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Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly was a French astronomer and physicist. He made important contributions in the field of scientific instruments.
1714 born at Versailles on 31 December
1744 Became the 5th duc de Chaulnes
1769 Died in Paris on 23 September.
c.1751 he invented a new type of a microscope, which he had built in England, and whose description he had published. About ten survivors are currently known.
The above information is condensed from the French Wikipedia entry.
He developed accurate methods of measuring lenses. He also developed improved methods of dividing scales, and between 1765 and 1768 he had two dividing engines constructed, one linear and the other for circular division. These are said to be the earliest known examples after the circular engine produced by Henry Hindley c.1739.. However, the Museo Galileo (Florence) has a circular dividing engine made in Florence, stated to have been made in 1762.