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Note: This is a sub-section of Motor Shows
Held at Olympia from the 13th November
See also 1908 Motor Show: Accessories Section
7th Annual Motor Exhibition. 13th-20th November. 
We give on this and the following pages the first instalment of advance details of some of the principal exhibits which will attract attention at Olympia. In consequence of the large number to be dealt with, we are unable to include as many as we should like in this issue. The preliminary details will therefore be continued in our next issue, and the first part of the Show report will appear in "THE MOTOR" of November 16th. A special second Show number will appear on Thursday, November 19th, and in this the report will be concluded and a number of critical and commentative articles will appear. A number of leading makes of cars are not ready for notice in this issue, but we hope to be able to deal with them next week.
Considerable interest will centre on the Clement stand by reason of the exhibition of the first English-built Clement car, the 14-18 h.p. model, one of the three on view having been built to the special order of Lieut.-Col. Mark Mayhew. To meet the popular demand a two-cylinder model, engine dimensions 120mm. bore by 111mm. stroke, has been introduced, and will be called a 10-12 h.p. The details are in accordance with the most advanced practice, a gate lever operating a selective type of gearbox, giving three forward speeds, with direct on top. Bosch high-tension magneto is fitted, and the chassis price is £250, whilst the general finished design can be appreciated from the standard side- entrance body built by Salmons and Sons that will be seen.
The 14-18 h.p. chassis, cylinders 85mm, bore by 102mm. stroke, will have Bosch magneto, mechanical pump lubrication, gate change speed, and the chassis will be priced at £325.
The 18-28 h.p. chassis has done so well this season that practically no changes will be made in the majority of the details. With magneto ignition, leather cone clutch, three-quarter elliptic rear springs and lengthy wheelbase, suitable for a limousine body, the chassis is priced at £425. Two complete cars of this power will be seen, in addition to the chassis, having, respectively, a side-entrance deluxe body, with double-extension Cape cart hood and folding windscreen, and a double landaulet body, having many luxurious fittings, both built by Salmons and Sons
The Sunbeam will be displayed in two models, the details being practically identical as regards engine and transmission. On the 20 h.p., with four cylinders, thermo-syphon water circulation, drip lubrication by gravity to the crank chamber, dual ignition, automatic carburetter and pedal-applied brake running in oil are the main features. The special design of Sunbeam light, pressed steel frame, strengthened with wood, is retained, as are, of course, also the Sunbeam patent oil bath and dustproof cases for the side driving chains. One of these vehicles will be displayed with side-entrance body and Rudge-Whitworth detachable wire wheels, and another will have a landaulet body painted royal maroon.
The 14-18 h.p. four-cylinder differs only from the larger model in having a plain pressed steel frame. This will be shown complete with a comfortable body seating five persons, painted dark brown, and the car, with body, will sell for £425.
Brown Bros., Ltd., will have on Stand No. 86 three complete vehicles, consisting of a six-cylinder, fitted with a roomy limousine body, a 20-22 h.p., car having a side-entrance body, exactly similar to those used so successfully for the tour of the Royal Irish Commission that travelled all over Ireland on five Brown cars this last summer, whilst the display will be completed by a 25-30 h.p. chassis, with a landaulet body built by Laurie and Marner.
In the gallery there will be a separate stand, on which will be displayed an enormous variety of lamps and accessories, including the now well-known Gabriel horn, which is actuated from the exhaust, the new Raybestos brake lining, and a novelty in the shape of a new ball-bearing lifting jack, for which very many advantages are claimed.
Important changes have been made throughout in the design of Enfield cars, and, with the introduction of the new 10-12 Popular model, an agent who handles this make will have a line of machines capable of meeting the requirements of any enquirer. Generally, all Enfield machines will have mechanical pump lubrication to engine, compensated rear brakes, ball bearings to gearboxes, coil ignition, and leather-faced cone clutches. The new 10-12 h.p. ought to be, as its name implies, extremely popular, every detail being thoroughly well finished, and, as we saw at a recent visit to the factory, much attention has been given to the simplification of parts and provision for quick detachment when repairs or renewals are required. This car will be shown with a standard type of two-seated body, finished in cream and crimson, and, complete, will sell for £222 12s.
The 18-24 h.p. model has, during 1908, been very favourably commented upon by those who have owned them, and the improvements for 1909 should place them still higher in public estimation. This model will have a four-speed gearbox, with gate change, the third speed being direct, and the gear shafts running in ball bearings. The whole of the brakes have been re-designed, considerably strengthened and improved, and will be found equal to the severest strains to which they can possibly be imposed. The chassis price is £304 10s., or, complete, with elegant five-seated side-entrance body, £367 10s.
The 30-35 h.p. is a new model for the coming season, and has been especially designed to meet the demand of many customers who desire a well-constructed engine and chassis of larger power than the 18-24h.p. but who do not wish to pay high prices for luxurious fitments that will not add to the reliability of the vehicle. The engine has four cylinders, cast in pairs, each cylinder 120mm. bore by 135mm. stroke, the crankshaft running in ball bearings, whilst the same friction savers are employed wherever possible throughout the chassis, including gearbox, tail end of propeller shaft, steering heads, front and rear wheels, etc. The price of this chassis is £367 10s. or with five-seated side-entrance body, £441. A novel body, designed for country use as a shooting brake, will be on this stand, having the woodwork varnished with natural finish and upholstery in dark red leather.
The great attraction at the stand of the Austin Motor Co will be the 15 h.p. four-cylinder chassis selling at £300, and suitable for either a landaulet, cab, or open touring car, the chassis length being 7ft. 3in. for either the first two purposes, and 8ft. 4in. for the touring car. The cylinders are cast in a single block, with the valves on either side, thermo-syphon cooling being employed. A high-tension magneto is the only ignition, and this is fixed at the point of maximum efficiency, neither advance nor retardation being used, although we should fancy that, if any purchaser desired to be able to vary the timing, his wishes could be respected. Force-feed lubrication to all the bearings is provided, and in every detail the engine has been made extremely accessible. The new Austin clutch, of the leather cone type, as we mentioned last week, overcomes all the disadvantages of this type of clutch, for, instead of having to remove the whole of the clutch body for the purpose of re-leathering, the leather facing is carried on six loose segments, each of which can be removed by the mere slackening of two nuts, the operation only taking a few seconds. The gearbox gives three forward speeds and reverse, the shafts all being short and running on ball bearings throughout, the changes being controlled through a gate. The main shaft, as is usual in Austin practice, runs on three ball bearings. The back axle is built up of tapered flanged sleeves, the weight being carried on the ends of the sleeves, a torque rod being introduced to check the twisting of the axle casing under driving and braking stresses, but no radius rods are employed.
The width of the brake drums on the Austin cars will attract general attention. The foot brake has external shoes, whilst the rear brakes are of the internal type. The front axle is of H-section steel, and a very simple method has been employed to keep oil and dirt out of the front wheel bearings.
We dealt last week with a few alterations which have been introduced in the 18-24 h.p. car, and also recorded the fact that, on this car and on the 40 and 60 Austins, speed indicators and mileage recorders are included in the price. The Bosch dual ignition is employed on the 18-24 h.p. car and 40 h.p. car, whilst two separate ignitions, working through a distributor, are employed on the 60 h.p. car. We gave the price of the bigger models in our last week's issue.
We have already announced the Daimler programme for 1909, so far as relates to the powers of the three models that will be fitted with the new Knight engine. We are now at liberty to make public the definite news that Rudge-Whitworth detachable wire wheels will be fitted as a standard, without any extra charge; to all Daimler cars, but option will be given to those who prefer wooden wheels to fit these at the same price. Both the wire and the wood wheels will be interchangeable and detachable, and thus the fancies of both classes of users will be fully met. In respect of transmission details, of the new model, the 48 h.p. chain drive will not be greatly changed; but the 38 h.p. has been altered to such an enormous extent that, excepting, perhaps, the rear live axle, the whole of the chassis of this car can really be described as new. Dealing first with the 22 h.p. live-axle model, the total complete weight of the chassis on a 9ft. 6in. wheelbase, with tyres 870 by 105 will come out at between 16.5-17cwt., an achievement remarkable in comparison with the weight of some of the cars turned out from this factory years ago. The principal distinguishing feature of this model from the larger 38 h.p. will be the employment of thermo-syphon water circulation through a radiator of a type which will be definitely settled before the Show opens.
As to the 38 h.p.; which looks like being the leading Daimler model, this will be supplied in two standard lengths of wheelbase, 9ft, 6in., with tyres 880 by 120, and 10ft. 6th.; with tyres 920 by 120, the total weight of the latter being in the neighbourhood of 20 cwt. complete, of course exclusive of body. A large leather-faced cone clutch is retained, and between it and the gearbox is a type of universal joint in which the lubricant can be retained and dust properly excluded. The gearbox is altogether a departure, and quite unlike that used in 1908 on the live-axle car, or on the earlier model chain-driven cars. This box is cast in one piece, without joints of any kind, except that for the cover on top, and is suspended from trunnions carried by two tubular cross members of the frame. Any sideway twist is obviated by the simple expedient of attaching a pair of short, light, flat rods directly from the side of the gearbox to the side of the main frame. The gearbox is the selective type, with exceedingly short shafts, carrying large diameter wheels with very wide faces. We hope to describe this very clever gearbox quite fully at a later period, but visitors to the Daimler stand at the Show should have its details explained, otherwise they will miss one of the real novelties of the Show. A detail improvement relates to the bottom of the change-speed lever, which is now definitely locked on each of the forward speeds, yet the ease of motion between the speeds is in no way affected. Half-elliptic springs will be fitted at the rear, the side members of the frame will be quite parallel from end to end, the cross steering rod will be behind the front axle, two control levers for ignition and throttle will be taken up to the top of the steering wheel, and the exhaust pipes between the ports and the main pipe will be welded by oxyacetylene process.
