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1923 Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Visits to Works

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1923. Visits to Works.
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Note: This is a sub-section of 1923 Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Visits to Works (Excursions) in the Glasgow Area

Dalmarnock Power Station

CORPORATION ELECTRICITY DEPARTMENT, DALMARNOCK POWER STATION, GLASGOW.
Dalmarnock Power Station

The earliest electrical power stations in Glasgow were erected in Miller Street and John Street in 1890, and a third station was installed in Waterloo Street in 1893. The disadvantages, however, of extremely low efficiency and the difficulty of handling the fuel supply and ashes necessitated the erection of the Port Dundas and St. Andrew's Cross stations in 1900 to 1904 with reciprocating plant. Later these stations were equipped with turbo-alternator plant.

The ground for the Dalmarnock Power Station was purchased in 1910, and has an area of 13½ acres. The boundaries of the site are the River Clyde (south), Strathclyde Street (north), Dalmarnock Road (east), and the Caledonian Railway (west). There is an abundant supply of cold water for the condensers, coal supplies come direct by rail, and the distance from the load centre is not excessive. The ultimate electrical load is to be 200,000 kw.

The station is constructed in two main sections, each comprising a turbine-house, two boiler-houses, a switch-house, a coal store and coal conveying plant, and a workshop. Although the sub-soil was found to be suitable for heavy buildings, a concrete raft about 5 feet thick was laid over the whole area on which the buildings stand. The cooling water supply from the river passes through the main sluice gates to specially designed screening plant. The original plans were for steel buildings, but these had to be discarded during the War, and reinforced concrete was substituted.

Coal and Ash Handling Plant - The coal comes direct by rail, and each truck passes over a weighbridge to a tipping platform. It is then emptied into a filler pit by an electrically operated ram, and then passes by means of a bucket-conveyor to a distributing centre. A travelling gantry with a grab and bucket conveyor is provided for handling the contents of the coal store. The capacity of the plant is 100 tons per hour.

Boiler-House - This is a three-story building. The ground floor is for the forced-draught fans and motors and the ash-removal hoppers. The boiler-room is on the first floor and the top floor contains the induced-draught plant, economisers, coal silos, and hot-wells.

Each boiler-room contains eight Babcock and Wilcox water-tube marine type boilers, each of 6,948 square feet heating surface, arranged in two rows of four on each side of the room. Each boiler has three chain-grate stokers, a superheater, and an economiser, and the maximum output is 62,000 lb. of steam per hour. The final steam conditions are 275 lb. pressure per square inch, 700° F. total temperature. Three boilers are sufficient to supply steam for one turbine. All chimneys are of steel, with a grit and dust settling-chamber at its base. The grate area for each boiler is 273 square feet, and the boiler efficiency at full load is 80 per cent.

The feed-pumps are housed separately, and each pump-room contains two pumps, one steam-driven and the other electrically driven. The capacity of each pump is 20,000 gallons per hour.

The equipment of each boiler includes automatic coal-weighing machines, steam-flow meters, thermometers, pressure and draught gauges, and a CO2 indicator.

Turbine-House - The turbine-rooms contain five turbo-alternator sets, by the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd., the maximum continuous output of each machine being 18,750 kw. The steam consumption of the sets is guaranteed not to exceed 10 lb. of steam per kw.-hour. For operating the auxiliary plant of the station under special conditions, two 500 kva. geared turbo-alternator sets are provided.

Condensers - The circulating pumps are capable of passing 22,500 gallons of water per minute through each condenser. The air-pumps are capable of extracting 60 lb. of air per hour. The condensate is pumped through each condenser through a Lea recorder, and thence passes through a feed-water heater to the hot-wells.

Electrical Machinery - Each main alternator has a maximum continuous output of 23,400 kva. at 6,500 volts, at a speed of 1,500 revolutions per minute. The rotors are all cylindrical, and are built from solid forgings. Each machine has its own exciter mounted on the alternator shaft. The auxiliary alternators are each of 500 kva. capacity at 440 volts, and run at 750 revolutions per minute.

Switch-House and Control Room - The step-up transformers are in single-phase units (7,800 kva.), and have a third winding for supply to auxiliaries at 440 volts. The switch-gear was supplied by Messrs. A. Reyrolle and Co., Ltd., of Hebburn-on-Tyne. Ironclad construction is used throughout. The first section of the switch-house contains five alternator switches, eighteen feeder switches, two coupling and two sectionalizing switches.

Storage Batteries - A 250-volt battery of 125 cells, having a capacity of 3,000 amp.-hours at a discharge rate of 300 amps. for ten hours, is placed in the basement of the switch-house, and two 100-volt batteries of fifty-five cells each have been installed below the control room. The charging of the batteries is performed by duplicate motor generators, each consisting of a 440-volt induction motor coupled to a direct-current generator, giving 650 amp. at 225-325 volts.

Distribution - The electrical energy is transmitted at 20,000 volts to various substations where it is transformed by step-down transformers to 6,500 volts to supply the existing E.H.T. mains. Transformation to 440 volts for A.C. distribution and conversion to D.C. at 500 volts is made for low-tension supplies.

Sewage Purification Works

CORPORATION OF GLASGOW: SEWAGE PURIFICATION WORKS.
Glasgow Sewage Works

The drainage area of Glasgow is roughly 41½ square miles, and is divided into three sections - Eastern, Western, and Southern.

The Works for the Eastern Section are situated at Dalmarnock and were opened in 1894. In 1904 the opening of the Western or Dalmuir Works marked the completion of the scheme for the north side of the river. Working in conjunction is a pumping-station situated at Partick, where the sewage of the lower levels gravitating to this point is raised by means of 3-throw plunger pumps a height of 37½ feet, discharging to main outfall thence by gravitation to Dalmuir.

The Southern Works (Shieldhall) opened in 1910 deals with the whole area on the south bank of the river. There is a pumping- station at St. James Street, Kinning Park, where the lift is 46 feet. The total daily volume of sewage treated is 90 million gallons, namely, Eastern 20 millions, Western 40 millions, Southern 30 millions.

All three Works are constructed for chemical precipitation, but at Dalmarnock there are 5¼ acres of biological filter-beds capable of treating about half the daily volume. Thus the standard of the combined effluent passing to the river at a point not influenced to any great extent by the action of tide is considerably improved. In common with other large cities, experiments have been carried out in connexion with the method of treatment known as the "Activated Sludge Process," and at present a small plant is in operation at Shieldhall Works from which much valuable information has been derived.

Provan Gas Works

CORPORATION GAS DEPARTMENT, PROVAN GAS WORKS, GLASGOW.
Glasgow Gasworks

The site for the Provan Gas Works, an area of about 123 acres, was acquired in 1899, when the demand for gas approached the limit of the capacity of the four works then in operation. Constructed to the designs of the late Mr. William Foulis (Member), the first section was completed in 1904, but the demand for gas continued to increase, and large additions to the plant became necessary. These remained in abeyance until 1919, when it was found that considerable extensions could no longer be delayed. Accordingly, a deputation of the Gas Committee, having visited various installations in England and Scotland, decided to recommend to the City Council that the horizontal retorts in operation at Provan, Dawsholm, and Tradeston, should be replaced by vertical retorts.

The installation at Provan is divided into four sections, each of which is complete in itself. Each section consists of two benches (forty-eight retorts), which are served by their own tippers, coal breakers, and gravity bucket-conveyors. The ground falls 43 feet from west to east, coal being delivered at the high-level, and the coke dispatched from the low-level sidings. Coal received at the former sidings is weighed and then either placed in the coal store, which can accommodate 50,000 tons, or is taken along the overhead railway to the tippers which feed the breakers and gravity bucket-conveyors.

The gravity bucket-conveyors are about 860 feet long, and one of them supplies a section of two benches with coal at the rate of 80 tons per hour. The conveyor does not encircle the retort benches, but completes its return journey on a track immediately over the outward track, and picks up coke and fills coke-hoppers along the inward journey.

There are 192 vertical retorts arranged in eight benches of twenty-four retorts. Each retort is a tapered chamber of fire-clay placed vertically, measuring 7 in. by 61½ in. at the top and enlarging to 19 in. by 78 in. at the bottom; it is 26 ft. long and can carbonize 7 tons of coal in twenty-four hours, yielding 88,000 to 100,000 cubic feet of gas. The extractor, spiral in shape, placed horizontally and formed of arms threaded on an axis, is rotated very slowly, and allows the coke to fall into the cast-iron discharging chamber. From here it is periodically discharged into skips running on rails beneath, and removed from the retort-house by electric locomotives.

The fuel-gas used for heating the retorts is made from coke burnt in producers with a limited quantity of air and steam, and is led through brick flues to the retorts, supplied with hot air, and burnt. It then passes through other flues to the chimneys or is drawn by fans through the tubes of the waste-heat boilers, of which there is one per bench.

Crude coal-gas, tar and ammonia products are passed through the hydraulic mains to the gas and tar mains respectively. The tar and liquor gravitate to the tar tanks, where they are cooled, separated, and stored. The crude gas is drawn through the retort-house governors to the atmospheric condensers. The latter are lines of ∩-shaped pipes connected by a covered trough at the bottom, and the gases pass up and down through these pipes, losing heat and depositing tar and ammonia liquor, which drain away to the tar tanks. After the tar and liquor have been separated they flow to the storage tanks. When one tank is full the supply is diverted into another, and the contents of the first are pumped to the residual works.

Cooled and partly purified gas is drawn from the atmospheric condensers through an overhead main and vacuum governor by three turbo-exhausters. The latter force the gas through the cleaning or scrubbing plant to the holders. They all deliver into one outlet main, 5 feet in diameter, called the omnibus main. Five complete sections of scrubbing plant are connected to this main. Each section consists of: (1) Volumetric governor; (2) Pelouze and Audouin tar extractor; (3) Water-tube condenser; (4) Livesey washer; (5) Centrifugal primary scrubber; (6) Rotary secondary scrubber; and (7) Rotary meter.

The rotary scrubbers consist of two horizontal drums divided into compartments. A large plate fitted with brushes revolves in each compartment, alternately exposing the brushes to the gas and immersing them in the contained water. The wet brushes absorb the ammonia from the gas and transfer it to the water.

There are four types of meters used: (1) The old type, measuring by revolving drum; (2) a type measuring by the quantity of electric current required to heat the gas a definite amount; (3) a type measuring by the reduction of pressure caused on the underside of a diaphragm placed in the main; and (4) a type measuring by the decrease in pressure due to the gas passing through a Venturi tube. Each of the three last will measure one and a half times as much as the three drum-meters combined. From the holders the gas is distributed to the consumers, either by the weight of the holders or by means of turbo-boosters. Nearly all the plant is driven by electricity supplied by the Electricity Department at 6,500 volts, which is transformed down to 440 volts for power and 250 volts for lighting. Mr. J. W. McLusky (Member) is the Engineer and General Manager.

Glasgow Docks

CLYDE NAVIGATION TRUST, GLASGOW DOCKS.
Clyde Navigation Trust Glasgow Docks

Princes Dock. - This Dock was completed in the year 1900, and consists of a series of tidal basins, the area of land being 39 acres and water 35 acres with width of entrance 156 feet. The quays are equipped with forty-two hydraulic cranes of 2, 3, and 5-ton capacity, also 107 hydraulic capstans. A steam-crane and hydraulic hoist is provided for bunkering vessels, and a fitting out crane of 130 tons lifting capacity is placed on one of the quays.

The pressure water for operating the cranes, capstans, and hoist is supplied from a central power-station by two rotary turbine pumps, recently supplied by Messrs. Mather and Platt, each of 400 gallons capacity per minute. The motors driving the pumps are of the induction type and run at 1,470 r.p.m. These machines operate on 6,500 volts supplied direct from the mains of the Glasgow Corporation. The pumps are automatically controlled from the accumulators.

Graving Docks. - There are three docks – 1, 2, and 3 – the lengths of which are 551, 575, and 880 feet respectively.

No. 1 is provided with a floating caisson having a motor-driven centrifugal pump for discharging ballast water. The caissons at No. 2 and 3 are of the sliding type, operated by hydraulic engines and gearing. Five-ton capstans are fitted for hauling vessels into dock, and two cranes are provided, one of 20 and one of 25 tons lifting capacity, for general purposes.

The De-Watering Plant, which was operated by steam-power, has been recently converted to electric drive. No. 1 Station is fitted with four 24-inch vertical spindle centrifugal pumps in wells; motors are of 150 b.h.p. of the squirrel-cage induction type, supply of current being 440 volts, twenty-five periods.

The Pumping Station at No. 3 Dock is equipped with two 60-inch bore horizontal centrifugal pumps, each driven by an induction motor of 650 b.h.p., taking current at 6,500 volts. Automatic control gear is provided for stator and rotor circuits. A 15-inch vertical spindle drainage pump and a rotary exhauster for priming purposes are provided.

To supply compressed air for repair purposes, a compressor, having a capacity of 1,200 cubic feet per minute, is installed. Pipes with supply branches are fitted along the bottom altar of each dock, and the quantity taken is measured by air-meters. Supplies of electric energy at 500, 250 and 100 volts, direct current, are also obtainable for lighting and power.

Meadowside Granary. - The building is 220 feet long by 70 feet wide, and has a storage capacity of 31,000 tons of wheat, part of which can be stored on floors and part in silo-bins. Bucket-elevators are provided for elevating, distributing, and weighing the grain, also conveyor-bands for feeding the grain to floors and silo-bins, and for turning over. For conveying the grain from quay to granary two lines of conveyor-bands are installed in subways, having a combined capacity of 500 tons per hour.

The discharging plant consists of two bucket-elevators, each of 250 tons capacity per hour and one pneumatic elevator of 100 tons capacity per hour. These plants travel along the quay and feed the grain after discharge on to the tunnel bands, through spouts constructed on top of the subway. Loading out plant for grain in bulk and in bags is also provided, and two inclined sack-intake bands are fitted in the shed for carrying sacks to the floor portion of the Granary. The equipment throughout is electrically operated.

Renfrew Workshops. - These Workshops are constructed adjacent to the river, and occupy 9 acres of ground; they are equipped for the maintenance of the Trustees' Plant used on the river and throughout the docks. The main building is 340 feet by 140 feet, which contains Machine and Erecting Shop, Boiler Shop, Smithy and Main Stores. The wood-working department is in a separate building, 150 feet by 100 feet, and provides accommodation for sawmill, carpenters, joiners, boat-builders, and pattern-makers.

Three slipways are provided, one capable of taking vessels up to 1,500 tons dead weight, one up to 100 tons, and one to 50 tons, all being operated by electric power. Wharves are constructed to accommodate ten vessels of the Trustees' Dredging Plant, and an electric crane of 25-ton capacity is provided.

Rothesay Dock. - This dock was completed in 1910, and is a tidal basin, the area of water being 20 acres and land 55 acres, width of entrance 200 feet.

The equipment of this dock was constructed for the purpose of discharging iron ore and limestone and the loading of coal. The entire plant is operated by electric power and consists of four 32-ton coal-hoists; one 32-ton travelling coaling-crane; two 8-ton travelling wharf-cranes; twenty-one 4-ton travelling wharf-cranes; four tipping turntables; and forty-three capstans.

The electric energy is supplied from the Trustees' Power-Station situated on the North Quay. Variable voltage generating sets, driven by high-speed steam-engines, are provided for the supply of power to the coal-hoists. The cables for conveying power between the Station and the various appliances are fitted in a subway constructed behind the quay walls. The main conductors are of bare copper strip carried on porcelain insulators.

University Engineering Departments

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTS.

The Regius Professorship of Civil Engineering and Mechanics Was instituted by Queen Victoria in 1840, and thereby for the first time in any university the organized teaching of engineering science was placed on the same level as other scientific subjects in university courses. 'Since that time there have been five professors – Lewis D. B. Gordon, William J. Macquorn Rankine, James Thomson, Archibald Barr (now Emeritus Professor) and J. D. Cormack, the present occupant.

The emoluments of the Chair were increased in 1872 through an endowment given by Mrs. Elder, who in 1883 also endowed the Chair of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. This Chair has been held by Francis Elgar, Philip Jenkins, Sir John H. Biles (now Emeritus Professor) and Percy A. Hillhouse, the present occupant.

In 1902 Dr. James S. Dixon endowed a lectureship in the Theory and Practice of Mining, and in 1907 he increased the endowment and a Chair was founded which has been held by Charles Latham and Robert W. Dron, the present occupant.

