Grace's Guide

British Industrial History

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 132,989 pages of information and 210,214 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

George Carwardine

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George Carwardine (c1886-1947)

1931 Began developing a lamp which involved the balancing of an incandescent light bulb in three planes of movement, using springs, cranks, and levers to balance weights.

Experimenting with his concept, and using springs developed by Terry’s, he eventually managed to create a durable lamp which could be moved into a number of positions – making it ideal for engineers.

1932 Cardwardine attempted to patent his design under the name "Equipoise" but this was rejected as the name already existed. Consequently, it was changed to Anglepoise. Manufacture of Anglepoise lamps began.

1933 The first Anglepoise 4-spring lamp (Model 1208) was launched; Cardwardine licensed the Anglepoise design to Terry’s.

By 1935 the lamp was a huge success and a lighter design was needed for domestic applications, so the 3-spring Anglepoise 1227 was born. This product is viewed by many as the classic Anglepoise.


1949 Obituary [1]

"GEORGE CARWARDINE was educated privately and served his apprenticeship at the Whiting Auto Works in Bath from 1901 to 1905. For the next seven years he found employment as a journey man in various workshops and then joined Horstmann Cars, Ltd., as chargehand, being made foreman a year later. He was appointed works manager in 1916 with responsibility for design and organization of labour. After holding this position for seven years he went into business on his own account and subsequently became a director of Cardine Accessories, but three years later he resumed his connection with the Horstmann Cars Co. On the conclusion of a further period of office as director of Cardine Accessories he was closely concerned with the development of his inventions, for which he had several patents to his credit. His death occurred on 27th November 1947, in his sixty first year. Mr. Carwardine had been an Associate Member of the Institution since 1920."


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