphate fertiliser; the plant was at Billingham, Stockton-on-Tees, Durham which was acquired from the Ministry of Munitions. [35] This became the Billingham Division of ICI.

1920s Fertilizers were manufactured at Billingham (and later at Wilton). Fertilizers were expected to be the main growth area for the new company so much of its capital expenditure was focused on the fertilizer plant at Billingham. By 1929, the onset of the Depression reduced demand for fertilizer and home demand was not enough to support the huge plant.

1928 Work began at the Agricultural Research Station at Jealotts Hill near Bracknell.

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [36]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

The ICI Billingham Division was split into the ICI Heavy Organic Chemicals Division and ICI Agricultural Division in the 1960s.[37]

By 1975, with the availability of North Sea Gas at low cost on long-term contract, the fertilizer division enabled ICI to produce ammonium nitrate at well below market price. By 1975, ICI controlled over half of the British market.

1986 Became part of the new Chemicals and Polymers group[38]

Fibres

1964 Formation of ICI Fibres, to take over the ICI interests in textile and fibres and British Nylon Spinners; this made it the third largest fibre group in the world[39]

1974 Opened a plant to increase production of Saffil high performance inorganic fibre 'to tonnage scale, as it had only been produced in small sample quantities. The fibres will be used in the form of staple fibre, blanket, boards, moulded shapes and papers.[40]

1986 Became part of the new Chemicals and Polymers group[41]

General Chemicals

1926 Chance and Hunt's Oldbury Works and Wednesbury Works became part of the General Chemicals Group.

1929 ICI decided to close the Wallsend works (ex-Castner Kellner Co) and amalgamate it with the United Alkali Co's Allhusen Works at Gateshead and the Cassel Cyanide Co of Glasgow; the 3 works were concentrated at Billingham South, called Cassel Works which became one of the principal factories of ICI's General Chemicals Division[42].

1934 The General Chemicals Division at Billingham was assigned the development and production of the new product called Perspex.

1937 Listed Exhibitor - British Industries Fair (Cassel Cyanide). Cassel Salt Bath Processes. Furnaces and Salts for Case-hardening and Heat Treatment of Metals, including Heat Treatment of High Speed Steel and of Cast Iron. (Stand No. D.306)

1937 Listed Exhibitor - British Industries Fair (Degreasing). Stationary and continuous Plant for Removing Oils, Grease, Swarf, Polishing Compound, from metal parts before overhaul. Enamelling, Electro-plating, Painting, Lacquering, rust-proofing, etc. Extraction Plants for recovery of Gums, Oils, etc. (Stand No. D.405) [43]

1939 Chance and Hunt became a department of ICI Mond Division

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [44]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalies, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

1974 Always innovative, ICI Mond division created its Works Record System, a robust general-purpose tool implemented under CICS. It successfully monitored the numerous chemical production plants within the scope of the company. The system was highly successful and remained operational for 27 years without a change to the underlying software, which was intentionally designed to allow the plant operators to make updates and create new applications with no knowledge of computer programming.

1982 ICI Mond Division closed nearly half the soda ash capacity at the Wallerscote works in Cheshire resulting in the loss of approximately 150 jobs.[45]

1986 Became part of the new Chemicals and Polymers group[46]

Also see ICI Petrochemicals

Metals

1927 Nobel Industries' Witton site became the head office and principal manufacturing base of the Metals Group.

1926/7 Allen Everitt and Sons became part of the Metals Group.

1932 Advertisement: incorporating Allen Everitt and Sons, Muntz's Metal Co, Elliott's Metal Co, Grice, Grice and Son and British Copper Manufacturers.

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [47]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

1962 The one hundredth anniversary of the opening of George Kynoch's percussion cap factory; the Metals Division was renamed Imperial Metal Industries Ltd (IMI).

See ICI Metals Division

Paints

Also see Nobel Chemical Finishes

1932 Introduction of Dulux paints (co-developed with Du Pont).

1935 ICI acquired the interests of Du Pont in Nobel Chemical Finishes. Acquired British Paint and Lacquer Co and closed its factory, transferring production to one of the existing factories[48]

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [49]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

1963 Motor Show exhibitor. ICI Paints Division of Slough showed a range of finishes for cars. [50]

Also Du-Lite Paint

Pharmaceuticals and Insecticides

Introduced sulfamethazine (the first sulfonamide antibiotic)

1940s Introduced paludrine, an anti-malarial drug

1944 Imperial Chemical (Pharmaceuticals) Ltd, together with the Therapeutic Research Corporation of Great Britain and Kemball, Bishop and Co were working on the development and production of penicillin[51].