Still another material alteration in design concerns the propeller shaft, which is so arranged that, with an average load of passengers, it will be quite horizontal, therefore imposing the minimum amount of work on the universal joint.
Quite a number of material changes have been effected in the design of the Allday, and, good as they have been this past year, the very many improvements will help to maintain them amongst the leaders. Remarkable value will be offered in the popular 10 Allday two-cylinder model, which will be sold with either a two-seated or four-seated body, the latter having swinging front seat. A gate change lever for the selective type gearbox provides three forward speeds the engine has mechanical pump lubrication; there is an extremely well-designed ratchet sprag behind the gearbox, and an E.I.C. patent contact breaker will be fitted for ignition control. A similar engined car, with longer chassis, to be known as the Special, will have a full side-entrance body, and be fitted with four forward speeds.
The 14 Allday four-cylinder model will have four speeds in the gearbox, with shafts running in ball bearings, and a complete new design for the crankshaft, enabling it to be machined all over, and therefore materially lightened. Not alone does this apply to the crankshaft, but the new pattern of connecting rods are also machined all over; and make a very sound and satisfactory construction.
On the four-cylinder 20 h.p. model the changes are but few, perhaps the only one of importance being an improvement in the gate change lever. For all models a carburetter float tickler is carried close to the starting handle at front of the radiator; the rear brakes are properly compensated, and mechanical pump lubrication to engine is standard.
We had hoped to have given some special description of the new model 20 Ariel in this issue, but must defer the same until our Show report. It promises to be one of the remarkable cars of the year, and, from the advance details with which we have been supplied, we imagine that it will be somewhat difficult to find a finer quality or a greater completeness of design in the whole Show, when it is remembered that the cost of the chassis is only £320. The four cylinders, 100mm. bore by 115mm. stroke, 24 h.p. on R.A.C. rating, will be lubricated from a mechanically-driven force pump contained in the crankcase, the gearbox will be controlled by a gate side lever, and everything else will be thoroughly in accordance with the most advanced engineering ideas. A similar chassis, fitted with rotund side-entrance body for five persons, will sell for £375.
The other three Ariel models, viz., the 30 h.p., 40 h.p. and 50 h.p., are all four cylinders, and will be fitted with overhead inlet valves to the engines, mechanical oil pump and three-quarter elliptical rear springs. The prices of these for 1908 are as follow:- 30 h.p., £495; 40 h.p., £595; and 50 h.p. £725.
Apart from the mechanical features, the Ariel stand will be worth a visit to view the bodies, each having some distinctive feature. On a 40 h.p. there will be a wonderful cabriolet-landaulet body built by Mulliner, of Northampton, painted crimson, with black mouldings, picked out with white lines, the upholstery covered with a peculiar roan shade of ribbed cloth. On a 50 h.p. will be a special Pullman type of body, made by Rippon Brothers of Huddersfield, and the interior will contain every possible refinement and luxury, for not only are the passengers to be protected from the weather, but the driver is also to be quite enclosed in a weather-proof compartment; whilst the side windows can be let down completely into the body, with the dividing pillars, turned up out of the way. Another 20 Ariel will have a very smart landaulet body painted in a quiet tone of dark green picked out with crimson lines.
Du Cros-Mercedes, Ltd., as non-bond signers, find themselves relegated this year to the Annexe, and, consequently, will only have space to display three vehicles, viz., a 45 h.p. four-cylinder, with limousine body and chain drive, a 65 h.p. six-cylinder chain drive chassis, and a 35 h.p., with four-cylinder engine and propeller shaft transmission. This latter can almost be considered a 1909 car, as the first of this new type was only displayed in the London showrooms so recently as June of this year. This model is not only a considerable departure from previous Mercedes practice in respect to the changing over to a live axle, but the scroll type of clutch hitherto associated with these manufacturers has its place taken by a multiple-plate clutch. On the six-cylinder, the carburetter is arranged with one jet for each three cylinders, and in all other respects this and the 45 h.p. model can be said to be a continuation of the 1908 designs. It is quite possible that the new model 15-20 h.p., with four-cylinder engine and live axle, may arrive in England prior to the opening of the Show, and, in this event, it would doubtless take the place of one of those above mentioned.
One of the genuine Show novelties will be a new light runabout that will be exhibited on Stand No. 27 by the Pilgrims' Way Motor Co., Ltd. Driven by a two-cylinder 9 h.p. engine, with magneto ignition, the whole transmission and steering is taken on the front wheels. The wheels rear and front are shod with 30in. by 3in. pneumatic tyres, those on the front carrying the whole weight of engine, gearbox, etc., the rear wheels only taking the weight of the passengers. The vehicle has three forward and one reverse speeds on similar lines to the fine epicyclic gear fitted to the Pilgrim car. Another novel arrangement on this machine is the fitting of brakes to the front wheels as well as the rear wheels. With a wheelbase of 7ft. and track of 3ft. 5in., and a two-seated body, the makers claim that the total weight of the complete car is but 6cwt.
The other vehicle on this stand will be the four-cylinder Pilgrim, 32 h.p., with its unique engine and transmission gear, which will pull on top speed at a very small number of engine revolutions.
Iris cars have been materially altered in many respects for the coming season, hence, to distinguish between the old and the new would be misleading, and we prefer to treat the vehicle as of fresh design. Two models, both four-cylinder, will be displayed, the 25 h.p. having cylinders 4.25in. bore by 5.25in. stroke, and the 35 h.p. having cylinders 5in. bore by 5.25in. stroke. The engine is suspended directly from the frame, the timing gear wheels are completely enclosed, the magneto is driven by an extension of the pump shaft, and the clutch is a multiple disc, having a universal joint between itself and the gearbox.
The special feature of Iris engines will be the employment of steel pistons, patented by Mr. Legros, which are exceedingly light, very strong, and, from the experience of the manufacturers, they appear to produce a more lively engine, and no disadvantages have made themselves apparent. The rear axle on Iris vehicles has always been a fine engineering job, because the whole of the driving bevels and differential can be dismounted without jacking up the rear wheels. A further improvement for the coming season will make it possible to withdraw the whole propeller shaft, with its bevel driving pinion, straight out through the back of the rear axle casing. The frame has been widened to 33in. up to the dashboard, where it narrows to 30in., and springs are three-quarter elliptic at rear, taking the drive on to the frame instead of using radius rods. Both models are identical in detail other than the difference in engine power.
Although the design of the two-stroke engine on the Valveless car remains unaltered, the rest of the chassis has been completely transformed. The new 25 h.p. model now has the engine under the bonnet, water circulation through a gilled tube radiator in front of engine by a centrifugal pump, magneto ignition, and pump lubrication on Lucas's patent high-pressure system. The transmission by chains has been entirely discarded, and for the future will be quite on conventional lines by means of leather clutch, selective type gearbox, gate-change speed lever, propeller shaft and rear live axle. Brakes are all internal-expansion, wheelbase is 10ft., wheels are 880 by 120, and springs are three-quarter elliptic at the rear.
On another page our Paris correspondent outlines the De Dion engine proposition for next season, and we can supplement those facts by some further information concerning the models that will be seen at Olympia.
The 8 h.p. single-cylinder will have an engine 100mm. bore by 120mm. stroke, automatic inlet valve and automatic carburetter. This model will be the first De Dion to be fitted with a leather-faced cone clutch, and, with sliding gear wheels, giving three forward speeds and reverse, mounted in a pressed steel frame, will certainly arouse interest.
Another single-cylinder engine, 100mm. bore by 130mm. stroke, nominal 9 h.p., will be fitted to a chassis exactly similar to that of the 12-14 h.p. four-cylinder model.
An entire departure for this company will be the introduction of a 10 h.p. four-cylinder monobloc engine, 66mm. bore by 100mm. stroke, with mechanical inlet valve, high-tension magneto ignition, with the distributor taken away from the engine and carried by the magneto itself, pressed steel frame, De Dion plate clutch and sliding gear wheels. The special features on this model will be the vertical changing movement for the gate lever, and a new pattern pedal-applied locomotive brake.
On the four-cylinder 12-14 h.p. model that met with so popular a reception last year, there are no startling changes, but the transmission system has been rearranged to permit of a very much larger countershaft brake being fitted, and the introduction of a direct drive in the gearbox for the third speed.
The four- cylinder 18 h.p., materially lightened as compared with the 1908 pattern, will be exhibited in chassis form, and may said to include all details pertaining to the models just mentioned, as well as the 25h.p.
Darracq and Belsize
Messrs. J. Keele, Ltd., the well-known agents, of 72, New Bond Street, W., will have at their stand just inside the Annexe in the centre four Belsize and three Darracq cars, for which this firm are wholesale and retail agents for London.
The Belsize machines will only be shown by this firm in the one model, viz., the four-cylinder 14-16 h.p., which has been greatly improved upon the earlier type, having, longer bonnet, larger radiators, newly-designed front wheel bearings, improved rear springs and many detail alterations. This vehicle promises to be one of the sensations of the Show in respect to price, as, despite the general all-round bringing up-to-date of the design, the figure, with complete standard double phaeton body, with side entrance, remains as in 1908, viz., £285. A type of body and design that will take the fancy of many visitors will have two seats built very low, with larger petrol tank at rear of seats, long bonnet, covered-in windshield round the dashboard, and will be offered complete at £270.