In 1921 the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland raised a fund of £30,200 and two Chairs were founded in commemoration of the centenary of the death of James Watt; one in The Theory and Practice of Heat Engines, to which William J. Goudie was appointed; and the other in Electrical Engineering, to which George W. O. Howe was appointed.

The model of the Newcomen Engine, on which James Watt commenced his historic work on The Steam Engine, is now in the Hunterian Museum of the University, and may be seen there.

In 1913 the Royal Technical College was affiliated to the University so that courses for degree purposes may also be taken there or partly at both places.

Engineering laboratory work was begun in 1896, but the present buildings, the James Watt Engineering Laboratories, were not opened till 1902. They were extended in 1920, and additional equipment is still being installed.

The degrees for which students may enter are B.Sc., Ph.D., and D.Sc.

The courses have always been planned on the "sandwich system," under which a student spends the winter months at the university and the summer months in works or office. The university undertakes no responsibility for placing the students with firms, but assists so far as possible in finding suitable openings. As a rule the students come from school to the university, but a large proportion have had practical experience prior to entering, and in many cases complete apprenticeships have been served.

No plant has been installed in the laboratories for the teaching of workshop practice, as it has been considered that the "sandwich system" provides the facilities for acquiring suitable practical experience under commercial conditions. It is interesting to note that the rearrangement and alterations rendered necessary by recent extensions, apart from structural work, have all been carried out by students working as mechanics under shop conditions during the summer months. The removal, repair, alteration and installation of existing apparatus, and the erection and testing of new apparatus, is still proceeding.

In the basement of the main laboratory the main boiler plant is installed, and there is a small furnace for experiments in heat treatments. The Hydraulic Laboratory is also in the basement, and contains apparatus for the flow of water in pipes and channels and through orifices and notches, and among other apparatus, two centrifugal pumps, two turbines and two Pelton wheels.

In the ground floor of the main laboratory are installed various testing machines: a 100-ton Buckton, 1 50-ton Armstrong-Whitworth, 35-ton Tangye, 10-ton Buckton, 3-ton Avery, Izod. impact; Brinell hardness, Haigh fatigue, Buckton torsion, cement-tester, various extensometers and autographic recorders, and an Elverson oscilloscope; and in another room a photomicrographic outfit.

On this floor also is installed the bulk of the heat-engine equipment, including a Paul high-speed engine, driving a dynamo with swinging field magnets, a 40-kw. De Laval turbine and dynamos, a Crossley gas-engine, an ammonia refrigerator, a Quiggin's condensing plant, air-compressor, small launch engine, a test-bed for motor-car engines with Fronde brake, a small superheater, and a Lea recorder for circulating water and various calorimeters. A Ruston-Hornsby solid-injection oil-engine and a Marshall experimental steam-engine are now being installed. The upper floor of the main laboratory is devoted to electrical equipment and includes a three-phase generator, two rotary converters, two tramway motors mounted for experimental work, a booster and a balancer set and various motors for continuous and alternating current. There are two rooms for electrical measuring instruments, and a room for alternating current measurements. Another room is set apart for high-tension work. The power supply is obtained from the corporation mains and a battery is installed.

About 780 students were in attendance last session on degree courses at the University and the Royal Technical College, and of these 166 came from Dominions, Colonies or foreign countries.

At present the minimum period of attendance is three sessions, but students generally spend four sessions, and a new ordinance has been prepared which will demand a minimum of four sessions. This ordinance will also create a Faculty of Engineering, and lays down courses of instruction in civil, mechanical, electrical, chemical and mining engineering and in naval architecture. Among other courses recently instituted are aeronautics and engineering economics, while a lectureship has recently been endowed on engineering production (Loudon Bequest), and an appointment will be made shortly. The first degree will be as now, B.Sc., in engineering science, and the courses will be arranged so that the first two years will be common to all branches, thus emphasizing the necessity of a broad general training as a basis for particular branches.

In the remainder of the engineering building are three lecture rooms and three drawing offices.

Royal Technical College

THE ROYAL TECHNICAL COLLEGE, GLASGOW.

In 1799 Dr. George Birkbeck, Professor of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in Anderson's College, now known as the Royal Technical College, Glasgow, established a special class for the "instruction of the operatives of Glasgow in Mechanical and Chemical Philosophy, in the belief that men should be taught the principles of the arts they practised." For a century and a quarter the College has steadfastly pursued the same policy and that class was the source from which sprang the existing elaborate system for the training of engineers. In 1823, the "Mechanics' Class" separated from Anderson's College to become the first Mechanics' Institution, the second being that subsequently founded by Dr. Birkbeck in London, and now known as the Birkbeck Institution. In 1886, The Glasgow Mechanics' Institution rejoined Anderson's College under the constitution of the present Technical College.

The first Chair directly associated with engineering was that of Applied Mechanics, founded in 1874, and followed by others in Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, but the development of the College was greatly hampered by lack of suitable buildings, and until 1903 further development was slow. In that year King Edward VII laid the memorial stone of the first section of the new building and operations steadily continued until 1910, when the whole was completed. It is the largest structure in Great Britain devoted to education and contains over 2 miles of corridors and more than 7 acres of floor-space. The expenditure of over £400,000 was provided in the main by the subscriptions of the citizens of Glasgow.

The work of the College is confined entirely to Applied Science and Technology, and the most important sections are the Schools of Engineering and Chemistry. The former includes fully equipped departments of Engineering, Civil Engineering and Mining, each in charge of a Professor, and there is a smaller department of Naval Architecture.

The equipment of the Laboratories has been designed with great care to meet the needs of research as well as of instruction. The principal Mechanical Engineering laboratory contains a horizontal compound steam-engine of 150 b.h.p., fitted with drop piston-valves, a central exhaust engine, a 50-h.p. suction producer-gas engine, a two-stroke-cycle oil-engine, an ammonia refrigerating plant, several air-compressors, a 40-h.p. engine of the motor-car type, numerous small petrol engines, and the 40-h.p. Diesel engine which has been frequently mentioned in the reports on research work carried out for the British Marine Oil-Engine Manufacturers' Association. Special attention has been given to steam-turbine work and the equipment in this branch includes a small de Laval turbine, an impulse turbine with three velocity stages capable of developing about 250 h.p. at full load, and an impulse turbine and dynamo of about 36 kw. capacity. There is also a quantity of plant for researches on steam-nozzles, and among this may be seen the apparatus referred to in Professor Mellanby's Paper on "The Supersaturated Condition as shown by Nozzle Flow," read before the Institution at the Paris Meeting. Condensing water limitations make it impossible to deal with reaction turbines of any size in a College, and the experimental reaction turbine and generator of about 500 kw. capacity have been installed in Port Dundas Electricity Station, where facilities for testing are available.

The original marine internal-combustion engine, designed for H.M.S. "Battler," is at present housed in this laboratory.

Another laboratory is equipped for elementary experimental work and contains apparatus for testing gauges and indicators, for measurements of radiation from heated surfaces, and for estimation of the rate of heat transmission from steam to water across metal walls. A small steam-engine and gas-engine are also installed and are used for preliminary instruction in testing.

The senior laboratory of the Department of Mechanics contains a horizontal testing-machine of 100 tons capacity arranged for accurate experiments in tension, compression, shear and bending; a torsion testing-machine of 15,000 inch-lb. capacity; a machine for experiments on materials under combined tension and torsion; a vertical testing-machine of 12,000 lb. capacity; Charpy and Izod impact testing-machines, a Brinell hardness testing-machine and similar apparatus; also a large equipment of pumps, water-turbines, Pelton Wheels and the like for experiments in hydraulics.

In the dynamo room of the Electrical Engineering Department are many examples of the different types of generators, both for direct current and single-phase and polyphase alternating current, direct current and synchronous and induction motors, rotary converters and transformers.

The College is affiliated to the University of Glasgow, and its principal engineering courses are arranged to meet the requirements of students proceeding to the Degree of B.Sc. in Engineering, or to the College Diploma. Last session there were 446 full-time students following these courses. The degree curriculum is about to be extended, under a new Ordinance adjusted by the Joint Board of Studies of the University and the College, so as to cover four winter sessions, the intervening summers being spent by the students in practical training in a works. This so-called "sandwich" system has been in full operation in the College for forty years.

The Evening Classes in Engineering cover a wide range and are attended by about 3,000 students, but the College cannot provide accommodation for the more elementary students, and these attend affiliated classes conducted by the neighbouring County Education Authorities, covering a course of study extending over four or five years, and carefully linked with the classes provided by the College. Last session the classes affiliated to the several Departments of Engineering named above contained 10,062 students.

Clyde Valley Electrical Power Company

THE CLYDE VALLEY ELECTRICAL POWER CO., YOKER, MOTHERWELL, AND CAMBUSLANG.
Clyde Valley Electrical Power Co

This Company was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1901 to acquire lands, erect generating stations and supply electrical energy within parts of the Counties of Lanark, Renfrew, Dumbarton, and Stirling. The territorial extent of the supply extends to 735 square miles, and completely surrounds the independent municipal areas of Glasgow and Paisley. The area embraces one of the most important industrial areas in the United Kingdom, practically every industry of importance being represented in the district.

A comprehensive network of 11,000 and 33,000 volt cables, extending to over 400 miles, supplies electrical energy in the area, supply being obtained from three stations situated respectively at Motherwell, Cambuslang, and Yoker.

Yoker Power Station. - The ground site extends to 91 acres, and is served by two railway companies. The equipment in the original boiler-room consists of twelve Babcock and Wilcox land-type boilers ranging from 17,000 to 28,000 lb. per hour steaming capacity. The installation is fitted with chain-grate stokers and the normal operating steam-pressure and temperature is 200 lb. and 569° F. respectively. A new boiler-room has been built and completed in 1922, comprising six Babcock and Wilcox land-type water-tube boilers, each of 44,000 lb. normal steaming capacity, and an operating pressure and temperature of 225 lb. and 670° F. respectively. The earlier portion of the boiler equipment is partly on natural and partly on induced draught, while the new boiler equipment is on balanced draught. The coal wagons are run over receiving-hoppers and tipped by hydraulic rams (original boiler-house) and electric rains (new boiler-house), thence falling by gravity through the coal-crushers and conveyors. The coal is then tipped into overhead bunkers which have an approximate capacity of 2,000 tons.

The turbine-house plant consists of two 2,500 kw. Westinghouse-Parsons double-flow turbines, which formed the original equipment when the station was built. In 1912 and 1913 two 7,500 kva. 6,000 kw. turbines, built by the Westinghouse Co., were added. These units are of the Rateau type, and to the steam conditions previously mentioned, and with a 28 ½ -inch vacuum, have a steam consumption of 13.4 lb. per hour at 5,000-6,000 kw. The surface condensing plant for the 6,000 kw. sets was supplied by Messrs. G. and J. Weir and Co., and consists of a two-pass condenser with combined air and water extraction by means of their dual air-pump of the reciprocating type.

Owing to the increasing demands for power in the Western portion of the Company's area, an 18,750 kw. turbine coupled to a 23,500 kva. alternator was put in commission in 1920. This turbine, manufactured by the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Manufacturing Co., is of the Rateau type, having 14 wheels and a maximum blade length of 24 inches on the last wheel. The exhaust end has a number of guide-vanes, the function of which is to secure a streamline flow for the large volume of steam which has to be dealt with, and it further secures uniform distribution of the steam over the whole condenser tube surface. A surface type feed-water heater is arranged within the turbine cylinder, the tubes in which the condensate is heated being exposed to steam, which is tapped from the main turbine at a relatively low vacuum, the actual point being at the tenth stage of the turbine. The condenser was supplied by Messrs G. and J. Weir, Ltd., and requires a water quantity of 16,200 gallons per minute to give the guaranteed vacuum of 29 inches.

Large and modern switch-gear is installed in the Station and 5 per cent reactances are connected in series with each alternator in order to limit the short-circuit currents.

The pumping equipment for circulating the cooling water from the river is situated in a separate building on the river front, and at present comprises five vertical spindle-pumps having capacities of 3,500, 3,500, 4,500, 4,500 and 16,200 gallons per minute.

The projected developments of the Company on this site comprise two additional 20,000 kw. turbo-alternators and a further six large boilers to complete the second half of the new Boiler-House.

Motherwell Power Station. - This station was erected to supply the eastern portion of the Company's area, and put into commission in August 1905. It was originally designed to operate with cooling towers, owing to the location being about 400 yards from the River Clyde. The initial installation consisted of two 2,500 kw. double- flow Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbo-alternators, exactly similar to the machines installed at Yoker. Subsequent additions to the plant there comprised three 6,000 kw. turbo-alternators of the Rateau type, also manufactured by the British Westinghouse Manufacturing Company. The two original units had barometric jet-condensers, but this arrangement was departed from on the later units and surface condensers installed, the cooling water being supplied from the River Clyde.

A pump-house has been built on the river bank, the level of the pump-house being approximately 140 feet lower than the power- station. In order to recover some of the energy in the return pipe, a water-turbine has been coupled to the shaft of the pump and this arrangement has reduced the duty on the pumping motors by 40 per cent. The boiler-room consists of twelve Babcock and Wilcox land-type water-tube boilers having normal steam ratings of from 17,000 to 28,000 lb. per hour. These boilers are fitted with chain-grate stokers and, of the twelve units, eight are on natural and four on induced draught. The steam pressure and temperature are 200 lb. and 560° F. respectively.

Clyde's Mill Power Station.- This Station is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde near the Burgh of Cambuslang, and takes its name from an old mill which previously occupied the site now covered by the Station buildings. The ground which extends to 53 acres, carried with it the ancient water rights vested in the original Clyde's Mill. The buildings throughout are of steel-frame panelling and comprise main and small turbine-rooms, boiler-house and switch galleries. The coaling arrangement is such that the emergency stocks are carried on the surface rather than in over-head bunkers, thus saving heavy steel structures to carry bunkers of large capacity.

Coal is delivered into the siding by the Railway Company, the traffic being thereafter worked by the Company's own electric and steam locomotives. The coal wagons are run over a 50-ton weigh-bridge, the coal being tipped into receiving hoppers, each of 350 cubic feet capacity, by elevating the wagons at one end by means of hydraulic rams. The coal falls by gravity through the hoppers and coal crushers on to two sets of elevators each of a rated capacity of 40 tons per hour. The crushers are of the four-roll type having a capacity of 40 tons per hour each when breaking from 18-inch cubes down to a size passing 1 ¼ -inch mesh. For dealing with the ash, a modern suction ash-removal plant has just been put into commission with a capacity of 15 tons per hour. The whole of the coal-handling plant has been supplied by Messrs. Babcock and Wilcox.

The first boiler-house contains ten Babcock and Wilcox land-type water-tube boilers with integral superheaters, each boiler being capable of evaporating 40,000 lb. of water per hour from and at 212° F. Each boiler is provided with a 288-tube "Green" Economiser. The boilers are on induced draught, each boiler having its own fan of 55-inch diameter and exhausting into a steel chimney of 7-foot 6-inch diameter, which is common to each pair of boilers. The working pressure is 225 lb. per square inch, with a total steam temperature of 590° F. The boiler feed-pumps, each of 15,000 gallons per hour capacity, are driven by steam-turbines manufactured by Messrs. G. and J. Weir, Ltd. The exhaust steam from these turbines is employed to heat the feed-water, or a portion, as required, may be employed in the evaporator, in order to give a pure water for the boiler-feed.

The make-up water is taken from the River Clyde, and is brought to the requisite softness by means of a softening plant. The plant in the turbine-house consists of two 6,000 kw. turbines coupled to 7,500 kva. alternators and one 18,750 kw. turbine coupled to a 23,500 kva. alternator, all of the Rateau type and manufactured by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Manufacturing Co.

In addition there is a Fraser-Chalmers (General Electric Co.) 500 kw. house turbine running at 4,400 r.p.m., and driving a 750 revolutions 400 volt 25 cycle three-phase alternator. All the condensing plant has been supplied by Messrs. G. and J. Weir, and in the case of the 6,000 kw. sets, have been designed for 28 ½ -inch vacuum and 29-inch for the 18,750 kw. and 500 kw. turbines.

The cooling air for the alternators is drawn from outside the building and treated in a Sirocco air-washer plant. The air can then be discharged into the main building or outside as desired. Provision is also made so that in the winter months the air for the alternator may be drawn from inside the building. All the alternators are protected by the well-known Merz-Price System, and the operation of the relay on a fault immediately causes the generator main oil-break switch to open and simultaneously the field circuit is interrupted and suppressed.