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [52]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)

1951 Introduced halothane, an anaesthetic agent

1957 Formation of ICI Pharmaceuticals.

1965 Introduced Inderal, a beta-blocker

1978 Introduced tamoxifen, a frequently used drug for breast cancer

1993 Separation of the pharmaceutical bioscience divisions. Pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, specialities, seeds and biological products were grouped in a new company called Zeneca.

Plastics Division

1932/3 John Crawford of the Explosives Division, developed the first commercial synthesis of poly-methyl methacrylate, Perspex, building on work that he and Rowland Hill of Dyestuffs had done.

1934 ICI's General Chemicals Division at Billingham was assigned the development and production of the new product.

1937 Formation of Plastics Division which took over development of polyethylene as a moulding compound.

1947 British Industries Advert. Invitation to visit its Exhibits. (Chemicals, etc. Section - Olympia and Earls Court) [53]

  • ICI of Nobel House. Manufacturers of Heavy Chemicals, Acids, Alkalis, Dyestuffs, Auxiliary Products, Rubber Chemicals, Plastics, Paints, Metals, Explosives, Limes, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals including "Paludrine" Antimalarial drug, Insecticides including "Gamexane", "Methoxone" Selective Weed Killer, "Polythene" new Plastic. (Olympia, Ground Floor, Stand No. A.1023)
  • ICI Industries Limited, Plastics Division of Black Fan Road, Welwyn Garden City, Herts. Telephone: Welwyn Garden 3400. Cables: "Iciplast, Welwyn". Manufacturers of a wide range of Plastic Materials including Thermosetting Moulding Powders and Resins, "Perspex", "Corvic" (polyvinyl chloride), "Welvic" (extrusion compositions), "Alkathene" (polythene) and Nylon Monofilaments. (Earls Court, 1st Floor, Stand No. 813) [54]

1963 Motor Show exhibitor. ICI (Hyde) showed various plastic products. [55]

1979 Introduced PEEK, a high performance thermoplastic.

1981 ICI was restructuring its heavy chemicals operations and decided to merge Mond Division plant at Bain Works, Teeside, into Petrochemical and Plastics Division activities.[56]

1986 Became part of the new Chemicals and Polymers group[57]

Also see ICI Plastics and ICI Petrochemicals

See Also

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Sources of Information

  1. Biography of Harry Duncan McGowan, by W. J. Reader, ODNB [1]
  2. ICI [2]
  3. The Times, Sep 18, 1926
  4. The Times, 1 July 1927
  5. The Times, 30 December 1927
  6. The Times, 1 June 1928
  7. 1929 British Industries Fair p86
  8. The Times, 1 December 1930
  9. The Times, 1 April 1931
  10. The Times, 11 May 1933
  11. 1933 Advert.
  12. The Times, Apr 17, 1936
  13. 1937 The Aeroplane Directory of the Aviation and Allied Industries
  14. The Times, Mar 21, 1940
  15. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  16. 1961 Dun and Bradstreet KBE
  17. http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/1st-may-1964/38/investment-notes
  18. The Times, Dec 02, 1964
  19. The Times, Dec 24, 1969
  20. The Times Aug 08, 1970
  21. The Times Jul 31, 1971
  22. The Times, Jul 30, 1971
  23. The Engineer 1974/05/30
  24. The Times, Oct 20, 1977
  25. The Times, Sep 28, 1982
  26. The Times, September 19, 1986
  27. The Times, August 14, 2007
  28. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  29. The Times, Sep 18, 1926
  30. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  31. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  32. The Times, 7 April 1932
  33. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  34. Mining Year Book 1960. Published by Walter E. Skinner. Advert p237
  35. The Engineer 19200625, p 664
  36. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  37. Wikipedia
  38. The Times, September 19, 1986
  39. The Times, Dec 02, 1964
  40. The Engineer 1974/04/11
  41. The Times, September 19, 1986
  42. The Times, 7 August 1968
  43. 1937 British Industries Fair p378
  44. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  45. The Engineer 1982/04/01
  46. The Times, September 19, 1986
  47. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  48. The Times, Apr 17, 1936
  49. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  50. 1963 Motor Show
  51. The Times, 12 February 1944
  52. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  53. 1947 British Industries Fair Advert 266
  54. 1947 British Industries Fair p144
  55. 1963 Motor Show
  56. The Engineer 1981/05/28
  57. The Times, September 19, 1986
  • [3] Wikipedia
  • History of Plastics [4]
  • ICI [5] based on ICI: The Company That Changed Our Lives