The other Belsize exhibits on this stand comprise a landaulet bodied vehicle at £385, and a side-entrance body, but with back half detachable, in place of which a sloping toolbox is supplied, the complete vehicle being listed at £300.
The Darracq models will include one of the special 1909 "Four-inch" touring type, a new 10-12 h.p. two-cylinder, with double phaeton body, selling at £250, and a new model four-cylinder 14-16 h.p., which will sell, complete with English-built body, for £325.
A car new to the English market is the Opel, which will be handled by the British Electromobile Co., Ltd. Five models are constructed, and one each of these will be displayed, all having live axles. The range comprises a two-cylinder of 10 h.p. with three forward speeds, selling for £260; a four-cylinder, of 10 h.p., selling for £300; a four-cylinder, of 20 h.p., selling for £450; a four-cylinder, 36 h.p., selling for £775; and a four-cylinder, 45-60 h.p., selling for £975. All these prices are for chassis with tyres. The general details include dredger lubrication, high-tension magneto for the three smaller models, and low-tension magneto for the two larger models, leather and metal cone clutches respectively, gate-change side lever for the gearbox on all models, a minimum wheelbase of 8ft. 3in. even for the smallest model, and pump water circulation. These vehicles will be found in the Annexe.
The Star Engineering Co will confine their energies to three models, and a specimen chassis of each type will be available for visitors' examination.
The two-cylinder 10 h.p., bore 4in., with stroke 4.5in., will undoubtedly be exceedingly good value for money, as, with Bosch magneto, gate-change speed lever, three forward speeds, with direct on top, and propeller shaft transmission, this chassis will be priced at £193, or with side-entrance body complete for £235.
The four-cylinder 12 h.p. model, engine 3.25in. bore by 4.5in. stroke, has also magneto ignition as a standard, selective type gearbox, with direct third speed, live axle, and will carry a beautifully-finished tulip side-entrance body, chassis price being £240, and complete car £275.
The four-cylinder 15 h.p. has the same engine stroke as the 12 h.p., but the bore is 3.5in. This car is perhaps the only one of its power on the market having a four-speed gearbox with direct on third, the indirect fourth providing an opportunity for reasonable acceleration on good roads. The chassis price of the 15 h.p. model is £260, or £300 if fitted with the standard type of side-entrance body. A polished 15 h.p. chassis will enable visitors to understand the constructive details.
We set out in our last issue in full detail the programme of the Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Co., showing that the Siddeley models for the coming season will consist of two six-cylinder cars (a 50 h.p. and a 20 h.p. car), four four-cylinder models (40 h.p., 30 h.p., 18 h.p. and 14 h.p.), and a two-cylinder 10 h.p. model. Where the model is not absolutely new, it has been modified in accordance with the experience of the last few years, and particularly of the last 12 months, the great improvement being in the silence of the engine and freedom from smoking and other troubles attendant upon efficient lubrication. A method has been found (and its essential details patented) for oiling the engine in an entirely satisfactory manner, and for the prevention of the possibility of an excessive amount of oil getting past the piston or out at the ends of the bearings.
We referred last week to the new carburetter, and the accompanying illustration gives the details of the new system. The action of opening the throttle, which is of the piston type, opens, at the same time, the air ports around the jet, and, thus, what is virtually a variation of the choke tube is given. These two movements can be regulated to suit the engine and to suit the user. The extra air inlet port can be doubly varied. The mushroom valve is capable of being set so that it comes into operation at any desired engine speed but, at the same time, the ports themselves can be varied in area independently of the strength of the spring controlling the air inlet valve. Without exaggeration, it may be said that the Siddeley carburetter can he adjusted to entirely suit the requirements of the user. This carburetter is used on all the large models, but on the 14 h.p. car it has been found quite unnecessary to provide for the variation of the choke tube.
The clutch on the 14 h.p. car is leather faced, that on the 18 h.p. car is a metallic cone, and on the larger models the multiple-disc clutch is employed. The gearbox on the 14 h.p. car has been redesigned so that the gate change can be employed, three forward speeds being provided. The 18h.p. gearbox is also now gate changed, and either three or four speeds can be had, according to whether the car is required for hilly or flat country. All the other models are gate changed, and have four speeds, and nickel steel gears and shafts are used on all models. Outside jaw brakes on the gearbox shaft and internal brakes on the rear wheels are employed throughout the models. On the lighter cars the semi-elliptic spring is used for the rear axle, the spring taking the drive, thus dispensing with radius rods, but torque rods are, of course, used; with spring buffers at the front ends. All the brakes are capable of very easy adjustment. On the larger models transverse rear springs are used.
The newest model Panhard will be a 10-15 h.p. four-cylinder, with live axle, cylinders 80mm. bore by 120mm. stroke, chassis price £400, which will be fitted with a landaulet body to seat six passengers. The other models on the stand will comprise a four-cylinder 15-25 h.p., cylinders 91mm. bore by 131mm. stroke, chassis price £460, fitted with full limousine body.
The 18-30 h.p. four-cylinder chassis, priced at £540,, will be fitted with a three-quarter landaulet body, and the 25-35 h.p. four-cylinder chassis, price £600, will be fitted with a three-quarter landaulet body. This last is chain driven, the other three models having propeller shaft and live axle.
In respect to the Bell cars, a 16 h.p. chassis will be exhibited, carrying a light runabout body, painted dark green, and accommodating two persons. Improvements have been fitted all round to the 20 h.p. chassis, these consisting of the installation of a double universal joint between engine and gearbox, the fitting of four forward speeds, larger brake drums, and larger rear and front wheels. The rear live axle is of a much heavier type than was the case in the 1908 model, the cross shafts for the future being constructed from forgings. The frame has been lengthened, deepened in section, upswept over the rear axle, and much longer springs fitted.
The 16 h.p. chassis that will be on this stand will have a 9ft. 6in. wheelbase, with upswept frame over back axle, universal joint between engine and gearbox, and longer springs. Customers, on this model, have the option of either a three or four-speed gearbox. On Bell cars metal plate clutches are now fitted as a standard.
Messrs. Crossley Bros. and Co., Ltd., of Manchester, whose sole selling agents are Messrs. Chas. Jarrott and Letts, of 45, Great Marlborough Street, London, W., are adding to their programme for 1909 models smaller than the 40 h.p. car which has been their sole product up to the present. The engine of the 40 h.p. car, it will be remembered, is 4.75in. bore by 6in. stroke.
The new 20 h.p. car will have an engine 4in. bore by 5in. stroke, and be four-cylindered, the cylinders being cast in pairs. A Thomson-Bennett contact breaker distributes the current from the magneto and coil and accumulator system to the single set of plugs; the position of the carburetter on the top of the induction pipe is one of extreme accessibility; the expanding metal-to-metal clutch, as on a larger model, is being used, and the power is conveyed through a four-speed gearbox controlled through a gate. The shafts of the back axle draw out from the ends of the sleeves after removal of the wheels and driving dogs, and, after these are withdrawn, the differential can be taken bodily from its casing through a large port left by the detachment of the top cover. The universal joints between the engine and gearbox on the propeller shaft are designed with a pocket to contain oil in the central member. Centrifugal force throws the oil out to every joint, and as the joints are capped, the oil does not escape; thus the force that in almost every case expresses the lubricant from universal joints, is, in this case, used to carry lubricant to the moving parts of the joint. All the joints in the axle and gear box have glands and felt washers to prevent the exudation of lubricant. An original feature of the Crossley is the casting of the steering-box in a single piece without joints, except the cover over the segment. We understand two models smaller than the 20 h.p. are being designed, and may be placed on the market next year
Each year sees some interesting improvements added to the Lanchester, and the forthcoming Show will be no exception. The original and distinctive springing that makes it a sheer delight to be floated along on an up-to-date Lanchester is in no way altered, and it to-day remains as it was when first introduced — quite unapproachable.
One of the innumerable clever features that can be found wherever one looks on these cars is the arrangement of the water outlets from cylinders to radiator. In the tops of the water jacket caps are screwed small lengths of pipe with plain tops; the expanding diameter main outlet pipe carries four hollow shoulders, in which rubber rings rest, and, by simply forcing the open ends of the small branches up into the main pipe, a perfectly water-tight joint is secured instantaneously.
Everyone has, at some time or another, had the annoyance of trying to replace high-tension cables hurriedly into the top of a magneto, and the Lanchester device of coupling all the cables by means of a neat bridge, thereby they can all be forced home by the lugs into the thimble receptacles, is worth copying in other directions.
The double-draught fans, although not new on these cars, provide excellent ideas where trouble has been experienced in cooling radiators with very large surfaces. This year, for the first time in the history of this concern, a polished engine and parts will be on view, and the many ingeniously clever constructive details will, we are sure, appeal alike to experts and users.
Vauxhall Motors, Ltd. will have on their stand a polished chassis of their new 20 h.p. model, two completely finished cars, having rotund side-entrance body to seat live, and double landaulet body, painted Royal blue, the identical machine famous as the winner of Class E in the 2,000 miles' Trial, and the new 16 h.p. model for 1909, fitted with a two-seated body, brought close to the ground.
The 16 h.p. model has been designed to meet the views of the large circle of customers that have grown up as satisfied Vauxhall users, and will sell complete with four-seated side-entrance body for £350. Although primarily designed as a touring car, the frame and transmission of this model are amply strong enough to allow of light, semi-landaulet bodies being fitted.