The main switch-house comprises one-fourth of the contemplated lay-out, and forms a special building located on the eastern side of the Works. The building is of five stories and has a basement, lower E.H.T. chamber housing reactances, trifurcating boxes, and potential transformers. The switch-gear is placed in two rows, one on each side of the building, and has complete separation for each phase. The main oil-break switch-gear was supplied by the Metropolitan-Vickers Manufacturing Co., and has a rated rupturing capacity of 500,000 kva. All the main switchgear is remotely controlled from the switch-gallery, and a large control diagram of the system is placed there, in order to facilitate switching operations on the 11,000-volt network.

Clyde's Mill and Yoker Power Stations are interlinked by means of a 33,000-volt 15 ½ mile 0.2 square inch underground cable. The transformer equipment at each end of the line comprises banks of 11,000/33,000-volt delta star transformers each of 18,000 kva. capacity and complete with boosting transformers and regulating switch-gear to compensate for drop in line and transformers. The cable was manufactured by Messrs. Pirelli General Cable Works and the transformers and regulating switch-gear by The British Electric Transformer Co. The present Station at Clyde's Mill has turbo-alternator plant of 30,000 kw. capacity. The contemplated developments of the Company, however, provide for an ultimate capacity of 150,000 kw. on this site, and this marks the limit of the Clyde's Mill midsummer capacity to provide the necessary cooling water at this point.

Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering

FAIRFIELD SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING CO., LTD., GOVAN, GLASGOW.
Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co

The history of this Firm goes back to 1834 when Mr. Charles Randolph commenced business in the Tradeston district of Glasgow. As the firm developed, it became famous for millwright work. Marine engineering was started in 1853 with the introduction of John Elder and the name of the firm became Randolph, Elder and Co. John Elder was the inventor of the compound engine and subsequently the triple-expansion engine.

Shipbuilding was commenced in 1860, and in 1864 the present Works were laid out by John Elder, but unfortunately in 1869 he died and therefore did not live to see the completion of his scheme. The lay-out of the establishment is, however, a lasting monument to his foresight. For sixteen years the establishment was known under the name of John Elder and Co. The Fairfield Company was formed in 1886.

Fairfield Works is one of the largest and most important shipbuilding and engineering establishments in the United Kingdom, and includes shipyard, engine and boiler works, fitting-out basin and all the miscellaneous shops necessary to the completion of all classes of naval and mercantile vessels.

Situated in Govan about three miles to the west of Glasgow on the south bank of the River Clyde, the works cover an area of about 80 acres with a frontage to the river of about 3,000 feet. The wet dock has an area of 5 ½ acres.

The crane equipment includes a hammer-head crane situated on the East Wharf, lifting 250 tons.

There are ten shipbuilding berths, the largest taking a vessel up to 900 feet in length.

During the War, in addition to refits and repairs Fairfield built and engined battleships, cruisers, torpedo-boat destroyers, submarines, train-ferries, minesweepers and dispatch vessels representing 145,000 tons displacement and 1,166,035 h.p. The "Renown" was a battle cruiser with a displacement of 28,200 tons and 126,300 h.p., and has on several occasions been requisitioned for H.R.H. The Prince of Wales for his Colonial visits.

The Works may be reached by Corporation train-cars from the city to Linthouse, Shieldhall, and Renfrew.

Harland and Wolff, Finnieston Diesel Engine Works

MESSRS. HARLAND AND WOLFF, LTD., FINNIESTON DIESEL ENGINE WORKS, GLASGOW.
Harland and Wolff

The Works are laid out and equipped for building Diesel Engines on the Burmeister and Wain system, and are within easy access to the Finnieston Harbour Crane, where machinery can be installed on board ship or shipped for export, a rail connexion running for a distance of about 250 yards from the Erecting Shop to the Crane. Special rolling stock is provided for carrying heavy weights, including one flat-decked electric tractor. An efficient system of interdepartmental traction is in service, consisting of electric and Cowan trucks. The Works consist of the following Shops: Fitting, Erecting and Testing Shops; Engine Machine Shops; Ship Fittings and General Engineering Shops.

Fitting, Erecting and Testing Shops. - These Shops contain six bays, each bay being equipped with travelling overhead electric and jib cranes.

(1) In this bay all the important smaller details are assembled, such as fuel-valves, fuel-pumps, air starting-valves, cam-shafts, governor-gears, etc. (2) The medium type of work is fitted up here, such as inlet and exhaust valve-boxes, cylinder-covers, connecting-rods, piston-rods, crossheads, guides, etc. (3) Manoeuvring compressors are erected and tested, the main auxiliary engine blast or high-pressure air-compressors being also fitted up before going to the Erecting Bays. (4) All auxiliary and emergency dynamo engines are erected and tested, electrical testing apparatus being fitted up between the columns. (5 and 6) The main marine and large stationary engines are erected and tested, the main engines being tested with Heenan and Froude water-brakes.

Along one end of these Shops are situated the Time Offices, Ambulance Room, Workmen's Entrances, Head Foreman, Rate-fixers and Head Testers' Offices, etc.

Engine Machine Shops. - These Shops consist of three bays, each being equipped with overhead electric travelling cranes and jib-cranes.

(7) (Section 7) This is the heavy Machine Section and contains a horizontal milling machine capable of taking work up to 15 feet high and 50 feet long. Other machines of interest are the radial drilling machine having a swing of 11 feet by 11 feet high, also a Shanks horizontal with a selector type system of feeds, etc. (8) (Section 8) is for the medium class of work and consists principally of planing machines and horizontal boring and facing machines. (Section 9) is principally a vertical boring Machine Department, with machines varying from 2 feet by 18 inches to 10 feet. In between Sections 8 and 9 is situated the Water Test and some fitting work required between machine operations. (9) (Section 10) contains the centre lathes. (Section 11) consists of various types of up-to-date drilling machines, and (Section 12) has various types of milling machines and horizontal drilling machines. (Section 13) contains combination and turret lathes. (Section 14) works principally of Bar work, the section being made up of capstan and turret lathes. There is also special plant here for thread milling, for large studs, bolts, etc., also machines for tapping and facing of large nuts. (Section 15) is laid down for the making of piston-rings, cams, and all cylindrical grinding work. (Section 16) is the "Automatic" Section, where large quantities of bar or chuck work are dealt with.

The Substation is situated in this Department, and the electrical supply is obtained from the Corporation at 6,500 Volts A.C. being converted to 500 D.C.

Ship Fittings and General Engineering Shop. - This Shop consists of five bays, each one being equipped with overhead electric travelling cranes and jib-cranes.

(14) A main entrance is at one end of this bay, which is the receiving section for most of the material going into this department, and contains a rough casting store. Leading off the bay is the Copper Shop, Smithy, Brass Foundry, and Sheet Iron Department.

At the opposite end from the entrance and extending across Bays 14 and 15, is the manufacturing tool-room, where the jigs and tools are made. Included with the Tool Room is the Springmaking Department.

(15) This bay is equipped for the machining of all miscellaneous fittings. The south end is used for the fitting of lubricating oil-coolers, piston and water coolers, etc. (16) This is laid out for the machining and fitting up of stern tubes, stern-tube bushes and tail-shaft liners. At one end is the Jig and Tool Store, and at the other end rotary lubricating oil and fuel-oil pumps are fitted up and tested, also the fitting up of the various water pumps, etc. The water test-bed is in the middle of the bay. (17) This bay is laid out for the complete machining and fitting up of thrust and tunnel blocks. (18) This contains the crank-shaft lathes, and it is here that crank-shafts-are built. (19) This bay is laid out principally for the manufacture of all auxiliary and air-compressor crank-shafts.

On one side are the Gatehouses, Works Manager's Offices, Foremen's Offices, Ratefixers, Offices, etc.

James Howden and Co

MESSRS. JAMES HOWDEN AND CO., LTD., GLASGOW AND GOVAN.
James Howden and Co

The firm was founded by the late Mr. James Howden in 1863, principally for the manufacture of marine engines and boilers.

Scotland Street Works. - The Works were originally situated in West Street, Dinning Park, Glasgow, but in the year 1869, owing to the necessity for extension, they were removed to Scotland Street. In 1891, when the firm decided to manufacture only the special fittings for Howden's system of forced draught, of which Mr. Howden was the inventor, a new site was selected further west in Scotland Street and works were erected in 1898. Since that time, further extensions have been carried out, and the total area covered by the shops manufacturing forced-draught apparatus is about 5 acres. The Works are well situated, being within easy reach of the docks, and adjacent to the main line of the L.M. and S. Railway Co.

The main shops comprise thirteen bays, and each department is arranged so as to minimize the transportation of parts during progress of manufacture. The various bays, which are well served by electric overhead travelling-cranes, all of varying capacity, are occupied by Tool Room, Brass Finishers' Shop, Furnace Front Department, Forge and Smithy, also the Machine, Finishing and Erecting Shops. The Forge is fitted with a large Howden-Burdon oil-fuel bloom furnace.

At the end of Bay 13 there is a large test-bed arranged for testing forced-draught engines and fans, high-speed engines and generators, also steam-turbines. Steam is supplied from a number of boilers capable of evaporating about 35,000 lb. of steam per hour, and these boilers are fitted with the Howden system of forced draught. The power is supplied to the Works partly from the Corporation electricity supply, and partly from several high-speed engine-driven generating sets of the firm's own manufacture.

Adjacent to the main buildings is a large Foundry, in which all the furnace fronts, engine-cylinders, crank-cases, beds, and other parts are cast. In addition to this work, turbine diaphragms, both for their own turbine work, and for a number of marine engineers are also moulded and cast. This latter work is of a very exacting nature. The heaviest casting produced in this foundry is approximately 5 tons. The Dressing Shop is fitted with a modern sand-blast plant, capable of dealing with large castings.

West of the foundry lie the Fan and Pattern Shops. The latter is fitted with all the most up-to-date wood-working machinery, and also has a very large pattern store. In the Fan Shop, all the forced-draught fans are manufactured and erected. The shop is fitted with the usual drilling machines, shearing machines, and plate-rolling machines of the latest design. In addition, it is equipped with an oxy-acetylene welding plant.

Govan Works. - These Works are situated in Helen Street, Govan, and consist of a building having six large bays, two of which are used for the manufacture of the Howden boiler, which is of the straight vertical tube type, and has been very successful in Marine Service. The other four bays are for the manufacture of high-speed engines and turbines.

One of the bays is fully equipped with the usual machines used in modern boiler construction, namely, large plate-presses, plate-planers, bending rolls, milling, shaping and drilling machines, etc., also a complete oxy-acetylene welding and cutting plant. The large plate-presses are used for the drums of both Howden boilers and Yarrow boilers, a large amount of press work for Yarrow boiler drums being done for outside firms.

The hydraulic installation consists of three triple hydraulic automatic pumps working with a large accumulator, having 16-inch ram and 10-foot stroke, and a working pressure of 1,500 lb. per square inch. The electrical power is supplied partly by the Corporation, and partly by high-speed engine generating sets of the firm's own manufacture. Steam is generated by two Howden boilers, working under the Howden system of forced draught.

The second bay is used for the assembly and erection of the boilers. Both bays are served by overhead electric travelling-cranes and radial cranes.

Bays 3, 4, 5 and 6 are occupied by the Tool Room, Turbine-Blading Shop, Light Machine Shop, Heavy Machine Shop, and Erecting Shop. The whole of the tools, jigs, and cutters for turbine blading and other purposes are manufactured in the firm's Tool Room. The Blading Shop, Light Machine Shop, and Heavy Machine Shop are all equipped with the latest modern tools.

Each bay is served with overhead travelling-cranes of sufficient capacity to deal with the parts passing through the particular department. Sets of the Howden high-speed engine, up to and including 2,500 b.h.p. in a single unit, have been manufactured in these shops.

The Howden turbine is of the Zoelly, pure impulse type, of which large numbers are working successfully in this country and abroad, up to and including 15,000 kw. in a single unit.

The Erection Bay is served with overhead cranes of 16 tons and 25 tons lifting capacity, and turbines up to 20,000 kw. output can be dealt with in this shop.

For the convenience of the staff and employees a canteen has been erected which can seat 150 persons at one time.

LNER Cowlairs Works

LONDON AND NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY CO., COWLAIRS WORKS, GLASGOW.
Cowlairs Works

The Works are situated in the north-east district of the city, near Cowlairs Station, on the Edinburgh and Glasgow main line, London and North Eastern Railway.

The Pattern Shop is situated at the south end of the Works, with the Brass Foundry, Iron Foundries, Pattern Stores, and Core Drying Ovens immediately adjoining. The Brass Moulding Shop has an average output of 15 tons per week, and the Iron Moulding Shops an average output of 118 tons per week.

Adjacent are Iron and Brass Stores, Carriage Wheel Balancing Shop, and Wheel Turning Shop. The latter is equipped with the usual machines, principally turning lathes. Adjoining the Wheel Turning Shop is one used by the millwrights and wheel shop fitters, with shearing and cutting machines.

Directly opposite are the Smiths' Shop and Forge, where all smithy work in connexion with locomotives, carriages and wagons is dealt with. In the forge adjoining there are seven furnaces using waste heat for heating the boilers which supply steam to the steam-hammers.

The Spring Shop has a large double spring furnace with tempering troughs adjacent. A double ram hydraulic press is used for spring buckling. The Grinding Shop is directly to the north of the Spring Shop.

The Machine Shop is equipped with surfacing, boring and screw-cutting lathes, variable-speed lathes, automatic machines for bar work, and semi-automatic turret lathes, high-speed machines capable of surfacing, boring, milling, shaping, slotting, and turning. A hydraulic engine and accumulator supplies the power for the various hydraulic machines; the south-west corner is used for the machining and fitting of cylinders. At. the north-west corner of the Machine Shop is the Brass Finishing Shop with lathes, drilling and cutting machines, and a tool grinder.

The Boiler Shop adjacent has a capacity for twelve boilers. The machinery consists of a hydraulic plate-flanging press and furnace, portable hydraulic riveting-machine, drilling, tube-cutting, plate-bending, shearing, punching, plate-edging and rolling machines, also pneumatic tools for tapping stay-holes, riveting stays, etc.

North of the Boiler Shop are the Valve-Setting Shop, Engine Paint Shop, Splasher Shop, Erecting Shop Store for motion, side rods, and connecting-rods, Automatic-Brake Shop, Boiler Testing Shop, and Coppersmiths' Shop. The bottom of the Smiths' Shop is set apart for the angle-iron smiths. The Tinsmiths' Shop is situated at the west end of the Machine Shop.

The Erecting Shop, Finishing Shop, and Erecting Shop Stores are situated to the west of the Smiths' Shop. The Erecting Shop has a capacity for sixty-one engines, and an acetylene welding plant for the welding of locomotive frames is used. There are also two air-accumulators, with a pressure of 90 lb.

The New Boiler and Tender Shop is situated to the south of the Erecting Shop. It has a capacity for eleven tenders and eighteen boilers, and an electrically controlled air-compressor for the accumulators in the Erecting Shop is installed. The Shop is equipped with the usual plate-edging, bending, drilling, punching, shearing and straightening machines, also screwing, rolling, cutting, and squaring machines for the manufacture of copper fire-box stays, each machine being driven by a separate electric motor.

Further to the west of the Erecting Shop are the Wagon Shop, Sawmill, Cartwright, Carriage and Paint Shops. The Wagon Shop has a capacity for 250 miscellaneous wagons.

The Timber Yard and Timber Drying Sheds lie to the south of the Sawmill, the logs being lifted and carried to the travelling cross-cut saws by an electric "Goliath" crane. The Sawmill is equipped with forty-five machines, including mortising, boring, planing, turning, spindle and checking, tenoning, moulding, sandpapering, and saw and knife-sharpening machines, also a vacuum extraction plant for sawdust and shavings. Fourteen air lifting-jacks are in use for wagon lifting in the Wagon Shop.

The Carriage Shop has a capacity for twenty-eight bogie carriages (for repairs) and ten bogie carriages (new work).

The Paint Shop has a capacity for sixty bogie carriages and a vacuum dust extractor is fitted.

The Cabinetmakers' Shop is situated to the south end, conveniently placed with access to the Carriage and Paint Shops by means of fireproof doors. Above the Cabinetmakers' Shop is the Carriage Trimming Shop. The Chain-testing Shop stands to the south of the Paint Shop.

