Holden were motorcycles produced between 1897 and 1902, from a design by Brig. Gen. Sir H. C. L. Holden.
(Patented in 1894, the Holden was the world's first four-cylinder motorcycle).
It used the same inefficient design that Pennington, Hildebrand and Wolfmuller  and others used, with the connecting rods directly driving the rear wheel.
- 1897 The motorcycle was first produced in air-cooled form. The horizontal cylinders drove the rear wheel directly and the camshaft was driven from this by chain and worm gear. It had coil ignition, a surface carburettor and geared pedals for the front wheel.
- 1899 The version for that year had water cooling and went into production, but the result was heavy and expensive.
- 1902 By now the Holden was an obsolete relic of a by-gone age so production ceased.
Sources of Information
- The British Motorcycle Directory - Over 1,100 Marques from 1888 - by Roy Bacon and Ken Hallworth. Pub: The Crowood Press 2004 ISBN 1 86126 674 X
-  All Motorcycles Ever Made - Worldwide
- Wikipedia on Hildebrand and Wolfmuller (1)