In respect to the larger 20 h.p. model, there will be found quite a large number of departures in detail from previous Vauxhall practice. The engine has all four cylinders cast monobloc, all valves on one side, enclosed timing wheels, camshaft cut from the solid, and the tappet rods and valve springs entirely enclosed by quickly-detachable plates. Thermo-syphon water circulation is a new Vauxhall feature, as also the branching of the induction pipe to the inlet ports. The forced lubrication system has been simplified, the oil pump being now operated directly from a cam on the rear end of the camshaft. The clutch is metal-to-metal cone, gearbox has four forward speeds, with direct on top, the gearbox is cast in one piece, without horizontal or vertical joints, and the brakes are all internal expansion and interchangeable. The front axle has been dropped to bring the frame lower, the cross steering bar is now placed behind the front axle, materially facilitating the fitting of detachable wheels, and the side members of the frame have been considerably in-swept to give a large steering lock.
The 16 h.p. model differs from the larger in the cylinder dimensions, and in the fact that the radiator has been moved back so as to be exactly over the front axle, the frame having been lengthened to provide sufficient body space. Pump water circulation is used on this smaller model.
The London and Parisian Motor Car Co., Ltd., sole concessionnaires for Great Britain and the Colonies for Hotchkiss cars, have done exceedingly well with the four-cylinder 16-20 h.p. in 1908. The car has been so free from complaint, that it may be said to be unaltered, save in minute details, for next year. The monobloc engine, high-tension magneto, leather-faced cone clutch, four forward speed gearbox, ball bearings to all shafts except the crankshaft, are the main features, the price of the chassis being £440.
An entirely new model for next year will be a four-cylinder engine, nominal 20- 30 h.p., the chassis price of which will be £565. This machine has been marketed to meet the expressed desire of many customers who have been satisfied with the 16-20h.p., and wanted a chassis capable of carrying a light landaulet body, and therefore lower in price than the 30-40 h.p., which is, of course, quite suitable for heavy limousine bodies. This latter chassis, priced at £665, will remain much as it was in this past year, and will be exhibited with a unique limousine body built by Million-Guiet.
The display will be completed with a six-cylinder 40-50 h.p., fitted with a splendid three-quarter landaulet body built by Hamshaw, of Leicester, the particular feature of the chassis being the positive clutch drive when the pedal is fully released.
The chief model of the Vulcan Motor and Engineering Co., Ltd., for the coming year will be the new 16 h.p. car, which is a development from last season's 14 h.p. car, the latter, however, being retained in the programme; thus, the 14 and 16h.p. chassis will be identical, except that the 14 h.p. chassis will have an engine 3.5in. bore by 4.25in. stroke, and it will be geared four engine revolutions to one revolution of the road wheels.
The 16 h.p. car will have an engine slightly larger in the bore, viz., 3.625in., and half an inch longer in the stroke, viz., 4.75in, and its normal gear ratio will be 3.5 to 1. The cylinders are cast in pairs, with the valves on either side, and ample bearings are given to the crankshaft. The carburetter is quite automatic, and when throttled down, for running the engine, with the car standing, the engine is fed through a quarter-inch hole from the mixing chamber, a tongue over the hole varying the size of the aperture according to the suction of the engine. The contact breaker and distributor is on the Thomson-Bennett system, the current either from Magneto or coil and accumulator being distributed by a rotating carbon brush to a single set of plugs. A very desirable feature about this distributor is that it can, as a whole, be swung back into a position which gives exceedingly late firing, and will therefore fire the charge in the cylinder which has its piston half-way down the power stroke.
The engine is lubricated by a plunger pump worked off the exhaust camshaft, and it is a feature of the Vulcan system that oil that has once been used is not again fed to the bearings, as is usual in other methods where the oil from the sump is pumped round and round. The big ends just dip into troughs which hold sufficient oil for their lubrication and no more, so that smoking is avoided.
Spirally-cut teeth are employed on the timing gear wheels, and these wheels are made of a special metal (the nature of which we are not permitted to divulge) which gives silence. A leather cone clutch, driving through a block universal, conveys the power to the gearing; the gearbox is very strong, the shafts being short and the ball bearings ample. The universal joint at the forward end of the propeller shaft is cased in with a spherical aluminium box, the central portion of the sphere being of brass and encircling the propeller shaft; all grease is retained in the cover. With the same end in view, a spring-held brass cap covers the forward end of the block universal at the rear end of the propeller shaft.
The old plan of making the axle so that the differential can be withdrawn after the axle shafts have been drawn out has been discontinued. It has been found that axles seldom or never require to be taken down, and, when they do, it is considered better to detach the axle as a whole, so that the mechanism can be thoroughly examined. The shafts are made very strong, having to carry the weight of the car on their outer ends. Three-quarter elliptic springs are used for the rear axle.
The 20 h.p. chassis has an engine 4in. by 4.75in., and it presents very slight differences from the other three sizes of engine made by the Vulcan Co., the cylinder casting being made with separate plate covers to the water jackets, the chief reason being to enable the engine to be shortened in length.
The 25 h.p. chassis, for landaulet and limousine work, has an engine 4.25in. by 4.75in., designed on the same lines as the 16 h.p. engine; whilst the design of the chassis is also the same, but is strengthened to suit the extra power.
The prices of the Vulcan cars, so far as they are at present fixed, are as follow:- 14 h.p., with side-entrance body, £350; 16 h.p. car, with side-entrance body, £365; 20 h.p., with side-entrance body, £425.
We last week gave full details of the changes which have been introduced in the six-cylinder 20 Standard car, and also referred to the fact that a new model for the coming season is the 14 h.p. four-cylinder car. This latter car sells at a moderate price, and should be a very popular vehicle, the mechanism having been designed for extreme simplicity and with ample strength throughout every detail, being made thoroughly accessible, and the convenience of the user having been considered to the full, nothing has been allowed to render access to the valves difficult, the magneto on the one side and carburetter on the other being kept clear of them, and, at the same time, being kept perfectly accessible in themselves. The float of the carburetter can be reached in about three seconds, whilst the throttle can be detached in the same very short space of time, the jet then being fully exposed.
The 20 h.p. car is six-cylindered, its engine dimension's being 3.5 by 4.25 stroke (as on the four-cylinder car), the diameter of the valves being 1.5 in. This engine gives 23.5 h.p. at 1,000 revs. per min., and runs particularly sweetly. We illustrate the oil circulating pump, which is driven by a skew gear off one of the camshafts, the sliding vane rotary pump taking it to the indicator on the dashboard, and thence to the distributor gallery, whence the oil is fed to the four main bearings of the engine. This oil indicator is a particularly useful device, consisting merely of a steel spindle, which is normally kept back in its guide by a light spiral spring. When oil is circulating through the pipes, the steel spindle is forced (by the oil coming up the delivery pipe) past the outlet in the guide to the distributor gallery; the steel spindle then projects about an inch beyond the face of the cap on the driver's side of the dash board, and, as long as that spindle is seen - or felt — to be projecting, the oil is known to be circulating. The ability to feel this at night without the need of a light is a matter of very great convenience.
The method of coupling the magneto to its driving shaft through a couple of discs having holes bored in the one disc a quarter of an inch apart, and in the other at a slightly smaller distance, enables a very tine setting to be given to the timing of the ignition. The brake rods are capable of very easy adjustment, and one of the instances of thoughtfulness which can be found all over the Standard car is the small inspection port in the rear brake covers, permitting the condition of the brakes and brake drums to be examined with a minimum of trouble.
The carburetter is very simple and automatic in its action; the jet has four holes, the cap which rotates with the throttle uncovering one or more holes according to the speed of the car. We have already referred to the way in which many of the wearing parts throughout these cars are constructed so as to provide for rapid, easy and cheap replacement of the actual surfaces that wear, or that are apt to become neglected; thus, the face plate of the clutch can be renewed very cheaply without calling for the replacement of the whole of the clutch body.
We have already given the programme of Messrs. Newton and Bennett, Ltd., of King Street West, Manchester, and, we are now able to give full particulars of the three models of Scat cars which have been made for the ensuing season.
The chief change in the 14 h.p. car is that the low-tension ignition has given way to the Bosch high-tension magneto, although the low-tension ignition can be substituted for those who prefer it. The magneto is held to the crankcase of the engine by a strap fastening, and the armature is driven direct from the timing gear, so that there is no coupling between the driving gear and the armature shaft to clatter. The removal of the magneto is not rendered difficult, because a cover over the driving pinion is very quickly removable, thus rendering it, with the strap before mentioned, very easy to detach the magneto. The oil-pump for lubricating the engine is now of the rotary sliding-vane order, and is situated at the rear end of the exhaust camshaft, being tendered quickly detachable. This pump has proved its ability, even when quite dry, of priming itself from the sump. Oil is pumped to the three main bearings, where it enters the journals and passes up the hollow crankshaft. The big ends are thus lubricated, whilst the cylinder walls are lubricated by the splash from the oil, which squirts out from the big ends.
The fuel is fed to the carburetter under pressure, and the exhaust pressure valve is now placed on the top of the exhaust pipe in a very accessible position, a separate box being provided to contain a removable gauze cylinder, which acts as a strainer. The clutch, which is of the multiple flat-plate type, is unaltered, except that the means originally provided for adjusting the spring have been dispensed with, the general experience being that this adjustment of spring is quite unnecessary. The gearbox has been newly designed, being a replica of the gearbox on the 22 h.p. car, its form being rectangular, with a large inspection cover forming the top side. The ease with which the steering gear of the car can be removed is worthy of attention.
The size of the foot-brake drum has always been large, but on the 1909 models it will be bigger than ever, giving ample power and longer life. The back axle will be found to have certain original features, the sliding joint at the rear end of the propeller shaft and those, at the ends of the two driving shafts being castellated thus the driving pressures are radial instead of tangential.