The total number of men employed is about 2,470.

McKie and Baxter, Marine Engine Works

MESSRS. McKIE AND BAXTER, MARINE ENGINE WORKS, GLASGOW.
McKie and Baxter

This business was started in 1896 by the late J. A. McKie and P. MacLeod Baxter. Wilson Harvey was assumed as a partner in 1912, and the business is being carried on today by Mr. Baxter and Mr. Harvey. The original works covered a very small area,. but extensions have been going on so regularly and continuously that the works are now ten times their original size. The nature of the work done is so varied that it covers every type of marine steam' installation, and their range includes the smallest as well as the largest sizes in reciprocating engines.

The Works are equipped throughout with the most up-to-date plant for turning out marine machinery accurately and economically. The firm have been on the Admiralty list for many years, also that of the War Office, Crown Agents for the Colonies, India Office, and have carried out contracts for all the principal foreign Governments.

North British Diesel Engine Works

NORTH BRITISH DIESEL ENGINE WORKS, WHITEINCH, GLASGOW.
North British Diesel Engine Works

These Works, which cover an area of about 15 acres of ground, are conveniently situated on the north bank of the River Clyde, about 4 miles from the Glasgow Royal Exchange, and on the direct route to Clydebank and Dalmuir.

The erecting of the Works was commenced early in the year 1913, and they were completed, and machines installed ready for work about eighteen months later. After that date a fitting-out tidal basin, 130 feet wide, was formed, with a solid concrete quay wall 820 feet long, the foundations of which go down to a depth of 54 feet from surface of ground. Between this quay wall and main shop is erected a giant electrically-driven cantilever crane, capable of dealing with a load of 150 tons, at a radius of 85 feet, and of 80 tons at a radius of 127 feet.

Offices. - The main entrance and offices are in South Street, Whiteinch. This block consists of the board room, managing director's office, drawing offices, and general office, estimating, costing, and other offices.

Canteen. - At some distance behind the offices is a Canteen 122 feet long, and 88 feet wide, containing a large dining-hall for workers, smaller dining-rooms for staff and foremen, a billiard-room and a large kitchen, with the necessary staff accommodations and store-rooms. The kitchen is equipped with electrical cooking apparatus of the Falco type, and is one of the first of the large Canteens to be wholly electrically fitted up.

Power-House. - This contains three 500-kw. rotary converters. Power is supplied to the works from the high-tension system of the Glasgow Corporation at 6,500 volts, 3-phase A.C., and is transformed down and is converted to 500 volts D.C. The Power-House is arranged to feed to, or to take from, the 500-volt D.C. 3-wire distribution system of the Corporation. Two 160 h.p. compressors by Fullerton, Hodgart and Barclay are installed, and supply compressed air at 100 lb. pressure to the air-driven hammers in the Smithy, and to the pneumatic tools in the Works.

Smiths' Shop. - This building is 100 feet long and 50 feet wide, and is equipped with seven smiths' fires, two 5 cwt., one 7 ½ cwt., and one 10 cwt. N.S.K. hammers by Pilkington. There are also two gas-furnaces, and one coal furnace for annealing, carbonizing and for the heat treatment of steel, and two gas-furnaces for tool-tempering.

Machinery Hall. - This is 360 feet long and 160 feet wide overall, and is divided lengthwise into three bays - one 80 feet wide, and two 40 feet wide each. The largest bay is open to the roof, and its height is 80 feet from floor to ridge. The smaller bays are two stories in height. The building is framed on the three-hinged system, which has been found perfectly satisfactory in every respect. As the ground on which the building stands is of a soft and sandy nature, all the main stanchions stand on a foundation of concrete piles.

The test-bed has an area of 5,000 square feet, and is sufficient to accommodate six of the largest size of Diesel engines. It is equipped with complete cooling water, and oil-distributing systems, with measuring apparatus. Reversible water-brakes of the Heenan and Froude type are installed which can absorb up to 3,000 b.h.p. in either direction.

The auxiliary test-bed can accommodate nine auxiliary Diesel sets, and is equipped with all the necessary water, air, and oil systems. An electrical water resistance with hydraulic remote control is provided for absorbing electricity generated during tests.

The Works are driven throughout by electric motors of 500 volts D.C., and about 200 motors are employed on machines, tools, cranes, hoists, etc., the aggregate power being over 4,000 h.p. The larger machines are driven by individual motors mostly of the variable-speed type, and largely controlled by push-button starting switches. The smaller machines are group-driven through shafting by 35 h.p. motors.

The main erecting shop is equipped with two 75-ton cranes. By working these in conjunction it is possible to deliver machinery weighing up to 150 tons to the 150-ton dock side cantilever crane for placing on board ship.

The main bay of the Machinery Hall contains, in addition to the test-beds and erecting-beds, some of the largest machines. There is a large planning machine by Craven Bros.; a horizontal boring machine by Shanks; a horizontal drilling, tapping, boring, and milling machine by Muir; a vertical turning and boring machine by Butler; a vertical turning and boring machine by Richards; and another by Butler; three 6-inch and two 7-inch radial drilling machines by Asquith; a crank-shaft and screw-cutting lathe by Loudon. Bros., etc. These machines are served by the two 75-ton cranes already mentioned, and by two 5-ton wall cranes, all of which travel the full length of the shop. The smaller bays on the ground floor are served by two 15-ton overhead cranes.

The upper floor or gallery of the Machinery Hall is used exclusively for the lighter work in connexion with the firm's Diesel engines, and is equipped with several semi-automatic, and automatic bar machines, a surface-grinder, a Churchill plane, grinding machines (one of which can be converted to a cam grinding machine as required). There are also several gear-bobbing machines, a bevel-gear cutting machine, drilling machines by Asquith, bollard turning and boring machines by Butler, and a variety of light lathes by British and American makers. The Tool Room, Drawing and Jig Stores, etc., are also situated on this floor,

The General Stores for raw materials and finished parts arc situated conveniently to the Machine Shop, while the Coppersmith's Shop is in a detached building.

At a short distance to the west of the main Machine Shop there is another building, 300 feet long and 110 feet wide, which was built for the manufacture of shells, aeroplane engines, and other munitions of war. This building has now been subdivided and equipped with cranes.

Boiler-Houses. - There are two Boiler-Houses. In one of these there are two Lancashire boilers which are used exclusively for the production of steam supply to radiators in the various shops. Fans are attached to these radiators, and hot or cold air, as may be required, is delivered through tubes, and uniformly distributed for heating and ventilating the various shops.

In the second Boiler-House are two Babcock and Wilcox water- tube boilers fitted for oil-fuel firing. These are used in connexion with the test-bed.

Pattern Shop. - At the north-west corner of the site are situated the Pattern Shop and Stores. The Pattern Shop is a building 150 feet long, 54 feet wide, and two stories in height. It is heated by hot-water pipes and radiators, has a very effective system of dust extraction, and contains some of the most modern woodworking machines.

Yard. - This is equipped with a 15-ton gantry crane, and has an extensive system of railway sidings which connect up with both the Caledonian. (L.M.S.) and the North British (L.N.E.) Railways.

Steel Company of Scotland

STEEL COMPANY OF SCOTLAND, LTD., BLOCHAIRN AND HALLSIDE WORKS, GLASGOW. BLOCHAIRN WORKS.
BLOCHAIRN WORKS

The Steel Company of Scotland, Ltd., was formed in 1872 for the production of steel by the "Siemens" process. It was the pioneer Company in Scotland, and one of the first to adopt this process for the manufacture of Open-Hearth Acid-Steel. In 1880 the Company acquired Blochairn Iron Works, which were then remodelled and rendered suitable for the production of Steel. The works comprise a steel melting plant, plate and sheet rolling mills, tyre manufacturing plant and merchant mill.

Office Buildings. - These buildings front Blochairn Road and are convenient to the Glasgow Corporation Tramway Route to Provanmill. The general offices are on the ground floor. The drawing office and chemical laboratory are situated on the first floor.

Gas Plant. - The producer-gas used in the various furnaces is generated in plant opposite the main melting shop consisting of seventeen "Mond" type gas-producers. On the majority of these, mechanical agitators of the "Chapman" floating type have been installed.

Melting Shop: Main Furnaces. - The melting department contains five 60-ton furnaces and four 50-ton furnaces. At present the first four 60-ton furnaces only are served by a 5-ton overhead electric charging machine and two 7-ton electric mono-rail cranes with lifting magnets for unloading pig-iron and scrap. On the casting side, the furnaces tap into ladles mounted on bogies, from which the metal is poured into ingot moulds placed in a sunk pit below the ladles. Ingots up to 16 tons are cast and handled by means of one 50-ton overhead electric crane and two 15-ton steam travelling- cranes.

Melting Shop Tyre Furnaces. - There are two 20-ton melting furnaces in this Shop for the production of tyre and special quality steel. The furnaces are tapped into a ladle from which the steel is poured into specially shaped ingot moulds for the making of tyres. The tyre ingots are cast on two circular rotating tables over which the ladle stands, while the moulds are moved forward as they are filled. Long ingots when required are cast in front of furnaces and cut by an ingot slicing machine to the required sizes.

No. 9 Mill: Guide Mill. - The first mill in course of route is a 10-inch guide-mill for rivet bars, small squares, angles and other sections. All the larger sizes of sections are made at Hallside Works. This mill is driven by a geared compound condensing engine, the high pressure cylinder being provided with a "Proell" governor and cut-off valve. It is served by two coal-fired re-heating furnaces which are fitted with overhead Babcock boilers for utilizing the waste heat from the furnaces. The re-heating furnaces for the sheet mills and tyre mill are all of this type.

No. 7 Mill: Sheet Mill. - Next in route is a 24-inch sheet mill having a range for sheets down to 16 gauge. This mill is driven by a single cylinder condensing engine, cylinder with inlet slide-valve controlled by governor separately from the exhaust slide-valve. It is served by two coal-fired re-heating furnaces fitted with waste-heat boilers.

No. 1 Mill: Cogging Mill. - Adjacent thereto is the Cogging Mill which is served by two gas-fired and two coal-fired soaking furnaces. The waste heat from coal-fired soakers is utilized in a Babcock boiler. The material is handled by two 15-ton electric overhead cranes. The mill is of the universal type, having vertical side rolls in place of the usual tilting gear. The engines are of the two cylinder reversing type with piston-valves and "Allen" straight-link gear. During the rolling operations the ingot or slab is moved about by hydraulic pushers. The guillotine is of the hydraulic press type and performs its work noiselessly. The hydraulic engines are in adjoining houses. The slabs are conveyed to the plate mills by a bogie railway worked by endless chain.

Electric Power Station. - The electric power station (sic) used in the works is generated in a station close to the Cogging Mill. The exhaust steam from the engines is utilized to drive two Parsons mixed-pressure turbines connected through gearing to Dick Kerr generators, each capable of giving 500 kw. at 210 volts continuous current. A combined Belliss and Morcom high-speed engine and generator set of 170 kw. forms an additional reserve. The extremely fluctuating power load is steadied by a floating battery and booster plant in the same buildings.

No. 6 Mill Sheet Mill. - The next mill has 22-inch rolls and rolls sheets down to 16 gauge. The engine is a single cylinder condensing one with "Corliss"valve gear.

Tyre Mill. - This mill is of the single type in which the tyre is both roughed and finished, the tyre being raised from the roughing to the finishing hole by means of a lifting table. Tyres of the largest size and of various special qualities are made. The tyre ingots pass through two processes before reaching the mill - under two 8-ton hammers - the first flattens and punches the ingot while the other roughly forms the flange and lip of Tyre.

No. 3 Mill: Plate Mill. - This is a new mill which was only put in operation recently. The rolls are 32 inches diameter and 8 feet long. The plates rolled are between 3/16 inch and 1 inch thick. The engine is of the three-crank reversing type and is directly connected to the mill. It is fitted with piston-valves and "Joy" valve-gear. All the auxiliary machinery is driven by electric motors. The slabs used are re-heated in two furnaces of the regenerative gas-fired type served by a 5-ton overhead electric charging machine. The rolled plates are delivered direct to a plate-flattening machine and thence to shearing machines of the usual type.

No. 2 Mill Plate Mill. - This mill rolls the heaviest class of boiler plate; the rolls are 34 inches diameter and the mill is capable of rolling plates up to 12 feet in width. It is of the two-high type, and is driven by a pair of piston-valve reversing steam-engines. It is fully equipped with tables and live-roller gear. The auxiliary machinery is driven by steam. The slabs used are reheated in two furnaces of the "Siemens" New Form type, each having its own gas-producer. These furnaces are served by a 12-ton electric overhead charging machine. The shearing floor is equipped with a set of shears to cut mild-steel plates up to 1 ¼ inch thick and a set to cut mild-steel plates up to 2 ¼ inches thick. Thicker plates are edge-planed by a ripping machine. An annealing furnace and a table for flattening heavy plates are also provided.

Test-House. - This contains one 50-ton testing machine and one 100-ton testing machine as well as auxiliary machinery for the machining of test-pieces to standard size. There is also an electric motor-driven test bending-machine of an up-to-date type.

Steam Plant. - The Steam Supply for the works is generated in sixteen boilers of the Babcock and Wilcox type fitted, with one or two exceptions, with superheaters and "Underfeed" Stokers. This supply is supplemented by twelve waste-heat boilers.

HALLSIDE WORKS.

The Works are situated at Hallside, Lanarkshire, and closely adjoin Newton Station, L.M. and S. Railway. They comprise steel melting, rolling, forge, foundry and general engineering departments.

Products. - Ship, bridge-building and general sections, marine, locomotive and general forgings, rails, axles of all classes and steel castings up to 60 tons weight.

Melting Shops. - There are two melting shops - high and low level.

The low-level shop contains nine open-hearth furnaces each of 35-40 tons capacity. This shop is provided with a Wellman overhead revolving-type charger. Alongside is a 7-ton Wellman travelling-crane for filling the charges into boxes. The furnaces are gas-fired from Wellman gas-machines, equipped with coal and ash handling plant.

The high-level shop contains four furnaces of 35 tons capacity, and is served by a Wellman ground type charger.

Tapping. - The low-level furnaces tap direct to ladles on carriages which are moved by a locomotive on rails above the pit.

The high-level furnaces tap direct to ladles on 80-ton overhead Booth cranes.

The ingots are taken to the soakers on bogies controlled by a steam-driven winch with wire-ropes working on an incline.

Soakers. - There are four gas-fired soakers served by two Marshall Fleming overhead rigid type cranes.

Mills. - There are two 30-inch togging mills, one 28-inch bar mill, one 18-inch bar mill, and one 14-inch mill for the production of sections. A new 16-inch and 14-inch mill is in course of construction, and will be operated by a combined steam and electric drive.

The Forge contains two axle-hammers with coal-fired heating furnaces, one 10-ton and one 4-ton hammer for the production of marine and general forgings. The heating furnaces are gas-fired.

The Foundry is comprised of heavy and light moulding shops, dressing shops, etc. The metal required is obtained from two open- hearth furnaces, each 35-40 tons.

The Machine Shop consists of one span 500 feet by 70 feet, equipped with 60- and 15-ton overhead cranes, and contains machines for finishing the heaviest class of marine, rolling mill, and other castings, forgings and general engineering work. A feature of the shop is the machined table equipped with portable vertical drills, boring machines and planers.

The Power Plant consists of one 1,200 kw. and one 500 kw. Parsons-Dick Kerr turbo-generator, also one 500 kw. and one 180 kw. motor-generator. The turbo-generators are supplied with mixed pressure steam from the rolling mill engine exhaust and from boilers. The motor-generators afford a stand-by and a week-end load and are fed from a sub-station of the Clyde Valley Electrical Power Co.

The Test-House contains a Williamson 50-ton and an Armstrong Whitworth 50-ton tensile testing machine, also a Buckton 40-ton machine for compression and transverse tests, an Avery impact testing machine, a Brinell hardness tester, and the usual test preparing plant.

The Steam Supply is obtained from five Babcock and Wilcox, one Stirling, and fifteen Lancashire boilers, all coal-fired, also from two Cornish waste-heat boilers above 14-inch mill furnaces.

Alexander Stephen and Sons

MESSRS. ALEXANDER STEPHEN AND SONS, LTD., LINTHOUSE, GLASGOW.
Alexander Stephen and Sons

For over 140 years the Stephen family have been shipbuilders, and during that period they have built many notable vessels, amongst others the "Shenandoah," which made history during the American Civil War as a Confederate cruiser, the steam-yacht "Emerald," which was the first turbine-driven vessel to cross the Atlantic, and the twin screw "Virginian," of the Allan Line, which was one of the first two turbine-driven liners to cross the Atlantic; and they have recently completed the "Dalgoma," one of the first Diesel engine-driven passenger vessels to be put on service.

The present Works at Linthouse, Glasgow, were acquired in 1868, and the Shipbuilding Yard contains seven building berths where ships up to about 600 feet length can be built. It is complete with model tank, Carpenters' Shop, Joiners' and Cabinetmakers' Shops, Timber Sawmills, Iron Platers' Shed, Finishing Shop, Plumbers' Shop, Sheet Iron Shop, Smithy, etc., all well equipped with the latest machinery for their particular services.

The motive power is almost entirely electricity, which is obtained from the Glasgow Corporation and transformed to the requirements of the Works through a Power-House situated on Renfrew Road.

The boilers in the Works are used for supplying steam for testing Purposes and for heating the Works through an installation of "Stanlock " heaters. The firm have their own hydraulic powerhouse and a large compressor-house in the Shipyard provides the compressed air for both Shipyard and Engine Departments.

The Engine and Boiler Works, which adjoin the Shipbuilding Yard at Linthouse, were not built until 1871, and they have been from time to time extended. The latest extension in 1918 added about one-third to the area of the engine and boiler works, and enabled the firm to remodel and modernize the entire establishment. The latest labour-saving machinery for the construction of Diesel engines, steam-turbines, gearing, reciprocating engines, boilers, oil- fuel burners, etc., have been installed.

The main building of the Engine Works is divided into two lofty bays, each 430 feet long, with two lower bays of the same length for finishing work. The Machine Shop is well equipped with turning, bobbing, planing, screwing, boring, slotting, etc., machines of the latest and largest type, besides a well-arranged and full equipment of automatic machines and other small high-speed tools. The Fitting Department has the usual facilities for erecting the largest size of marine engines, and has besides a carefully constructed test-bed on which Diesel engines are tested against a water-brake of the latest type. A tool-room adjoins the Engine Works, where most of the small tools used in the establishment are made, and it contains the necessary measuring and accurate machines of all types necessary for this class of work, as well as for the upkeep of the small tools in a high state of efficiency.

On the other side of the Engine Shop from the Tool Room is the blading shop, which contains the small tools specially designed and built by the firm for the shaping of turbine blades.

The Boiler Works are separated from the Engine Works by an open yard used for the storage of odd material, and is a well lit, lofty building of two bays, 405 feet long, containing the latest types of hydraulic and electrically driven machinery for planing, bending, flanging, drilling, and manipulation of the largest and heaviest plates used in boilermaking, and for the handling and quick transportation of the finished boilers. Adjoining the Boiler Shop is the Smithy, the power-hammers throughout being driven by compressed air. A Pattern Shop and Joiners' Shop are on the east side of the yard, fitted out for their particular class of work. Overhead cranes, railways on which their own electric locomotive runs, motor and steam lorries, make up their transport facilities, and the Works have nearly always been kept fully employed. During the War period the whole engineering establishment was devoted to the manufacture of machinery and boilers for the torpedo-boat destroyers and standard vessels built in the shipyard, and during the three years 1916, 1917, and 1918 machinery, representing a total of over 400,000 i.h.p., was turned out.

An Ambulance Room, fitted out with beds and under the constant charge of a qualified ambulance man, is in a convenient part of the yard.

The comfort of the employees is well looked after, welfare supervisors, works' canteens, boys' social club, gymnasium, reading rooms, games rooms, etc., all helping to make the lot of the employees as comfortable as possible. A large recreation ground convenient to the Works was purchased some time ago by the firm, and is well patronised in "off " hours by those interested in football, hockey, cricket, etc.

The total number of workmen at present employed at Linthouse is about 3,000, and, in addition to the Works at Linthouse described above, the firm have a ship repairing establishment at the Glasgow Graving Docks, where an average of about 300 ships pass through their hands every twelve months.

James Templeton and Co

MESSRS. JAMES TEMPLETON AND CO., CARPET MANUFACTURERS, GLASGOW.
James Templeton and Co

The Firm was established in a very small way in 1839. It has grown steadily and now three thousand workpeople are employed. The founder of the firm was the inventor of the first machine-made Axminster carpets. Many important carpets have from time to time been made by the firm, from the carpet for St. George's Chapel, Windsor, for the baptism of King Edward VII, to the carpet used in Westminster Abbey at the Coronation of King George V.

Various kinds of Axminster, Wilton, and Brussels carpets and rugs are manufactured. The wool is handled from its raw state when it leaves the back of the sheep until it is turned out in the form of carpets. The processes include spinning of woollen and worsted yarns, scouring, dyeing, winding, various types of weaving, and finishing. There is a large staff of designers, and of expert colourists selecting the shades to be used in manufacturing the carpets.

As the firm has grown, many extensions have been made and it has been impossible to keep everything under one roof, so that there are now six factories within a short distance of each other in the East End of Glasgow. By visiting the William Street factory, the whole of the processes in connexion with the manufacture of one form of Axminster carpet can be readily seen and understood.

There has been considerable development of the human side of manufacture in connexion with the works. There are a Savings Bank, Benefit Society for sickness, Provident Society for old age pensions, and numerous organizations of educational or recreational nature. Recently about 20 acres of ground have been acquired a short distance from the works where houses for members of the staff are being erected and a recreation ground for bowling, tennis, hockey, etc., is being made.

G. and J. Weir Ltd

MESSRS. G. AND J. WEIR, LTD., HOLM FOUNDRY, CATHCART, GLASGOW.
G. and J. Weir

These Works are situated at Cathcart in the southern suburbs of Glasgow, and, from comparatively small beginnings, have grown until they now cover an area of 17 acres, and employ, in normal times, about 2,200 men.

The products of the establishment comprise principally feed-pumps, water and oil general service pumps, oil-fuel pressure pumps, air-pumps, uniflux condensers and complete condensing plants for turbo-generators, turbine-driven rotary pumps for circulating, feeding, and other duties. The production of fresh water by the use of their evaporating and distilling machinery, the firm's advocacy of feed-heating, de-aeration of boiler feed, and their special methods therefor are well known. Air-compressors, electric, oil engine, or belt-driven pumps are manufactured to meet the increasing application of electricity for power purposes, and the growing adoption of the Diesel engine in various classes of vessels.

During the War, the firm's plant was fully engaged in the manufacture of munitions of war over and above their own specialities; these included shells of various sizes, parts of gun- carriages, trench mortars, aeroplanes, Diesel engines for submarines, etc.

In the manufacture of their specialities the conditions are to a degree favourable to a system of standardization which has always been kept in view in the organization and equipment of the works, with the result that a very large range of capacities and sizes of the firm's products are manufactured under the best repetition conditions. In the lay-out of their Works the Firm has been alive to the economical advantages of direct lines of communication and correct routing of material in its progress through the various shops.

Administration Building. - This is built of reinforced concrete on the "Kahn" system, with ample natural lighting by large window spaces on the four stories of which it consists. On the ground floor are situated the commercial offices with telephone exchange and inquiry department. The first floor contains the private offices, correspondence, estimating, and inwards order departments; and on second and third floors the drawing offices, drawing stores, tracing and photographic departments. Pattern Shop and Pattern Stores. - This building consists of four 35-feet bays, and is equipped with modern machine-tools for turning, trimming, planing, sawing, and other wood-working operations. For the storage of patterns, isolated buildings have been erected close to the pattern shop and foundries.

Brass and Iron Foundries. - One side of the Brass Foundry is devoted to light repetition castings of different kinds, and is equipped with six pot-fires and four coke-fired forced draught tilting furnaces, each with a crucible capacity large enough to contain 240 lb. of metal. Two electric furnaces are also installed in this department for steel and Mond metal castings. The other side of the foundry is devoted to the production of large gun-metal castings and is served by two large reverberatory furnaces with a capacity of seven tons each. The equipment includes moulding machinery of the most modern type, drying stoves, etc. For expediency and to facilitate the handling of material, there is ample provision of hydraulic and high-speed electric cranes and hand- travellers. Installed in the dressing shop, adjoining the brass and iron foundries is a two-chamber sand-blast plant suitable for all classes of work.

The Copper Shop adjoins this department.

Iron Foundry. - The moulding operations in the Iron Foundry are carried out in four 35-feet bays, approximately 300 feet in length. Installed in this section are two Stewart cupolas (by Thwaites) with melting capacities of 6 and 8 tons per hour respectively. The main bays of the foundry are devoted almost entirely to moulding, core-making and other operations are carried out in auxiliary cross-bays. Crane and other arrangements are most complete, and the fittings for the rapid dressing of castings are of the most modern types.

Smithy. - The building consists of one main 45 feet bay, 300 feet in length, divided internally into two broad outside and one narrow central bay. The outside bays contain the various heating furnaces and smithy fires. The general arrangement of the Smithy provides for the heavier drawing, forging, etc., at the exit end, close to the machine shops. Briefly, the equipment consists of a 600-ton high-speed forging press by Messrs. Davy Brothers, Sheffield, and steam hammers ranging in powers from 20 cwt. downwards. For lighter repetition work a special Defries "Ajax" heading, upsetting and forging machine has been laid down. In addition to the ordinary Smithy fires the heating equipment includes four forced-draught coal-fired furnaces working in conjunction with the hydraulic press and Defries "Ajax" upsetting machine. For the heavier steam-hammer work the heating is done by coke-furnaces. Two gas-furnaces and an oil-fired furnace are also installed for special purposes. For the handling of material at the furnaces, etc., horizontal jib-cranes are installed, and for the supply of steam to the Smithy a separate boiler installation has been laid down.

Heavy Machine Shop. - The exits from the iron and brass dressing shops and the smithy being close to the Machine Shop, the material is very conveniently passed into the latter. Consisting of eight 25-feet bays, 320 feet in length, the plant installed is comprised of several rows of large boring and facing mills in various sizes, suitable for both light and heavy work. The surface tables are arranged between the rows of boring mills and studding machines as well as the drawing, template and tool stores. The department is also furnished with electric travelling cranes of various capacities. Milling, Screwing, and Automatic Departments. - In this department are to be found some of the best automatic and semiautomatic tools of the day which handle adequately the manufacture, on a repetition basis, studs, small screw parts, columns, etc. Adjoining this shop a department is set aside entirely for light machining work, including piston-rods, steam and water pistons, compressor parts, etc.

Turbine Shop. - This department is equipped for the manufacture under the most modern conditions of steam-turbine and high-speed rotary pumps for boiler feeding, circulating and other duties. This department is self-contained and carries out the machining, erecting, and hydraulic and steam testing of its product. The equipment throughout is modern and the machine-tools represent the latest and most efficient types. The department is served by a 5-ton electric crane and hand-travellers. Adjoining this department is the Buffing Shop.

Minto Factory. - This is a steel trained 4-story building 200 feet in length by 50 feet in breadth. The floors are of concrete and the building is fire-proof throughout. The ground floor is fitted out complete for the mass production of the piston-valve and chest, which are notable and important features of Weir pumps. The other floors house the brass finishing department, in which all brass mountings for the firm's products are machined and finished. The shop is fully equipped with facing, screwing and turret lathes of the most modern types, and the several floors are served by means of hoists of various capacities.

Experimental Shop and Testing House. - Ample facilities are provided, not only for experimental research, but also for the complete and special testing of the finished products of the firm. This shop, which is 200 feet in length by 45 feet in breadth, is constructed of steel throughout, and is an airy and well lighted structure.

Feed-Pump, Fitting and Erecting Shop. - This shop is adjacent to the finished stores and heavy machine shop, and is divided structurally into two bays. In addition to the normal fitting shop outfit, departments are set aside for cleaning and hydraulic and steam testing. A department adjoining Heavy Machine Shop is wholly utilized for the complete production of the small type of pump, feed, service, etc.

Air-Pump Fitting and Erecting Shop. - While the available space is largely devoted to the fitting and assembling of air-pumps, the department handles the manufacture of condensers, evaporators, feed-water heaters, air-compressors, etc. The roofed area is 90 feet by 370 feet, arranged in two 45-feet bays, each of which is provided with several electric cranes of large and small capacities. The general arrangement is similar to that of the feed-pump fitting shop. Under this structure the packing and dispatch department is conveniently situated.

Power Supply and Distribution. - The power for the driving of shafting, etc., is provided by direct supply from the mains of the Clyde Valley Electrical Power Co., and distributed to the various units throughout the works. The driving equipment of the works also includes many direct-current motors and to provide for these two Westinghouse rotary converters have been installed. For the supply of compressed air three automatically controlled motor-driven air-compressors of modern type are in operation. In addition to the power for manufacturing purposes, steam is supplied by two Weir water-tube boilers and a Babcock and Wilcox boiler working in conjunction with a separately fired superheater. In this building are also housed the special hydraulic pumps and accumulators for the supply of pressure-water throughout the Works for hydraulic cranes and testing purposes.

Plant Department. - All jigs, fixtures, special taps, etc., used throughout the Works are made in this department, which is also responsible for carrying out repairs to machinery and plant. Raw Materials and Metallurgical Control. - The Works are also equipped with an efficient chemical, metallurgical and testing department which controls the quality of material used in the manufacture of their products.

Transport. - The fleet of motor-vehicles consists of two 5-ton Sentinels, two 5-ton Fodens, two 3-ton Halleys, and two 12-cwt. Wolseleys. In addition the Firm employs a number of Overland works tractors hauling trailers, for transport of material in and around the Works.

Cimaphone Talking Pictures

THE CIMAPHONE SYSTEM OF TALKING PICTURES.
Cimaphone

This system, which is the invention of Mr. F. E. Mosley, produces screen exhibits accompanied by audible voice parts, an object which has been attracting the attention of inventors for many years past. The vital points to ensure success are as follows:-

(1) Synchronism of voice and action. (2) A machine as simple and as nearly "fool-proof "as possible. (3) A satisfactory method of multiplying the studies or subjects produced.

The inventor claims to have evolved such a machine, and invited the members and ladies to visit Isis workshop at 399 Parliamentary Road, Glasgow, where the principles employed were explained and the machine demonstrated.

Singer Manufacturing Co

SINGER MANUFACTURING CO., LTD., SEWING MACHINE WORKS, CLYDEBANK.
Singer Manufacturing Co

These Works were established in the year 1867 in Love Loan, Glasgow, but were found after two years to be too small to allow of the manufacture of a sufficient quantity of machines to meet the increasing demand. Premises were then taken in James Street, in the Bridgeton district of Glasgow, of sufficient capacity to turn out 600 machines per week, but after a further two years these also proved to be too small, and thus necessitated, besides continual additions, the acquiring of additional premises in Govan Street, Glasgow, and at Bonnybridge, a small country town about 18 miles from Glasgow. After a weekly average of 5,150 machines had been reached, it was decided to erect the present factory at Kilbowie, situated 9 miles west of Glasgow, on the northern bank of the River Clyde, on the basis of producing a weekly output of 10,000 machines. Even this figure was soon found to be inadequate to cope with the increasing demand, and extensions have been carried out from time to time, with the result that the factory is now equipped to produce 30,000 sewing machines per week. The freehold property now extends to 82.3 acres, and is interlaced with over 5 ½ miles of railway track, on which three shunting engines are constantly employed bringing in raw material and taking sewing machines out to the London and North Eastern Railway Siding.

The motive power is supplied by the Company's private generating plant, which is capable of developing 10,000 kw., the boilers being Babcock and. Wilcox, tubular type. Hydraulic power is also used to the extent of 240 h.p. for hoists, moulding machines, and various other manufacturing operations.

The main structure is fireproof, and consists of two parallel buildings, five stories high, 75 feet apart and 800 feet long; these are connected by three wings 50 feet wide. From the centre of this pile rises a large clock tower in the Scottish baronial style, 50 feet square, and 200 feet high, forming the most prominent artificial landmark in the Clyde valley. The clock itself is the largest in the British Isles, having a dial on each of the four sides of the tower, each dial being 26 feet in diameter, which is 3 feet larger in diameter than "Big Ben" at Westminster. The large hands are 12 feet 9 inches long and the small hands 8 feet 8 ½ inches long. The cabinet building, also an imposing structure, is of six stories and is 900 feet long.