The ordinary differential sun pinions are employed on the 14 h.p. car, the axle-shafts being capable of being withdrawn without the need for disturbing the differential. No keys are used inside the axle casing, the driving bevel pinion, for instance, being forged solid with its shaft. The weight is carried on the driving shafts of the axle, because it is found that, with this method, there is less play on the ball bearings, provided the outside bearing is strong enough to carry the weight and the axles strong enough for the strain. The price of this chassis will be £295.
The 22 h.p. car, which was such a success last year, is only materially altered in a few respects; for instance, the valves, from the experience gained in the "Four-inch" Race, are of large diameter; the high-tension magneto has become standard in place of the low-tension, whilst the pump lubrication has been altered as has already been described in connection with the 14 h.p. car, the other alterations being the enlargement of the foot-brake drum, the dispensing with the means for adjusting the clutch spring, and the new position for the filter and valve for the exhaust pressure to the petrol tank. The price has been raised by £10 to £395 for the chassis, whilst for an extra £15 the new self-starter can be fitted. The self-starter, designed by Mr. R. O. Harper, works manager to Messrs. Newton and Bennett, will be applicable to all 22 Scats, and, in brief (for we will describe it fully, with illustrations, in our Show report), air is compressed into a steel reservoir by a single-cylinder air-pump working off the crankshaft. This compressed air can be admitted, by the pressure of the foot on a pedal opening a release valve, to a rotary valve, which distributes it through automatic valves to the four cylinders of the engine in turn. There are many novel features about the system making for its simplification and for its certainty of working. As it dispenses with a second ignition for starting purposes and with gas reservoirs for tyre filling, it is really, at £15, a source of economy.
As mentioned in our issue of October 27th, the Belsize programme for the ensuing season includes only three models, the 14-16 h.p, which has been so extraordinarily successful last season, a new 28 h.p. four-cylinder car, and a 40 h.p. six-cylinder car, the two latter being based on the same design and having the same engine dimensions.
The 14-16 h.p. will be slightly more powerful than before, the cylinder being bored a bit more fully, so that the full bore will now be 90mm. and the stroke 4in. (101.6mm.). In general details the engine is not altered from last season, but a new system of pump lubrication has been introduced, the pump itself being extraordinarily simple, consisting, as it does, of a steel centre piece rotating in a box, a couple of eccentric grooves being cut on the periphery of the centre piece at 180 degrees to each other. These grooves are half an inch wide, and a half-inch square-bottomed steel plunger runs in these grooves, the eccentricity of the grooves giving a reciprocating action to the plunger. Alongside of the guide in which the plunger moves is an oil way, and, as the eccentric groove is in an airtight enclosure, the action of the plunger sweeps the air or oil out of the groove and creates a vacuum. On the groove reaching the lower part of the pump casting, oil is sucked into the vacancy from the sump below the engine. The charge of oil being carried to the top of the pump casing, the plunger sweeps it into the outlet, and thus forces it to the glass oil box, which is fixed on the dashboard. This glass oil box has two overflow ports, which feed oil to a channel cast in the crankcase of the engine, oil being taken in at both ends of the channel. From this channel the three main bearings are fed, whilst oil is also squirted on to the big ends, the cylinder walls being lubricated by the splash. An overflow is provided in the oil box so that any excess of oil pumped into it flows direct to the sump.
The only ignition used on these engines is the Bosch magneto of the high-tension type. The carburetter to be used in future is a White and Poppe, a rotary sleeve on the air inlet pipe permitting of the adjustment of the temperature of the air. The valve tappets are now lifted through a 0.875in. steel ball, which works in the lower part of the spindle guide, introducing a sliding motion between the cam and the spindle guide. The clutch is of the internal metal cone type, and a very useful device that has been adopted is an adjustable fibre pad, secured to the clutch stirrup, which, when the clutch is depressed sufficiently, bears on the revolving cone and acts as a clutch brake. The engine is rendered clean in its working by the prevention of the leak of oil from tile rear end of the crankshaft. The outer tube of the steering pillar is used to connect up the control lever, under the steering wheel, to the carburetter, a very simple method of preventing the control lever from shifting its position with the turning of the steering pillar being provided, a coned foot on the outer casing being kept in engagement with a similar coned surface on the interior of the steering box by an internal spring. Ball bearings have been introduced throughout the chassis except in the engine. The springing has been improved this year by the use of three-quarter elliptic springs to the rear axle.
No alterations have been found to be necessary to the gearbox, steering or transmission, except that a double ball bearing has been introduced on the spigot of the tail shaft in the gear-box. The radiator is being enlarged for next season's model, the cross member in the front of the frame being dropped for the purpose. As is customary with Belsize cars, the foot brake acts on the road wheels. This car will sell, with a side-entrance body, at £275, and we believe that a limousine body on a 14-16 h.p. chassis will be selling at a little over £300. This should be a vehicle of extraordinary value.
The 28 h.p. car has been improved in a great many details, the cylinder dimensions now being 4.5 by 5. The valves are covered in by plates, cast so that each plate covers a pair of valves. The oiling system adopted is the same as is used on the 14-16 h.p. car, and described above; whilst White and Poppe's carburetter and two systems of ignition (the high-tension current passing through a single distributor) have been adopted. The clutch is the Hele-Shaw, whilst the fuel will be fed to the carburetter under pressure. The gearbox gives four forward speeds, the third gear being direct. The thermo-syphon system of water cooling is employed on this and all other Belsize models. The 28 h.p. oar will sell, with a side-entrance body, at £495.
Stanley Steam Cars
For the first time the Stanley Steamers will be on view at the Olympia Show in the Annexe. An entirely new model will be shown of the 10 h.p. type, and in this the water pumps beneath the floor boards and t h e various control levers have been materially simplified, and so arranged that it will be needless to disturb a passenger on the front seat, should it be required to make any adjustment. The copper casing to engine and the connections to the live axle have also been re-designed, the body is now brought closer to the ground than in the 1908 model, the shape of the body itself has been modified so as to make it more graceful in appearance, and the entrance to the rear seats has been made easier. These alterations and the price at which it is sold, £225, to accommodate four persons, ought to bring the vehicle within the reach of many persons who prefer the quietness and flexibility of a steamer.
The system of construction with which the Rover Co. have identified themselves since commencing the manufacture of, cars some years ago is now materially departed from, and the new four-cylinder 15 h.p. is bound to arouse the highest interest. We have already made a very close inspection of the chassis whilst it was in course of construction in the Coventry factory, and can promise our readers that both in design and workmanship it in no way falls behind the quality we have always been led to expect will issue from the Rover Company's works.
A number of clever ideas will be found on every part of this smart chassis, the main principle covering the production having been to provide the utmost accessibility for every portion of the engine and transmission and the easy detachment of any part without having to disturb unnecessarily adjoining pieces of the mechanism. The water-circulating device, lubrication, novel device of silencing in the valves and tappets, complete enclosing of the valves and springs, clear space around clutch and gearbox, unique torque rod, trussing of the rear pressed steel frame and swinging of the brackets that support the frame at the rear — all these and many more things will repay the very closest examination.
The other models that will be seen on the stand will of course include the 6 h.p. single-cylinder and 8 h.p. single-cylinder and the four-cylinder 20 h.p. that will be retained and modified only in small details to accord with the experience of the past year.
Brasier and Unic
Mann and Overtons, Ltd., will have a nice display of Brasier and Unic vehicles. There will be a two-cylinder 10-12 h.p. Brasier with landaulet body priced at £380, and a four-cylinder 30 h.p. to 40h.p. of the same make with a side-entrance body priced complete at £800.
Three models of the Unic will be shown, the 10 h.p. to 12 h.p. being on very similar lines to the Unic cabs, of which such a large number are now running in the streets of London. With landaulet body, the price of this vehicle will be £380.
A four-cylinder 12-14 h.p. Unic with five-seated side-entrance touring body will be found excellent value for money, and, bearing in mind the quality of the work and the reputation of the manufacturers of this vehicle it will be found to be as cheap as anything in the building at £330.
The display will be completed with a four-cylinder 16-20 h.p. Unic chassis selling for £415 with tyres. Mann and Overton will for 1909 specialise on cheap landaulet-bodied cars of moderate power for town and station use, and with their long experience of this class of vehicle, prospective users will not be far wrong in getting in touch with them.
The Napier exhibit will be entirely in finished and completely equipped cars, and there will be in addition a six-cylinder 40 h.p. engine in motion. The vehicles on the stand comprise a six-cylinder 65 h.p. with a Pullman limousine body, a six-cylinder 45 h.p. with landaulet body, a six-cylinder 30 h.p. with side-entrance touring body, a four-cylinder 15 h.p. with landaulet body and a two-cylinder 10 h.p. with landaulet body.
Generally all the models have mechanical pump lubrication to engine, metal-to-metal clutch running in oil, adjustment for steering gear, gear wheels cut from solid steel blanks, large-diameter and wide-surfaced brakes protected against oil and dust and positively applied by rods, and the amplest provision for lubrication and adjustment to every portion of the chassis.
The 65 h.p. Pullman limousine promises to be a particularly striking vehicle as it will accommodate five persons inside, two of the seats being armchairs arranged to fold up when out of use. The interior will be upholstered in a peculiar shade of blue corded cloth which has been especially woven and dyed for this specific purpose. The exterior painting will be yellow with dark blue mouldings.
We have quite recently given details of the new six-cylinder 45 h.p., and the one on the stand will be fitted with double landaulet body, having a roof so arranged that it can be folded back, so as to make a completely open carriage. The new wire wheels are a feature of this model.