Under normal conditions between about 14,000 people are employed, of whom about 5,000 travel daily from Glasgow by the London and North Eastern Railway. These are all engaged in the manufacture of sewing machines, of which there are about fifty different classes, subdivided into about three hundred varieties for meeting the special requirements of different trades and manufactures.

The employees are well catered for as regards recreation, the management of the Company having erected a splendidly equipped recreation hall, which, with the surrounding sports fields, tennis-courts, and bowling-green, provide excellent facilities for physical as well as intellectual recreation.

The canteen is also on an extensive scale and is laid out on the "self service" principle, and has been found to work extremely well.

The ambulance arrangements throughout the factory are well organized, while the main ambulance station is equipped with all the latest improvements to ensure attention and comfort for the sick or injured worker.

The fire protection arrangements are also excellent, and the brigade is composed of specially drilled workmen.

Scottish Iron and Steel Co. Northburn Steel Works

SCOTTISH IRON AND STEEL CO., LTD. NORTHBURN STEEL WORKS, COATBRIDGE.
Scottish Iron and Steel Co, Northburn Steel Works

The Company, besides being the largest manufacturers of wrought-iron in Great Britain, were, prior to 1920, large purchasers, of steel billets. During the War the Company erected Works to meet their own requirements in steel billets, with the result that the Northburn Steel Works were completed and put into operation in January, 1920.

The Works are situated to the east of the Company's Waverley Iron Works, Coatbridge, on a site extending to 25 acres, leaving ample ground for extensions. They comprise at present three 40-ton open-hearth basic furnaces, two soaking pits, and a 26-inch rolling mill, with togging and finishing stands producing billets, sheet bars and sections.

All the plant is electrically driven, power being generated by a mixed pressure turbo-generator of 1,800 kw. capacity supplied with exhaust steam from the adjacent Waverley Iron Works, the steam being conveyed by a pipe-line 1,260 feet long, this supply being supplemented by the live steam from the three waste-heat boilers attached to the melting furnaces.

The Rolling Mill is driven by a reversing motor designed to give a maximum of 6,380 b.h.p. at any speed between 60 and 170 r.p.m., the power to the motor being supplied from a fly-wheel equalizer set consisting of a direct-current generator, a 38-ton fly-wheel and a 930 b.h.p. induction motor, all coupled together on one base-plate. The incoming raw material, as well as the outgoing finished material is handled by magnet cranes, and all the siding accommodation is arranged without dead ends.

Weldless Chains Ltd, Coatbridge

WELDLESS CHAINS, LTD., GARTSHERRIE, COATBRIDGE.
Weldless Chains

These Works are situated at Gartsherrie Station, on the Caledonian Railway, and have been established for over twenty years. They are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of weldless steel chains by Strathern's process and are unique, as no similar plant exists in any other part of the world.

The weldless chains are rolled from mild steel bars of cruciform section in a specially designed rolling mill, which has four rolls 3 ft. 6 in. diameter. On the acting faces of these rolls is milled the form of chain link which it is desired to impress upon the cruciform bar. This mill weighs about 60 tons, and is capable of rolling weldless chains up to 1 ½ in. diameter and having a breaking strain of 100 tons. The weldless chains produced are approximately double the strength of the same size of ordinary welded iron chain, and a special feature of their construction is the thickening of the ends of the links where wear usually occurs.

The Firm also makes a variety of safety lifting appliances for handling plates, billets, casks, cases, etc. Several types of plate-lifting clamps are manufactured, having a capacity of from ½ ton to 100 tons. Several of these clamps are used by the United States Navy Department handling armour plates up to 13 in. thick and weighing 75 tons. The manufacture of weldless steel colliery couplings and safety shackles is an important branch of the business.

William Beardmore and Co, Mossend and Dalmuir

MESSRS. WILLIAM BEARDMORE AND CO., LTD., MOSSEND STEELWORKS AND DALMUIR SHIPYARD.
William Beardmore and Co

The parent works of this firm at Parkhead were more than fully occupied at the time when, early in the present century, the firm's Naval Construction Works were laid down at Dalmuir, so that it was necessary to provide another source of supply for the raw material required by the great shipyard. It was primarily for this purpose that the firm acquired, in 1905, the Mossend steelworks, which were at once reconstructed in order to bring them into line with modern requirements, and, with the new equipment, which was added during the War, are among the finest in the kingdom.

MOSSEND STEEL WORKS.

Melting Furnaces. - In the Melting Shop are sixteen 60-ton open-hearth furnaces arranged in a single row with the marshalling shop directly behind them. The furnaces are served by four 5-ton overhead Wellman Seaver and Head charging machines, and the marshalling shop by six 5-ton overhead electric cranes. From the tapping-pit run five 100-ton ladle cranes for dealing with molten metal. The whole plant consists of three parallel bays, each of 60 feet span with an average overall length of 1,200 feet.

The gas-producers, which are of the Morgan type, with George feed, are situated parallel with and immediately behind the marshalling bay. There are three groups, of twelve producers each, serving the furnaces.

Machine Shop. - Under the same roof as the Mossend Foundry is the Machine Shop, where with modern heavy machine-tools, stern-frames and propeller-brackets are machined with the least possible delay, ready for building into their ships. Great economy is gained by the labour and time-saving appliances installed. As many as five separate machines are frequently at work on one stern-frame at the same time in this foundry.

Steel Foundry. - Early in 1922 there was opened the new No. 4 Steel Foundry at Mossend designed especially for the production of cast-steel wheel centres and general steel-castings for locomotives as well as for the manufacture of alloy-steel castings. It consists of three bays covering an area of 35,000 square feet, devoted to melting and casting, dressing and annealing, and to machining the castings previous to dispatch. Modern moulding machines, drying and annealing furnaces, sand-blasting equipment and machine-tools, are installed, and the steel is smelted by the electric process.

The Section Mill. - The ingots for the Section Mill are cast on cars on which they are conveyed to the hydraulic stripper situated in the mill building, which runs parallel with the melting shop. The stripper is situated immediately behind the soaking-pit furnaces. There are four soaking-pit furnaces, each with seven holes, four ingots being taken per hole, and the gas for these is produced in six Morgan producers situated parallel with the furnaces. Ingots are handled by two Wellman Seaver and Head charging-cranes, which deliver them to an electric self-tipping ingot car, the car conveying the heated ingot to the mill. The rolling plant consists of a 36-inch cogging mill with steam hydraulic guillotine and a section mill with three parallel stands of rolls 32 inches in diameter, first roughing, second roughing, and finishing.

The engines for these mills are horizontal steam-engines coupled direct to the mill, one set driving the cogging mill, one the first and second roughing sets, and one the finishing set. These engines are three-cylinder engines, 40 inches diameter by 54 inches stroke, made by Markham and Co., Ltd., Chesterfield; steam-pressure 160 lb., with 100° superheat, cut-off at 70 per cent of stroke, and are fitted with Joy's valve-gear, the steam for them being generated in the high-pressure Babcock and Wilcox boilers, fitted with underfeed stokers, superheaters, and economisers. Exhaust steam from these engines is used to generate electric power, the steam being conveyed to the three heat accumulators and then utilized in driving one 2,000-kw. and two 1,000-kw. mixed-pressure turbo-geared generator sets.

There are two hot saws; the first is placed 250 feet from the rolls of the finishing mill, and the outer saw 400 feet. The bars are run on live rollers to the cooling beds, which are two in number, on to which they are switched by a special skid gear. From the cooling-beds the bars are run on live rollers to the stocking-bays, which are seven in number and are laid out on the American system. Each bay is 60 feet in span and each has one 5-ton electric overhead crane. The loading railways, of which there are three, enter at the extreme end of the stocking bays. The arrangement of these stocking bays and loading railways is of special interest, as the facilities offered enable the firm to roll and hold stocks for any reasonable time against unexpected difficulties in arranging freights.

This mill is capable of producing upwards of 4,000 tons per week of finished material. The sections produced embrace all known in the trade. The smaller sizes of angles, 3 inches by 3 inches, and under, and corresponding sections, are produced in a three-high 16-inch mill driven by electric motor situated in the old plant.

Rail Manufacture. - Last year further important additions were completed in the Section Mills, when plant was installed for the finishing of bull-head and flat bottom steel rails, 50 lb. and upward per yard, in open hearth, acid or basic steel. Large orders have already been completed for the principal railway companies.

The Plate Mill. - The ingots for the Plate Mill are manufactured in the melting shop, already described, from which they are conveyed in bogies to the soaking-pits for the cogging mill, which is situated behind the plate mill. There are three soaking-pits for the cogging mill, which are served by an overhead travelling-crane. The cogging mill is by Lamberton and Co., having rolls 40 inches in diameter, and is driven by a two-cylinder horizontal engine - the cylinder diameters being 45 inches by 5 feet stroke.

The slabs are cut to weight for required plates by a guillotine shear, driven by a vertical steam-engine. The steam required for these services, as also for the general hydraulic service of the Mills, is supplied by a battery of ten Babcock and Wilcox boilers. From the guillotine shears the slabs are run up a rack, from which they are transferred to re-heating furnaces by a Wellman overhead type slab-charger. The same machine withdraws the heated slabs and conveys them to a rack connected with the tables and the three-high rolling mill. This mill has two rolls, 29 inches diameter, with a middle roll, 21 inches diameter, the length of the roll barrel being 92 ½ inches.

The lifting and lowering tables are hydraulically balanced and electrically operated. The power is supplied from a 1,500 kw. direct-current motor, by which suitable variations in speed can be obtained according to the nature of the specification rolled.

A mangle is placed immediately clear of the mill tables and every plate rolled has to pass through this before it can reach the plate-cooling beds, thus ensuring an output of flat workable plates. After passing through the mangle the plates are conveyed by live-roller racks to the cooling bed, to which they are transferred by means of tumbling-gear, which turns the plate over, thus exposing the under surface for inspection during marking oil.

The plates are skidded on rails over the cooling-bed, marked off, and transferred to another live-roller rack which conveys them to the cropping shears. Side cutting and splitting is accomplished between two other sets of shears at which the plates are handled on castors by the shearers. The sheared plates are then placed upon a live roller rack which conveys them over a weighing-machine to the stacking and loading banks. Altogether the output of Mossend Plate and Section Mills is approximately about 8,000 tons of plates, and 16,000 tons of sections, rails, joists, and sheet-bars per month.

NAVAL CONSTRUCTION WORKS, DALMUIR

The Beardmore Naval Construction Works at Dalmuir, the largest on the Clyde, are concerned with the construction of ships, their engines and boilers, and all the numerous engineering operations that lead eventually to the completed vessel. They were laid down in 1904, shortly after the firm had purchased the famous shipbuilding business of Robert Napier and Sons, because the older Napier establishments had proved inadequate to meet modern requirements. Dalmuir is about 8 miles nearer the sea than the City of Glasgow, and the Beardmore Shipyard and Engineering Works now covers a total area of over 100 acres with a river frontage of more than mile. The shipyard is divided into three sections: - the Mid Yard, in which are the main shipbuilding berths; the East Yard, a new extension laid down in 1920 on the Glasgow side of the main works; and the West Yard, in which are the Fitting-Out Basin and the two covered berths.

Mid Yard. - This contains the main shipbuilding berths, which are arranged to take vessels up to 1,000 feet in length and over 100 feet in beam. Amongst the many shops attached to a yard of this kind mention may be made of the following: - the Mechanics' Shop, where all ship work is finished, turning lathes, boring machines, etc., are installed. The brass-finishing shop, in the south gallery, where all side-lights, valves, engraving, etc., are done. The Blacksmiths' Shop, where all heavy fittings are forged ready to be transferred to the mechanics' shop for finishing. Acetylene burning plant is installed for cutting bands, etc., from the solid, and all hammers are driven by compressed air. In the angle-iron smithy mall section material is bent and welded to shape for the platers; there is also a scarfing and planing machine with heavy rolls for straightening plates up to 2 inches thick, and hydraulic press and drilling machines for high-tensile steel. Eastwards from this is the platers' shed, equipped with multiple punch and ordinary punches, shears, rolls, etc., for ship-plates, also a flanging machine. In the Outer Bay are hydraulic riveting machines to allow of frames, girders, etc., being riveted before erection on the ship. The Mould Loft, where vessels are laid down, formed, and templates made. The Joiners' Shop, where all joiner and cabinet work is made and polished. The Sheet-Iron Shop, where all light steel material is worked, such as vent-cowls, pipes, and internal fittings such as shelves, bins, etc. The Plumbers' Shop: here piping for services is all made and fitted ready for the ship; also buoyancy tanks for lifeboats, etc. The Pattern Shop, the Rigging Shop (where all gear and rigging for ships is made) and the Boat Shed, where all the lifeboats are made complete, complete the equipment of the main yard.

East Yard. - The East Yard covers some 12 acres and is self-contained and equipped for every stage of shipbuilding up to the fitting-out stage, which is done in the Fitting-Out Basin (referred to later). There are four berths, two of 500 feet in length, one of 550 feet, and one of 400 feet, with a width of about 70 feet each. Four electrically-driven Toplis cantilever cranes are so arranged that one spans both bows in the berths on either side of it, the other, both sterns, the circling span of each crane being 105 feet. The East Yard has its own Power House, the equipment of which includes two electrically-driven air-compressors supplying air-pressure for the pneumatic tools in the yard.

West Yard. - The West Yard includes the Fitting-Out Dock, 900 feet long by 360 feet wide, with a water area of 7 ½ acres and a depth of 30 feet at low water. A feature of this basin is the 200-ton crane for placing machinery, gun-mountings, etc., on ships. The crane is operated entirely by electricity, controlled from a central switchboard room on the platform at the top, 150 feet above ground- level. The motor for rotating the standard crane and load is of 20 h.p. placed on the ground-level.

Marine Engineering Works. - The Engineering Works at Dalmuir are assembled under a single roof, the total area of the five bays being nearly 5 ½ acres. All of the bays are 720 feet long and the width collectively is 330 feet. The bays extend from north to south; the northern part is utilized for boiler-construction, and the southern part is arranged for the manufacture of engines. All the materials for engines and boilers, such as castings, forgings, and boiler-plates, enter on a railway track crossing the centre of the shops. The engine material is delivered from wagons to the south side of this line, and the boiler material to the north side.

Organization of the Works. - To provide the large amount of power necessary for the working of the numerous machines in the Dalmuir establishment and for the lighting of the ships, a huge central electrical power station has been installed which is driven by gas-engines (the gas being generated on the spot), and this, in turn, generates electricity for the motors throughout the works, and drives air-compressors to provide compressed air where used.

The furnaces in the Ship-Platers' Shed and Boiler Works are also fired with gas from the gas-producers which supply the engines in the power-station. The whole works have a complete system of railways, locomotives and travelling cranes, and the most up-to-date auxiliary tools have been provided, such as pneumatic plant, electro and acetylene welding and cutting, along with the numerous small tools necessary for the many requirements of a first-class shipbuilding establishment.

Spacious office accommodation has been provided for housing the large technical and expert drawing office staff; the designing departments, and the commercial and tracing departments.

Manufacture of Locomotives. - During the War a gun-mounting branch shop was equipped at Dalmuir, principally for dealing with 18-pounders and 6-inch howitzer carriages, and a large number of these equipments, in addition to many of other sizes, were completed and handed to the War Office. On and prior to the conclusion of the War, arrangements were made for converting the gun mounting into a locomotive manufacturing shop, and by 1920 the conversion of the works was complete in every respect, contracts being undertaken for four or five of the principal home and colonial railway companies. Some four separate contracts for locomotives are being carried out in this establishment at the present moment.

Royal Scottish Museum

THE ROYAL SCOTTISH MUSEUM, TECHNOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT, EDINBURGH.
Royal Scottish Museum

The Royal Scottish Museum, which was founded in 1854, unider the name of the Industrial Museum of Scotland, is situated in Chambers Street, Edinburgh, and is under the control of the Scottish Education Department. In 1901 the collections dealing with Engineering, Mining, Metallurgy, and cognate subjects were formed into a separate department - the Technological Department - that they might be more fully developed, especially with the view of affording facilities to students of these subjects.

The collections are arranged in two large halls on the ground floor of the Museum, and the specimens may be said to illustrate fairly satisfactorily the main lines along which development has taken place in these industries.

Many of the models are of great historical interest, while some of the models of modern machinery have been made in the small workshop attached to the museum. The following notes refer to the more important exhibits. Amongst the steam-engines are the Wylam Dilly locomotive built in 1813, a Watt engine with sun-and-planet motion, and a quarter-sized model of a 1,000-h.p. triple-expansion engine, made in the workshops of the museum from drawings kindly supplied by Messrs. W. H. Allen, Sons and Co., Ltd., Bedford. A Parsons turbo-generator No. 261, built in the year 1888, is sectioned and shown in motion. A working model of a Diesel engine has recently been added to the collection of gas and oil engines. Through the kindness of Scottish makers, who have presented models, boilers are well represented by the Babcock, Stirling, Penman, and Cochrane types.

Aeronautics is illustrated by the glider on which Pilcher was killed in 1889 (sic), a number of model gliders, aeroplanes, and balloons, and a small collection of aeroplane engines. A representative collection of electric lamps includes examples of original Lane-Fox, Edison, and Swan lamps, and the first gas-filled lamp made in Britain (by the British Thomson Houston Co. in 1913).

The collection of models of Lighthouses and lighthouse apparatus is, mainly owing to the kindness of the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses, the finest in the world; it contains specimens of every type of optical arrangement from the wooden paraboloid, lined with pieces of mirror, to the latest arrangements of optical glass, the first mineral oil burner, and a specially interesting series of models of the various lighthouses which have stood on the Eddystone Rock, made by John Smeaton himself, before he built his lighthouse there in the year 1759.

The Mining Collection illustrates mainly Scottish practice in coal mining. Three large glass models of the Mid Lothian and the Fife coalfields, and the Lothian shale-field give an instructive representation of these economically important areas. The important and peculiarly Scottish industry of shale mining and distillation is well represented by specimens of the original products made by Sir James Young, the founder of the industry, many models of the plant used, and specimens of modern manufacture presented by Scottish Oils, Ltd., Glasgow. Apparatus for rescue work in mines is very completely represented by a collection of historical and modern apparatus.

The Metallurgical exhibits deal mainly with the manufacture of iron and steel in Scotland, and consist of models of furnaces and other plant, specimens of the different products, etc. Two interesting items are a pig of iron made in Strathspey in 1729, which has the date cast on it, and a crucible-steel locomotive tyre made by Messrs. Cammell in 1876.

Scotts' Shipbuilding and Engineering, Greenock

SCOTTS' SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING CO., LTD., GREENOCK.
Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Co

The maintenance of an industry for over two hundred years by one family in direct line of succession, and in one locality, is almost unique. Such a record has been established by the Scotts at Greenock. The present chairman of the Company is Robert Lyons Scott, with James Brown, C.B.E., as managing director.

The Works cover an area of 45 acres. Shipbuilding is carried on in two yards, the Cartsburn Dockyard, and the Cartsdyke Yard, which together are capable of dealing with the construction of an aggregate of 70,000 to 80,000 tons at one time. The Engine Works are laid out and equipped to deal with machinery covering an excess over the corresponding horse-power to allow for subcontracts. With departments for producing all accessories of ships and their machinery, the establishment as a whole gives employment to 6,000 workmen.

The Iron Workers' Departments in the shipyards have been recently extended and reorganized. There are two plate furnaces suitable for heating shell-plates of the largest size, and two double- ended frame furnaces capable of dealing with frames up to 60 feet in length. These furnaces, with the addition of the pipe-bending hearths in the plumber shops and the smiths' hearths in the angle iron smithy, are oil-fired, being fitted with the latest improved type of gravity burners. All the tools are driven electrically or by hydraulic power.

A four-story building accommodates practically all the wood-finishing departments. Each floor has an area of 12,500 square feet. The ground and first floors are given up to the joiners and cabinet makers with their numerous electrically-driven machine tools, the top floor is utilized for drawing offices and polishing shop, and the moulding loft monopolizes the third floor. Adjacent to the Cartsdyke Shipyard there is a well-equipped sawmill, having four vertical saw frames and extensive yards for the drying of timber.

The Ship-building Berths range in length up to 700 feet, but slight alterations would enable the firm to build vessels of still greater size. The berths are well equipped with the most modern appliances. Mention may be made of the electrically-operated hammer-head cranes of specially substantial design capable of dealing with 10-ton loads at a radius of 110 feet; also of the steel uprights and the concrete keel-blocks which form part of the installation.

The launching ground is probably the finest on the river, the channel here being wide and of great depth. Ordinary merchant vessels with full lines are launched without any check chains; the fine ended ships—mail steamers and cruisers—are, as a precautionary measure, checked by drags in the usual way. After being launched the ships are engined and completed in all respects in the Fitting Out Wet Basin, which opens directly into the channel of the River Clyde, and is served by an electrical crane of 120 tons capacity. There is sufficient depth of water to keep the largest of ships afloat at all states of the tide. Adjoining the fitting out basin is the Graving Dock, which has a length of 360 feet.

In addition to supplying propelling machinery for all vessels launched by the firm, sub-contracts are undertaken, as already referred to, for the machinery of merchant ships being constructed by other shipbuilders, and of naval ships being built at Government dockyards.

The Main Engine Shop has a width of 60 feet, and with the adjoining bay accommodates some of the finest engineering tools. The larger machines have independent electric motors, and some are fitted with electrical reversing gear and push-button control. This shop is traversed by five overhead electric cranes ranging up to 50 tons lifting capacity. The turbine shop is completely fitted out for the construction of turbines of the largest size, and is served by four overhead electric cranes, from 110 tons to 25 tons capacity.

In the Brass Foundry there are installed rapid melting air furnaces burning coal under forced draught, while forced combustion hot-air furnaces are used as core drying stoves. There is also a brass recovery mill for recovering brass from foundry sweepings. In the Forge and Smith Shop, the forge hammers are worked by compressed air at a pressure of 100 lb. per square inch supplied by a motor-driven air-compressor. The bolt and nut-making hammers are of twin compound pneumatic type. There is a well-equipped Tool-Making Shop 400 feet in length by 25 feet span with the most up-to-date machinery. Optical and electrical pyrometers are employed in this department, by means of which the temperatures required for annealing and hardening are readily controlled.

The Light Boiler Shop, Copper Shop, Galvanizing Shop, and Sheet Iron Shop are all under one roof, covering a total area of over 6,000 square yards. In each of these departments electric welding is carried on. The Main Boiler Shop has a total area of 7,000 square yards, and the installation of machines includes special plant for the construction of water-tube boilers.

Scotts' Company were early interested in the development of the internal-combustion engine, which owes much to the experimental work done by them in conjunction with other firms, particularly in connexion with the building of such machinery for submarines. Their work may be said to have culminated in the design and development of the Scott-Still marine oil-engine, which marks one of the most important advances of recent years in marine propulsion. A well-equipped shop, completed a few years ago, is devoted to the later stages of oil-engine construction, and a separate department is set apart for the carrying out of oil-engine tests.

Both the Shipyards and the Engine Works are arranged to suit 250 volts continuous electric current. There are three electric substations, one in each shipyard and one in the engine works, each fitted up with electric transformers and rotary converters. High-tension alternating current at 3,300 volts is supplied from the main power station of the Greenock Corporation Electricity Department to the transformers, which provide 400-volt alternating current, and by means of the rotary converters this is converted to 250 volts direct current for use throughout the establishment. There is also installed a 440-volt alternating current system of wiring in each shipyard.

One set of hydraulic power plant is installed in each Shipyard and one set in Engine Works. Each set of hydraulic pumps is capable of delivering 100 gallons of water per minute at a pressure of 1,000 lb. per square inch. There are nine independent sets of air-compressing plant, seven of these being in the shipyards and two in the engine works. The air-compressors are of the two-stage type, delivering free air at a pressure of 100 lb. per square inch. One of the compressors has a capacity of 3,000 cubic feet per minute.

The Firm has carried out many contracts for the Admiralty over a long period, and during the War built thirty vessels of types varying from fast cruisers to submarines.

John Lang and Sons, Johnstone

MESSRS. JOHN LANG AND SONS, LTD., JOHNSTONE.
John Lang and Sons

These Works are situated at Johnstone, approximately 10 miles west of Glasgow, and a good service of trains runs daily from St. Enoch's Railway Station. This firm are members of the Associated British Machine Tool Makers, Ltd., and specialize in the manufacture of lathes and turning shop accessories.

The Works employ in normal times 1,000 men, and occupy an area of about 15 acres, a large proportion of this being under roof. The buildings include a very modern Foundry, Pattern Shop, Engineering Works and Showroom, and the Works are equipped with the most modern plant. The transport facilities provided for the moving of the various parts from place to place are also excellent.

Glenfield and Kennedy, Kilmarnock

MESSRS. GLENFIELD AND KENNEDY, LTD., HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS, KILMARNOCK.
Glenfield and Kennedy
See p.804 for diagram of layout of works

The firm of Glenfield and Kennedy, Ltd., was formed by the amalgamation in 1899 of the Glenfield Co., Ltd., and Kennedy's Patent Water Meter Co. The latter firm was established in 1852 and the former in 1865. Both Works adjoined each other, and in 1870 the combined area was about 11 acres and the number of workmen between eighty and ninety. At the present day the works cover about 26 acres and the normal number of employees is close on 2,000.

The Works (page 804) are situated at Kilmarnock (24 miles south of Glasgow), on the main line of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway between Glasgow and London, and are connected thereto by a private siding. Transport facilities between the various sections of the Works are provided by about 3 miles of railway lines. The present Chairman of the Company is Mr. David Strathie, C.A., Glasgow, and the joint Managing Directors are Mr. E. Bruce Ball, M.I.Mech.E., and Mr. Robert Kennedy, B.Sc.

The principal manufactures of the Company consist of water meters, valves for water, steam or oil, hydrants, wells, sandwashers, and all classes of waterworks fittings; pumping machinery; hydraulic machinery; sluice gates of the improved " Stoney " type; weir shutters, etc., for irrigation and other purposes "Johnson-Boving" control valves for use in hydro-electric pipe lines, dams, etc.

In addition to the various Engineering Shops, the works include a workmen's canteen and welfare club, and gymnasium.

Pattern Shop. - Floor area fully 2,000 feet; 40-h.p. motor driving line shafting; contains, among others, mechanical wood-working machines, sand-papering machine, 3-ton hydraulic crane.

Iron Foundries: Heavy Foundry. - This is divided into three bays, and is 250 feet long, with a width of 150 feet, and has a height in the largest bay of 67 feet. It is served by four cupolas capable of melting collectively 30 tons per hour. There are twelve core stoves, one of them with two furnaces. The shop is served by three electric overhead travelling cranes of 15, 30, and 60 tons capacity respectively, and, in addition, the floor is commanded by twenty-one fixed hydraulic cranes of various capacities.

One of the bays contains a casting pit 30 feet long by 12 feet wide by 30 feet deep for the casting of large cylinders, rams, etc., in a vertical position. Cylinders and rams up to 40 feet long are regularly cast.

Light Foundry. - This is divided into four bays, and is 250 feet long, with a width of 170 feet, and a height in the highest bay of 41 feet. It is fully equipped with fourteen up-to-date power-driven moulding machines of various types, together with a "Beardsley and Piper" sand-throwing machine, and is served by one 15-ton electric overhead travelling crane (in the largest bay), and eighteen fixed hydraulic cranes varying in capacity from 3 tons downwards. The capacity of the combined Heavy and Light Iron Foundries is between 14,000 and 15,000 tons of castings per annum.

Dressing Shop. - This is a large building of the most modern type (separate from the Foundry), and equipped with a 20-ton electric overhead crane, rotary sand-blast plant, rumblers, pneumatic grinder, and chipping hammers. Engineering Shop: Light Machine and Fitting Shops. - This building is divided into eight bays and covers an area of 46,000 square feet. It is laid out and specially equipped with the latest types of machine-tools for the speedy and economical production of all classes of small-sized valves and other waterworks fittings. The plant for the testing of valves, etc., comprises nine machines of various sizes. There are also testing-machines installed for the testing of iron and steel bars.

Heavy Machine and Fitting Shops. - This building is divided into six bays and covers an area of 49,700 square feet.

No. 1 Bay is a Fitting Shop for lighter work, and in it are installed four 2-ton and three 3-ton cranes.

No. 2 Bay is the erecting Shop for the heavier work, and is served by two 30-ton electric overhead travelling-cranes. It contains a large testing-machine for the testing of cylinders, rams, etc., and this machine will stand a load of 390 tons on one pair of rods, and 1,170 tons load on six rods.

No. 3 Bay is a Machine Shop, and contains, among other tools, a 7 feet by 6 feet by 26 feet "Hilo" planing machine with "Lancashire Stirk" electric equipment. All the larger machines in the shape of horizontal and radial drills, planers, etc., have independent motor drive, and have each their own crane.

No. 4 Bay is also a Machine Shop; and No. 5 Bay is a Machine Shop for the lighter work, It contains about twenty machines of varying types and sizes.

No. 6 Bay contains a number of lathes for lighter work, and, like the others, is driven by electric current. Directly across from the above shop is another large Fitting and Machine Shop, served by a 20-ton electric overhead travelling-crane and two 5-ton hydraulic wall cranes. This shop contains a 5 ft. x 5 ft. x 30 ft. planing machine with "Lancashire Stirk" equipment and a lathe capable of taking in work 25 feet diameter by 4 feet long, 10 feet diameter by 8 feet 6 inches long and 8 feet by 43 feet long. It is driven by a 60-h.p. motor.

Brass Finishing and Instrument Shop (Nos. 1, 2 and 3). - In these shops are manufactured brass taps and valves of all kinds, " Homeyard " and other hydraulic control valves, pressure-gauges, recording instruments, etc.

Brass Forge. - This adjoins the Light Machine Shop, and in it are made all the smaller sizes of forged-bronze screws for sluice-valves, etc. It contains a 3-cwt. electrically-driven pneumatic hammer, an oil-burning heating furnace, etc.

Tool Room. - This is fully equipped with the latest plant for the manufacture of all the jigs, tools, etc., necessary for rapid and economical production of the Company's specialities.

Smithy. - This shop contains about thirty hearths with seven electrically-driven pneumatic-hammers. There is also an oil-burning forge furnace for the manufacture of the larger forgings.

Power-House. - The electric current used throughout the works is all obtained from the electricity supply of the Kilmarnock Corporation. The Power-House contains one 500-kw. motor generator and one 500-kw. and one 300-kw. transformers, and in connexion with the hydraulic power supply there are two 175-h.p. motors driving 4 ¾ inches by 18 inches horizontal three-throw pump. The hydraulic pressure is maintained at 750 lb. per square inch by hydraulic accumulator.

Brass Foundry. - This contains eighteen pit fire furnaces and two Morgan crucible furnaces, the total capacity being about 12 tons of castings per week.

Water-Meter Department. - In these shops are manufactured the Kennedy meters for water (cold or hot) and oil, as also the "Glenfield" rotary or inferential meters, with either wet dial or dry dial.

Centrifugal Castings, Ltd - The Works of this subsidiary company are built on land leased from Glenfield and Kennedy, Ltd. The Company was formed fully two years ago for the purpose of taking up and developing certain patents for the manufacture of castings by the centrifugally cast process. The plant has been specially designed for this work, and the Company has already opened up a considerable connexion at home and abroad for the supply of cylindrical iron castings such as piston-ring drums, cylinder-liners, valve-liners, sleeves, piston-heads, etc. The castings produced by this process are extremely close-grained and of high tensile strength.

British Pitometer Co., Ltd. - This is another subsidiary company formed to develop the use and sale of the instruments required in connexion with water waste investigations, trunk main surveys, pump slip and meter tests. All the instruments, Venturi tubes, etc., supplied by the Company are manufactured by Messrs. Glenfield and Kennedy.

Andrew Barclay, Sons and Co, Kilmarnock

MESSRS. ANDREW BARCLAY, SONS AND CO., LTD., CALEDONIA WORKS, KILMARNOCK
Andrew Barclay, Sons and Co

The business was founded by the late Andrew Barclay eighty-two years ago, and carried on by him for a long time as a private concern. The present company was formed in 1890. The enclosed ground, which extends to between 7 and 8 acres, is situated on both sides of West Langland's Street, about three minutes' walk from the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. The principal shops are on the south side, and include Machine Shop, two Erecting Shops, and the Iron Finishing Department, with heavy overhead electric cranes, Brass Finishing Department, Smithy, large finished Goods' Store, General Store and Offices, all lofty buildings, well lighted and heated. The machinery is electrically driven, the power being supplied by the Kilmarnock Corporation. On the north side of West Langland's Street are situated the Pattern Shop, Paint Shop, Iron Foundry, Brass Foundry, Boiler Shop, and Tank Shop. The works have been recently extended, and there is room for further extensions.