The six-cylinder 30 h.p. shown, and that had such a large sale in 1908, will be found to have been improved in a number of details. The body of this vehicle will accommodate five persons in the rear and will be fitted with the Hopper patent winding Cape-cart hood.
The two big novelties of the exhibition will be the four-cylinder 15 h.p. and the two-cylinder 10 Napier cars. Both these vehicles have quite recently been described in our columns, and it must suffice for the present to note that the unit method of construction in respect to engine clutch, gearbox and change- speed lever is adopted. On the 15 h.p. the outstanding feature is the adoption of worm drive between propeller shaft and rear live axle. The 10 h.p. two-cylinder has been designed to carry a single landaulet body for doctor's use, and as exhibited will easily accommodate three persons inside. Considering the small radius in which this car can turn, the quality of work put into the chassis and the price at which the chassis is sold, viz., £295, there does not seem to be much doubt as to the position this car will take up in the market.
Owing to the success of the 9 Adler car during the past season, Morgan and Co., Ltd., the old-established Bond Street firm of coachbuilders, have decided to market a small four-cylinder model for 1909. This will be of 12 h.p., and similar construction to the well-known 9 h.p. double cylinder type. Accessibility has been most thoroughly studied, and all the parts can be very easily and rapidly taken apart or re-assembled. The price, with a four-seated body, will be only £295; whilst a landaulet will be obtainable for £375, the coachwork, of course, being by Morgan's themselves.
The same model, with a two-seated body, will be listed at £280. A smaller chassis, with a two-cylinder 7 h.p. motor (magneto ignition fitted), will be marketed at £180, with a two-seated body, or at £190 with four seats. Illustrations of the new engine and of some of its special features will be included in one of our full Show reports.
A device for letting the valves down lightly on their seats in order to reduce clatter is one of the special features incorporated in the new Roydale models, manufactured by the Roydale Engineering Co, of Huddersfield, Yorks. These cars are perhaps unique in that, although a water pump is used for the circulation in the jackets and radiator, the design, has been prepared to arrange for automatic thermo-syphon cooling should the pump for any season refuse work. In the Roydale two-jet carburetter the automatic extra air valve is cut entirely out of action when the engine is working on the small jet. Roller bearings, with ball bearings to take the thrust, are employed all over the chassis. It was on these cars that the dome lubricators, which can be so easily cleaned if the glass should get dirty, were first employed, and these are, of course, retained in the latest designs. At the Show there will be two Roydale chassis, one of 18 h.p. and the other of 25 h.p., besides an 18 h.p. touring car.
Calthorpe cars have recently gained lustre, and there is small doubt that the stand, which is numbered one, of the Calthorpe Motor Co of Birmingham, will not lack admiring visitors. The next season the firm is retaining the 16-20 h.p. model, but is introducing a 10 h.p. two-cylinder and a 25 h.p. "four-inch."
On the 16-20 h.p. the gate change supplants the sliding-type gearbox, and thermo-syphon water circulation has been adopted. With open body the price of this model will be £325. Both the new models possess the same features, the smaller one, with magneto ignition, being listed at £190 with a two-seated body, and the "four-inch" model with side-entrance carriage at £450. Chassis of the new type and a side-entrance standard car of the 16-20 h.p. model will be seen at the Show.
Perhaps the first of all companies to adopt the system of casting the crankcase and gearbox in one was the Motobloc company of France. This year a very noticeable inclination towards the system has been evident amongst home manufacturers. As arranged on the Motobloc car, the base unit is divided into three compartments, the rearmost for the clutch and gears, and the two forward ones for the reciprocating parts of the engine. Between the two latter is a division for the flywheel and camshaft gearing, which is thus well lubricated by oil. The clutch is of the very rare expanding ring type, somewhat similar to the usual road-wheel brake, except that it runs in oil. Owing to the compactness of the "Motobloc," the cardan shaft is not raked much, an advantage that renders the universal joints much more durable. The engine design is very clean, with overhead inlet valves and the underside exhaust valves all on one side. Other details conform to modern high-class practice.
Particularly interesting is the introduction of a 9 h.p. single-cylinder model of the Motobloc pattern, for we should say that this is the first occasion on which the rigid alignment of engine and gearbox has been fitted to such a small chassis. On the same stand there will be a 35 h.p. landaulet and two polished chassis of 18 h.p. and 25 h.p. respectively.
S. K. Simplex
The S. K. Simplex car to be exhibited. by Smeddle and Kennedy, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, is a vehicle embodying very many novel features, and in respect to price and what is offered for the money promises to be one of the startling revelations of the exhibition. The two-cylinder engine 3.5in. bore by 4.5in. stroke, develops 10 h.p. at 1,000 r.p.m. The valves are overhead and entirely enclosed, yet can be quickly reached by swinging over the cover after loosening two wing nuts. The transmission is through an internal-expansion metal-to-metal clutch and long propeller shaft taken back to the axle which embodies the three forward speeds and reverse gearbox. This box is on quite original lines, and although of the selective type only one gearshift rod is employed, the method being one of the firm's own patents. The steering gear is adjustable, and all the brakes are in the rear wheels, the four shoes being of internal-expansion type. Ignition is by Nieuport high-tension magneto, cooling by thermo-syphon circulation with fan blades cast in the flywheels and a nicely-designed radiator. The price of the chassis on the 7ft. bin. wheelbase with 760 by 90 tyres is £185, or with two-seated body having side entrance, £210.
Maudslay is almost synonymous with accessibility, for the Maudslay Motor Co were the first notable exponents of the most desirable feature of accessibility. Their engine remains practically the same as it has been for several years. Large doors to the crankcase and overhead valve gear entirely mounted with cams, shaft, etc., in a frame separate from the cylinders strikes the eye at once. A splendid system of lubrication is possible with the Maudslay patent valve gear, whilst forced feed obtains for the crankshaft bearings and connecting rod ends. In the live axle patterns there is a noticeable piece of work in the single-piece forging of the live axle framing, and here again accessibility is remarkable, for bevels and axle sections can be removed with the differential without even jacking up the car, much less removing the road wheels.
A convertible country-house and estate car, designed specially for heavy work, will make ,a particularly interesting feature of Stand 131, where Commercial Cars, Ltd., of Luton, will be showing this model, surnamed the "Norfolk." It is not a converted pleasure car, but partakes more of the commercial pattern. The engine gives about 25 h.p. from four cylinders. A model of the same vehicle with arrangements for fitting various types of removable tops will also be on view. A distinctive feature of these chassis is the fool-proof change-spend gear, with all wheels constantly in mesh, and all actuated by one lever, which controls the dog-clutches that bring the different gears into action. A specimen of this gearbox will be shown.
With regard to the Siddeley models for 1909 which were set out on page 359 of our last issue, we did not make it clear that all the prices given were for chassis and not complete cars. The first car in the list was priced for chassis only, and, all the following prices were also for chassis.
7th Annual Motor Exhibition. 13th-20th November. 
The “Pedals to Push" gear of the Adams Manufacturing Co., Ltd., has now been so improved that the disadvantage said by some users to pertain to the earlier type, of only having two forward speeds, has now been entirely removed. Through the whole run of models for the coming season a three-forward speeds and reverse epicyclic gear will be fitted, including the single-cylinder 10 h.p. In this model the only alteration for the new year will be the employment of a high- tension magneto, fitted at the option of the purchaser in place of a dry battery coil, and a new design of radiator. The bonnet has been lengthened so as to improve the general appearance of the vehicle, and the standard type of body is quite in accord with that generally favoured by the public for a light touring car.
The feature of interest on the Adams stand will undoubtedly be the new model four-cylinder 14-16 h.p., which is an entirely fresh design. The cylinders are cast in pairs, the crankshaft is forged from high-test tensile steel, and is carried in very large ball bearings, and of the very few engines in the whole of the Show which will be so fitted. Thermo-syphon water circulation is arranged to the Adams distinctive pattern of radiator, which embodies the initial letter of the company's name; a fan is absent behind the radiator, the flywheel being cast with fan-shaped arms that induce a sufficient draught. Standard ignition is by means of high-tension magneto, but for those who desire it, provision is made on the front of the enclosed timing gear-case to drive a vertical shaft contact breaker for coil accumulator ignition.
No clutch is necessary with the type of epicyclic gear used on the Adams cars, consequently the gears come immediately after the large diameter flywheel, and thence the transmission is taken through a universal joint to propeller shaft and the rear live axle. A pressed-steel frame, inswept at the front to provide big steering lock, supports a subsidiary pressed-steel frame open at the front and joined up by a circular extension at the rear, and upon this sub-frame is carried not only the engine and the gears, but also the whole of the four pedals for the control, together with the magneto. This gives the desirable unit construction at which so many firms are now aiming, and permits the whole of the power plant to be easily removed in case of mishap.
The front axle is tubular, ball and roller bearings are fitted throughout the chassis, including the engine, and an endeavour has been made to turn out an extremely light chassis on a wheelbase of 8ft. 1in.
There will also be on view a four-cylinder 18 h.p. car, having a beautifully finished landaulet body, and also a gearbox with the interlocking pedals, which will be driven electrically, so as to make clear the simple and effective action.
For the coming year the four-cylinder 15 h.p. Zedel will be offered exactly as for 1908, a sufficient proof that the very clever constructive details that can be found throughout this chassis are confirmatory of the manufacturers' pronouncement, when these cars were first marketed in this country, that everything had been subjected to the severest possible tests, and that the public would not be asked to purchase experimental vehicles.
The original balance-wheel air inlet and carburetter, original method of jacketing the gas pipe, means for detachment of clutch or gearbox, adjustment for wear of the crown-driven bevel wheel and differential gear, the engine lubrication device, original plan for softening the application of the internal-expansion brake on the propeller shaft — all these and many more points will be available for inspection on a polished chassis.
For the smaller four-cylinder 10 h.p. model, which, unlike the larger one, has the cylinders cast monobloc, with valves on opposite sides, the carburetter is of a different type, having the float chamber close to the base of the crankcase and the air inlet and mixing chamber in line with the inlet valve ports. A few changes have been made in this small model, including a lengthened wheelbase, and the same design of axle as applied in the larger models, but these alterations do not affect the power and transmission plant. The price of the Zedel cars for 1909 remains unaltered.
The Swift Motor Co., Ltd., of Coventry, will have on view three distinctive models. The extremely popular two-cylinder 10-12 h.p. having coil ignition, leather-faced cone clutch, three forward and reverse gears with direct drive on top, transmission by propeller shaft to rear live axle, 7ft. wheelbase, tyres 30in. by 3.75in. will sell for £210 for the chassis, £225 for the two-seated body, or £265 with a four-seated body on a longer wheel-base of 7ft. 9in. and 3.5in. tyres at rear.
The four-cylinder 15-18 h p., cylinders 85mm. bore by 102mm. stroke, coil ignition, leather clutch, three-speed gear, with direct drive on top, propeller shaft transmission, tyres 30in. by 4in., wheel-base 8ft. 6in., is offered for £315 for the chassis, or £360 with rotund pattern four-seated body.
The four-cylinder 18-24 h.p., 102mm. bore by 111mm. stroke, has similar details to the 15-18 h.p. as regards the transmission, but the wheelbase is lengthened to 9ft., tyres are 32in. by 4.5in., the chassis price is £375, or with rotund type four-seated body £430.
The Cadillac admirers will find just inside the Hammersmith entrance of the Exhibition what is claimed to be the most startling value ever afforded, in the shape of the new model 20-30 h.p. four-cylinder Cadillac that will sell for the remarkable price of £336, inclusive of handsomely finished and shaped five-seated side entrance body, tools and everything ready for use on the road.
The 20 h.p. model that was marketed in 1908 is displaced in favour of this new model, which will be turned out on the same standardisation system that this company has made so famous by the tests of the single-cylinder 10 h.p. cars, made officially by the R.A.C. this past season.
The single-cylinder 10 h.p. car is quite unaltered, and will be exhibited in chassis form, with a four-seated touring body, selling complete for £231, a two-seated runabout with leather hood suitable for doctors also, and another design of four-seated touring car.
The Sizaire car has been largely re-designed for the coming season, and although the daring arrangement of gear-box and its actuation is not altered, many other changes have been made.
The large cap and jacket on the single-cylinder 12 h.p. engine is held down by a bolt passing into a stud over the combustion space. The whole of the overhead inlet valve port and its cage, together with the rocker arm, short fuel pipe, and carburetter can be detached as one unit by the removal of three nuts, or either of the items mentioned can be separately dismantled by means of a very simple device. The carburetter jet and the float chamber can be detached for inspection by undoing the petrol pipe union and unscrewing one nut, without disturbing anything else. The thermo-syphon water circulating system has been completely overhauled and inlet and outlet water pipes will be much larger and shorter, and a drum-like tank now extends back from the top of the radiator towards the engine, giving a much larger supply of water. Ball beatings are now fitted to the back axle, and many of the parts have been materially strengthened. The price of the car with two-seated body will be £215, and with four-seated body £230.
The Buick cars that will be found on stand No. 32 will reveal many modifications and improvements for 1909, including high-tension magneto ignition, increased length of wheelbase, and 30in. by 3.5in. tyres. This new model, nominally 15-20 h.p., has cylinders 3.75in. bore, with the same stroke, and according to R.A.C. rating develops 22.5 h.p. All the valves are overhead, and are actuated from long exterior tappet rods working off the usual camshaft, these being accessibly situated for quick removal. Dual ignition by dry cells — coil and high-tension magneto is standard, lubrication is by a gear-driven pump, which sucks from the inside of the crank chamber and delivers to the dashboard, where the whole supply passes through a large dome sight glass, and then falls by gravity to the bearings. The transmission is through a two-forward speed and reverse epicyclic gear directly on to a propeller shaft and live axle, the usual clutch being unnecessary with this type of gear. From an inspection we have already made of the first of the new models which has reached this country, the details appear to be well carried out, and the vehicle complete with standard four-seated body, five lamps, horn and tools, is priced at £255. The type of body we saw may be popular in America, but it does not seem to us likely to appeal to the British purchaser who wants comfort and is not anxious to climb up over a car to reach the rear seats. With a properly-built English body the vehicle might to reach the market for which it is intended.
Germain will certainly be a most interesting stand, as an entirely new model six-cylinder chassis of this make, 86mm. bore by 101mm. stroke, 27.5 R.A.C. rating, will be displayed. The general details include high-tension magneto ignition, automatic carburetter, crankshaft set "desaxe," gate-change gearbox, positive oil pump lubrication, metal-to-metal clutch, and three-quarter elliptic springs at rear. This chassis is especially designed for town use, the side members of the frame being lowered at the points where the side doors will be fitted.
The 30 h.p. four-cylinder chassis has had various improvements added, and can now be supplied either with chain or propeller shaft transmission.
The very popular 18 h.p. Germain has been altered in many details, and customers can have the option of two different types of carburetter. A large number of parts of the engine gearbox, clutch, etc., will also be seen.
Two-stroke Engine Co
A two-cycle engine of 28 h.p. will be the centre of attraction of the cars on the stand to be occupied by the Two-stroke Engine Co., Ltd., of Shoreham. The principle of the motor is not quite so simple as it is with most engines of this type.
Directly opposite and almost at a right angle to each working cylinder there is a pump or scavenging chamber. The relative setting of the pistons is arranged to bring the pump piston to the bottom of its stroke when the main piston is at the top of the engine cylinder. On its out-stroke the pump takes in an explosive mixture from the carburetter. During the in-stroke this is forced through pipes into the working cylinder, the piston of which is at the time on its down stroke, at the end of which it uncovers the exhaust ports in the cylinder wall. The new mixture forces out the exploded charge to the exhaust box. On the upstroke this mixture is compressed, the piston in rising, of course, covering the exhaust ports. At the top there is a spark, and the cycle recommences. A peculiar feature of the live axle is the suspension of the differential on plummet blocks, but apart from this the details of the chassis follow ordinary practice.
The Darracq programme for 1909 includes such a range of models that there should be no difficulty in a buyer making a selection of one or other that will suit his pocket. Detailed improvements have been made, but these will not entail extra expense, as on the contrary the prices have been reduced all round.
The 8-10 h.p. two-cylinder will have cylinders 90mm. by l20mm., high-tension magneto ignition, automatic carburetter, three forward speeds, gearbox with shafts running in ball bearings, adjustment for taking up the gear in the worm and sector type of steering gear, "H" section front axle, internal-expansion brakes, and 750 by 85mm. Dunlop tyres, complete with a highly-finished two-seated body and sloping toolbox at the rear, the price for this vehicle being £175. With a Darracq reputation behind it, there need be no question as to its popularity.
Next in order comes the two-cylinder 10-12 h.p., R.A.C. rating 15 h.p., which with double phaeton body will sell for £250. The 14-16h.p., internal-expansion brakes all round, spring drive to the clutch, and with tyres 810mm. by 90mm., side-entrance touring body upholstered in leather, will sell for £325.
The "Four inch" Darracq is entirely a new car for 1909, the cylinders being 100mm. bore by 130mm. stroke, dual ignition, gilled-tube radiator, and gear-driven water pump, spring-drive between clutch and` gearbox, and tyres 810mm. by 90min. front and 815mm. by 105mm. at the rear. For this model the design of the bonnet and radiator differs materially from previous Darracq models, the lines being very pleasing. Much attention has been given to the design of the special rotund body, and from the drawings of this we are glad to observe that the doors to the rear seats are hinged inwards, so that they will automatically swing to when the car is started. Painted in any standard colour, with leather upholstery to match, the complete car, with five-seated body, will be offered for the moderate price of £425, or with a limousine-landaulet body £550.
The 25-35 h.p. four-cylinder, with body complete, will sell for £495, and the six-cylinder, 50 h.p. (which limitation of space prevents being on view at the Show) will sell for £550.
The celebrated engineering firm, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Ltd., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, announce that the four-cylinder 30 h.p. model has given such satisfaction to users in 1908 that no modification will be made in any of the details, and this will be exhibited with a landaulet body.
An entirely new model is the four-cylinder 18-22 h.p., cylinders 95mm. bore by 120mm. stroke, giving 27 b.h.p. at 1,300 r.p.m. Ignition will be by means of high-tension magneto as the standard, and coil accumulator ignition, coupled to a high-tension distributor, can be fitted optionally at an extra cost of £15. This is rather interesting, because hitherto the option has been in other directions, and shows that the magneto is now regarded as the more reliable system. A positive gear pump forces oil through all the engine bearings, and the four-forward speed and reverse gearbox is controlled by a single lever working in a gate. The tyres are 815mm. by 105mm. rear and 810mm. by 90mm. in front, both being interchangeable. Two sizes of wheelbase will be supplied, 9ft. 6in. and 10ft. 2in., for touring and landaulet bodies respectively. This 18-22 h.p. chassis, including tyres, tool kit, and spare parts, will be priced at £395.
The firm of A. Coltman and Sons, of Loughborough, have not hitherto exhibited at Olympia, and come forward with a four-cylinder, 20 h.p. chassis, the engine developing 23 b.h.p. at 1,000 r.p.m.