The main products of Caledonia Works are locomotives and colliery plant, especially winding engines. Locomotives for industrial purposes form a large proportion of the Works output, particularly the Company's standardized types, for which very complete manufacturing arrangements have been made.. The "Caledonia" fireless locomotive was developed successfully previously to 1914, and, during the War, was supplied in large numbers to the Admiralty, Ministry of Munitions, the French Government, etc., for the handling of explosives and other dangerous operations. There is a continuing demand for this class of locomotive wherever safety from fire and cleanliness is of paramount importance. Other types of locomotives manufactured include articulated locomotives, tandem locomotives, and crane locomotives.

The other main branch of the business is the manufacture of all classes of winding engines, up to the largest sizes with the most modern equipment of valves and valve-gear and drums of special design, as well as other items of colliery plant.

William Baird and Co, collieries and coke ovens

MESSRS. WILLIAM BAIRD AND CO., LTD., KILSYTH COLLIERIES AND COKE OVENS.
William Baird and Co

These Collieries and Ovens are situated about 12 miles east of Glasgow. The seams worked are all in the Lower Carboniferous series. The Collieries and Ovens are mostly all linked up by a private railway system, having outlets at various points to the London and North Eastern Railway. Until recently this group had isolated direct-current generating plants. To deal with the increasing and probable future demand for electric power, it was decided to make use of the exhaust steam and waste heat available for generating purposes, and link the various undertakings up with an overhead high-tension ring main at 3,300 volts - 50 cycles, and capable of being increased to 6,600 volts, should this be required. This has been extended, so far, to seven out of ten Collieries, and is approximately 11 miles long.

Generating stations have been laid down at three of these Works for the purpose of feeding power into the line at various points. When the future demands for electric power are met, it is estimated that 90 per cent of this will be directly obtainable from waste heat and exhaust steam.

Dumbreck Colliery and Coke Ovens. - There are three shafts sunk here, Nos. 1 and 2 being sunk to the Coking Coal 440 yards deep, and No. 3 to the Black-Band Ironstone 270 yards deep. No. 1 Winding Engine has cylinders 22 inches diameter by 60-inch stroke, with drums 12 feet 6 inches diameter. No. 2 Winding Engine has cylinders 22 inches diameter by 60-inch stroke, with drum 12 feet and 14 feet 9 inches diameter.

No. 3 Winding Engine has cylinders 18 ½ inches by 56 inches, and drum 10 feet diameter. This shaft is now only used for the raising and lowering of men and pit supplies. The cages are double-decked, taking two tubs, with an average weight of 18 cwt. of coal per wind.

The workings are very extensive and are ventilated by means of a reversible "Capell" fan, 120 inches diameter by 81 inches wide, running at 285 r.p.m., and capable of producing 200,000 cubic feet of air at 6-inch water gauge. This is driven through a rope drive by a coupled engine having cylinders 21 inches by 36 inches.

Pumping is done in the upper levels by a steam pumping-engine on surface through bell-cranks, etc., and in the lower levels by high-lift turbine and three-throw pumps.

All the small coal at this and other collieries in the district is sent to the washery, situated close by, for coking purposes.

The Coke-Oven and By-Product Plant in operation consists of:- 1. Coal washer, capable of washing 100 tons of dross per hour. 2. One hundred and fifty Semet-Solvay coke ovens, carbonizing approximately 4-4 ½ ton charges of washed crushed dross, the coking period being twenty-four hours. 3. Batteries of Lancashire boilers heated by the products of combustion from the coke-oven heating flues, and producing, when in full operation, sufficient steam to supply all the plant requirements. 4. By-product recovery plant, consisting of hydraulic mains, atmospheric condensers, exhausters, washers and scrubbers, for the recovery of ammonia and benzol respectively. 5. (a) Plant for the production of sulphate and concentrated ammonia from the crude ammonia liquor. (b) Plant for the production of refined benzol for motor use, pure benzol, pure toluol, and solvent naphtha. (c) Plant for the distillation of the raw tar producing crude naphtha (containing benzol, etc.), creosote oil (light), containing carbolic and cresylic acids and naphthaline, creosote oil (heavy), for creosoting or fuel purposes, and pitch. 6. Electric power is generated in mixed pressure D.C. turbo-generators of 500 and 300 kw. capacity, using mainly exhaust steam from the coal washery engine, and the colliery fan engine.

Provision is made by the use of a 200 kw. motor generator for supplying three-phase A.C. current at 3,300 volts to the overhead ring main, or conversely, in case of necessity, obtaining power from the ring main, and supplying D.C. power to the coke ovens and colliery.

Haugh Generating Station. - This contains one Metropolitan-Vickers 1,000 kw. mixed pressure turbine and alternator, with "Bullock" jet-condenser and spray pond. Power is obtained from exhaust steam from the colliery, and high-pressure steam generated by waste heat from the coke-ovens. This unit will be able to take advantage of 1,000 kw. of power in the shape of steam raised from waste heat alone for seventeen hours per day, allowing seven hours for coal winding shift.

Gartshore No. 12 Colliery. - This is a new sinking, and the chief point of interest is a Metropolitan-Vickers A.C. direct geared winder capable of winding 400 tons of coal per seven-hour shift, from a depth of 330 yards. The motor has a R.M.S. rating of 220 h.p., having a peak capacity of 380 h.p. It is fitted with electrical overspeed device and overwind trip device, centrifugal overspeed trip device, and "no volt" trip.

Colville's Dalzell works

MESSRS. DAVID COLVILLE AND SONS, LTD., DALZELL STEEL AND IRON WORKS.
David Colville and Sons

These Works are situated on the main line of the London Midland and Scottish Railway Company, and in the Burgh of Motherwell and Wishaw. They owe their inception to the late Mr. David Colville, Senr., who, in 1871, came from Coatbridge and built what is now the Forge and Iron Works. With the advent of open-hearth steel the firm decided to manufacture the then new material, and in 1880 a start was made with five small furnaces, a slabbing-hammer and a plate-mill with the necessary auxiliary plant. The new venture proved a complete success and "Dalzell Steel" became known everywhere.

To meet the growing demand, new furnaces have been erected and new mills installed from time to time, till now there are four melting shops containing a total of thirty-two open-hearth furnaces with the necessary gas-producers, all of the water-bottom type, two slab cogging mills, three plate mills, one merchant mill, two guide mills and two large bar mills, with the necessary shearing and other auxiliary plant.

The capacity of the four Melting Shops, when all were in operation, was about 11,000 tons per week, whilst the plate mills are able to produce 4,500 tons of sheared plates per week, and the section mills 4,250 tons of sections for shipbuilding and structural purposes.

Steel plates can be rolled up to 158 inches width and a superficial area of 300 square feet. Steel blooms or slabs can be rolled up to a maximum length of 50 feet, a maximum width of 66 inches, a maximum thickness of 24 inches, and a maximum weight of 40 tons. In the section mills all the standard sizes of steel sections used in ship or bridge building and general engineering are rolled. When operating at full capacity the Works find employment for about 5,500 men.

For the social welfare of the men benefit societies and welfare schemes, both for the adult and juvenile employees, exist, whilst an estate has recently been given to the workmen by the sons of the late Messrs. John, Archibald and David Colville, sons of the founder, which has been laid out as a park, with golf course, tennis courts and bowling green. "Colville's Magazine," which enjoys a high reputation as a works' journal, is principally contributed to by workmen and staff.

Hurst, Nelson and Co

MESSRS. HURST, NELSON AND CO., LTD., GLASGOW ROLLING STOCK AND PLANT WORKS, MOTHERWELL.
Hurst, Nelson and Co

The Works were established during 1880 upon the present site for the manufacture of railway wagons and wheels. Subsequently the buildings and plant were extended and enlarged to undertake the manufacture of railway carriages and tramcars. The site extends to 15 acres, and is now fully occupied.

Templet Shop and Tool Store. - This shop adjoins the main office and is in two floors. The upper floor is occupied for templet making and setting out frame sections, and is equipped with necessary machines. The lower floor is occupied as jig shop and tool store, and is equipped with a few light machines.

Underframe Shop. - The shop is about 500 feet long by 162 feet wide in three bays. It is roughly bisected by a railway siding. One part of the shop is equipped with tools for the preparation of parts, the other being reserved for erection and riveting up. Each bay is served by two overhead 5-ton electric cranes. The machine end is equipped with drills, punch and shears, hydraulic presses, planing machines, and other plating shop tools. There is also an acetylene welding and electric welding plant and an angle-bar smithy. The lower, or erecting part, is equipped with hydraulic and compressed air-mains with connexions at most of the shop columns.

Machine Shop, Fitting Shop, Wheel Store, and Packing Shop. - This shop is about 540 feet long and 120 feet wide. It is served by electric overhead cranes, and the general direction of the work is from the machines to the fitting shop and wheel store and packing shop, where such goods as are not wanted in other departments are packed for shipment. The first bay from the underframe shop is equipped with machines for general work such as engine and other lathes, planers, shapers, millers, and other modern tools. The next two bays are equipped with machines for wheel-making. In the Fitting Shop is an erection pit for the erection complete and load- testing of sample wagons. Adjoining is a short bay occupied by the electricians and millwrights, where are situated the switchboard air-compressors, hydraulic accumulators and boilers. Electric current is D.C. supply, and is purchased from the Motherwell Corporation.

Smith Shop. - Forge. - Beyond the wheel machine shop and extending to the boundary is situated the Smith Shop and Forge and iron store yard. The first bay is occupied by the wheel-bossing plant, and includes spoke-bending machines, wheel-bossing press, and two glutting presses, the latter having rotary heating fires. Beyond is the Forge and Smith Shop, equipped with the usual drop-stamps, steam-hammers, etc. There is adjoining a small machine shop mainly for cutting up stock for the Smith Shop and preparation of washer plate bars for standard railway wagons.

Foundry. - The foundry is equipped with 3-ton electric overhead crane and runway, and the cupola is of drop-bottom pattern with direct connected motor blowing-fan and electric hoist to cupola platform. There is also a brass foundry and white metal foundry and small machine shop for machining standard wagon bearings.

Woodworking. - The first shop is the Pattern Shop, and is 180 feet by 40 feet. It is equipped with a few light tools for breaking down planks, Attention is drawn to the wood grinder, Wall rests and foundations have been put in to carry a second floor whenever the stock of patterns necessitates same. The next shop is the carriage Shop Sawmill. It is 180 feet by 100 feet, with a gallery round two sides, and is fully equipped with modern machinery, designed for turning out the highest class of finished work. The machines are individually driven, the saws being direct connected to electric motors. Chip collecting plant is fitted which normally collects about 90 per cent of the sawdust and chips, and deposits them convenient to a boiler furnace arranged to burn them for steam raising. The gallery is used for the making up of small framed parts, and communicates direct to the polishing shop.

Polishing Shop and Panel Store. - This shop is in two floors, each 90 feet by 60 feet, and is situated immediately in front of the carriage sawmill. The lower floor is used as a fine timber store, and has a small finish drying stove. The upper floor is used as gluing and polishing shop.

Carriage Shop and Paint Shop. - These shops are erecting shops, and the only equipment is a few machines for use of the fitters working on brake and handrail parts. The shops are laid with railway sidings connected up to the yard and other shops. In front of the paint shop is an electrically driven traverser. The carriage shop is 180 feet by 180 feet, and the paint shop is 180 feet by 90 feet.

Wagon Department. - Adjoining, but not communicating with the Carriage Shop, is the Wagon Department. On the extreme boundary is the sawmill. It is equipped with the heaviest types of woodworking machines. The drive is by individual motors arranged in a basement, where also the sawdust and chips are collected. The Wagon Shop and the Repair Shop are erecting shops and have no machines. They are laid with railway sidings connecting to yard. The wagon shop is 270 feet by 112 feet, the repairs shop 120 feet by 56 feet, and the sawmill 180 feet by 70 feet. In front of the Works is the timber yard with railway entrance beyond. Adjoining is the time office block with workers' entrance, weigh-bridge, time clerks' office, canteen and ambulance room, with locomotive shed adjoining.

Babcock and Wilcox

MESSRS. BABCOCK AND WILCOX, LTD., RENFREW.
Babcock and Wilcox

The area occupied by these Works is 96 acres at Renfrew, and 34 acres at Dumbarton; they form the largest productive capacity for steam-raising plant and allied products in the world. The basic idea underlying their growth has been to concentrate under one administration the manufacturing capacity adequate to provide as many of the essentials and accessories necessary for steam generation as possible.

Messrs. Babcock and Wilcox manufacture at Renfrew (page 815) and at the works at Dumbarton, water-tube steam-boilers, super-heaters, economisers, chain-grate stokers, oil-firing plant, structural material, electric cranes, conveyers, wagon-tipplers, ash-handling plants, steam-valves, piping and soot-blowers. Boiler tubes, steam valves and soot-blowers are manufactured at the branch works of the company situated at Dumbarton, a few miles from Renfrew, and on the opposite bank of the Clyde. These two works—Renfrew and Dumbarton—take the steel-makers' finished product as their raw material, and deliver as their product complete plants capable of handling coal mechanically from its delivery at a power-station to its removal as ash, and conveying the water through all stages until supplied as high-pressure superheated steam.

In the march of progress from the early water-tube boiler equivalent to the Lancashire - then its chief rival - with an evaporation of 6,000 lb. per hour at low pressure and superheat to the modern unit of self-contained boiler, superheater, economiser, air-heater and chain-grate stoker, with an output of 120,000 lb. or more of steam per hour, at pressures and superheats only limited by the capacity of the turbine makers' requirements, the Babcock and Wilcox manufactures have played a preponderating part.

In addition to manufacture of the largest units for power-station use, Renfrew works also produce the standard W.I.F. longitudinal drum-boiler, probably the best known and most widely distributed water-tube steam generator; cross-drum boilers of the semi-portable and portable types are also manufactured, the last named being so sectionalized that it can be taken over difficult country on mule-back, and is at the same time of such simple construction that its erection can be undertaken by semi-skilled workmen.

The capacity of the Works is such that boiler installations are manufactured complete, and in many instances such installations include not only the boiler-house buildings but also the engine or turbine room structure, and the cranes required for the latter. In addition to electric overhead travelling cranes of any power, there are manufactured at Renfrew large numbers of cranes and lifting appliances for steel works, railway shops, gas works, dock and harbour use, etc., and this portion of the company's work has grown into a very large independent business.

The main Works at Renfrew comprise the following departments: General Machine Department; Hydraulic Press Shop; Steam-Drum Shops; Mechanical Stoker and Coal Conveyer Department, including machining bay and erecting bay; Boiler Erecting Shops; Structural Shops; Electric-crane Machining and Erecting Shops; Factory for Water-tube Sections and Superheaters; Boiler-header Factory; Steam-piping Department; Iron Foundry; and Steel Foundry.

The branch Works at Dumbarton comprise a Tube Mill, Valve Shops, and Soot-blower Department.

R Y Pickering and Co

MESSRS. R. Y. PICKERING AND CO,, LTD., WISHAW.
R. Y. Pickering and Co

These Works, established in 1864 by John Pickering on a piece of land of about 3 acres, now cover about 33 acres, and employ, when fully occupied, about 1,000 to 1,200 men. They were laid down originally for building railway wagons, and in the early days were completely equipped for building the type of coal wagon as then required. In 1888 the present Company was incorporated, and since then the Works have kept quite up to date as to machinery and plant.

The various departments include Forge and Drop Stamping Plant and Smithy Shops well equipped with steam-hammers; Wheel-making Shop, with 1,000-ton bossing press with Glutting Shop; Wheel-turning Shop, with tool-room and general machine shop; Iron and Steel Frame Shop, with Packing Shop for Foreign work. There is a well-equipped Iron and Brass Foundry of recent erection. The Carriage and Wagon Erecting Shops have also saw- mill and woodworking machine shops attached.

The products of the Company include wagons for private owners and railway companies in timber; and in iron and steel for home and abroad; wheels and axles for wagons, both home and foreign. Railway carriages have been supplied to a number of the home railways, the last order recently completed being twenty-one bogie-carriages for the Caledonian Railway Co. Colonial and foreign vehicles have also been built here.

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