Quite a number of excellent features are provided, the aim of this firm, who are well known in the general engineering world, being to have every part of the chassis accessible for adjustment. Recognising the fact that accidents will sometimes occur, the various portions of the mechanism have been so designed as to permit quick removal of the affected part without disturbance of adjoining portions. For instance, by pulling outwards the differential driving shafts and undoing the connection between universal joint and propeller shaft, the whole of the differential gear can be withdrawn from its casing.
On the engine, cylinders cast in pairs with valves on one side, the tappet guides are formed in pairs with a plate which constitutes part of the camshaft cover, and is held in place by a single set screw. There are four of these plates, and when all are in position they form the casing for the cam, shaft.
The valve springs can be detached without the use of special tools, the valve stems being threaded, and by screwing up a small disc between the spring and the cotter, the latter can be withdrawn by the fingers, the same plan, but, of course, reversed, allowing the cotters to be replaced without trouble.
The crankshaft is set slightly "desaxe," is supported on three long phosphor-bronze bearings, and the big ends can be inspected quickly by removal of either of the camshaft covers. Thermo-syphon water circulation is the system, employed, through a honeycomb radiator with belt-driven fan behind. The carburetter is the firm's own special design, the automatic air valve being controlled by a mercury-glycerine dashpot that obviates any jumping with sudden throttle variation. Dual ignition is fitted, a very small magneto having the high- tension current sent through the same distributor that serves for the accumulator-coil ignition.
The clutch is an entirely new metal-to-metal design, having very large wearing surfaces mounted on ball bearings, and comprises five castiron shoes, which are forced outwards for disengagement by means of a cone. Excepting the engine, the employment of ball bearings on this chassis has been carried to the utmost possible limit, and at any point where there seems any necessity ball thrusts are used in addition. The differential gear and the shafts are made from nickel steel, and there is hardly a single casting on the chassis, the manufacturers preferring to employ the more costly but satisfactory forgings. The chassis complete and ready for the road, wheelbase 9ft. 4in., track 4ft. 7in., with tyres 810 by 100, is claimed not to weigh more than 16cwt. 2qr., and is priced at £360.
Buyers on the look-out for a light car of moderate price and that will cost little for upkeep should not miss the new two-cylinder 10 h.p. Riley, for which the manufacturers are arranging to satisfy the large demand certain to arise as soon as the public becomes acquainted with its merits. It has the now well-known Riley ‘V’ engine, 96mm. bore by 96mm. stroke, with the cylinders set at a true right angle to each other, giving a power unit that is vibrationless. The lubrication is by a mechanically-driven pump with auxiliary hand pump on the dash-board to help when very long hills are ascended. A Longuemare carburetter is placed between and slightly above the tops of the cylinders, and is particularly accessible for adjustment or cleaning. The unique thermo-syphon water-circulating system used so successfully by these makers on their larger model for the last two years is fitted to the one under notice, each cylinder having its own inlet and outlet pipes to the distinctively-shaped radiator, behind which a belt-driven fan runs. Transmission is through a leather-faced cone clutch to the Riley patent three-speed gearbox, in which the gear-wheels are always in mesh, the changes being effected by dog clutches pressed forward by light spiral springs, and as we know from our own experience with one of these vehicles, changes can be made quite silently.
Final transmission is through an enclosed universal jointed propeller shaft and live axle, with the weight of the wheels taken on ball bearings on the live axle casing. All the brakes are internal-expansion, and as the Riley Co. have their own patented and highly successful system of detachable and interchangeable wire wheels, these now popular fitments can be obtained at very slightly increased cost. On a pressed steel frame, with 750 by 85 tyres all over, wheelbase 7ft. 6in., and a very smartly designed two-seated body, the price complete of this vehicle ready for the road is £200.
The earlier model two-cylinder 9 h.p., with sloping dashboard remains unaltered.
A few changes have been made in the two-cylinder 12-18 h.p., a wood dashboard now taking the place of the combined metal petrol and oil tanks that filled this position in 1908, the petrol tank finding a place under the front seats. The price of the 9 h.p. with two-sated body is £168, and the 12-18 h.p. with two- seated body is £236 5s., or, with side entrance five-seated body, £283 10s.
Lacre & Albion
The Lacre Motor Car Co., Ltd., will exhibit Albion cars on Stand 146 in two models, viz., two-cylinder 16 h.p. and four-cylinder 24-30 h.p., the latter being altered in so many details that it is to all intents and purposes a new model.
A novel patented carburetter that helped towards the great success of this vehicle in the 1908 Scottish Reliability Trial will be fitted; the design of the magneto (Murray's patent low-tension type) has been revised, and now has semi-circular magnets, and a honeycomb type of radiator takes the place of the tubular type of this year. The patented lubricator has been materially simplified, the present pair of six-feed discs being discarded in favour of a single nine-feed disc and operated by a simple type of ratchet gear.
The camshaft spur wheels will be constructed of vulcanised fibre, the casing of water-circulating pump will be gunmetal instead of aluminium, and the design of the patented chain cases, which also act in the capacity of distance rods, has been modified. An addition to the carburetter will be an extra air inlet, which can be controlled from the dashboard, and experience has shown that, once this is set for any particular day, the engine will run thoroughly well with the automatic air supply.
A polished chassis of each pattern will be found on this stand, together with a 24h.p. model fitted with a magnificent limousine body manufactured in the Lacre Co.'s own workshops. This body will be painted an alternate dark green and black stripes, upholstery of interior in a novel tint of light fawn colour with trimmings of cord to match. The side windows on this vehicle are arranged to hinge up under the roof. A number of parts of engines, etc., will also be displayed.
Thornycroft cars will be marketed in three models only for the coming season, viz., four-cylinder 18 h.p., four-cylinder 30 h.p., and six-cylinder 45 h.p.
The smallest model has been completely redesigned, the engine having a bore of 95mm. with a stroke of 114mm., and instead of the valves being overhead they are now placed on one side. The cylinders are now cooled by thermo-syphon water circulation, the radiator having no fan behind, fan-shaped arms cast integral with the flywheel serving the purpose. Lubrication is by means of a positive driven gear pump situated in the crank chamber, the pressure at which the oil is delivered being regulated at will by means of a relief valve. The crank chamber is split horizontally, the upper half supporting the crankshaft bearings, and in the extreme front of this is supported the bracket to carry the starting handle, which is therefore independent of the chassis framing. The carburetter is served from a pressure-fed tank at the rear, which carries sufficient supply of fuel for about 200 miles. Transmission is by means of a disc clutch, selective type three-speed gearbox, propeller shaft and live axle, the casing of the latter being extended so as to carry the bearings for the driving wheels. This chassis is priced at £420.
The two larger models have not been materially altered for next year, and in respect to power plant and transmission have the same general arrangements, the engine cylinders being cast in pairs, bore 114mm. by 127mm. stroke. High- tension magneto is standard ignition and auxiliary coil can be fitted, in which synchronisation can be obtained by a high-tension distributor fitted to the forward end of the engine. Valves are mechanically operated and arranged on either side of the cylinders. Pump lubrication maintains the best conditions, and the makers claim that the engine will run in ordinary work for three to four days without replenishing. The carburetter on these models has received much attention in respect to access for cleaning, the jet being almost instantly detached whilst a special rotating collar and sleeve allows the whole range of the mixture to be varied to suit different atmospheric conditions. The transmission is through disc clutch, three-point suspension gearbox, shafts running in ball bearings and universally-jointed propeller shaft that is set horizontal. All brakes are internal expansion. The four-cylinder 30 h.p. chassis will sell for £575, and the six-cylinder 45 h.p. chassis for £775.
For 1909 the Westinghouse cars will be marketed in two models only, a 20-30 h.p. live axle and a 35-40 h.p. chain drive. In both the general details of the engine are alike in respect to casting in pairs and very long stroke, viz., 130mm. on the 30 h.p., and 140mm. on the 40 h.p. A gear driven pump delivers the oil into a series of sight feeds on the dashboard, whence it is sent by another pump to the crankshaft bearings, crankcase and timing wheels. The water pump is so arranged that should anything happen to it, the water will continue to circulate by natural convection, the diameter of the pipes being large enough to permit of this.
On both models a flat—plate disc clutch is employed, the plates being kept in engagement by a strong exterior spring. In the live axle model the driving shafts can be withdrawn from the sleeves without disturbing the wheels or jacking the car up from the ground. In the chain driven model effective and neat chain cases are fitted in such a manner that the chains run continuously in an oil bath, but adjustments can be made without disturbing the cases. The brakes are large, and can all be easily adjusted for wear without disturbing the chassis mechanism. Messrs. A. Gaal and Co. are the sole concessionaires for Great Britain.
The exhibits of Messrs. Hill-Martini, Ltd., will comprise a four-cylinder 20 h.p. fitted with a single landaulet body, the engine having low-tension magneto ignition, automatic carburetion, cooling by means of honeycomb radiator and gear-driven pump and transmission by leather clutch, four forward speed gearbox, propeller shaft, and live axle. Engine lubrication is by exhaust pressure, and the petrol supply to carburetter is also maintained by the same means. This vehicle complete will be priced at £500.
A four-cylinder 16 h.p. Martini will have the engine cast monobloc, 80mm. bore by 100mm. stroke, high-tension magneto ignition, three-speed gearbox, leather clutch, and live axle. Price, complete with double phaeton touring body, will be £400.
A four-cylinder 12 h.p. chassis will be displayed, much on the lines of the 16 h.p., except that it will be fitted with a disc clutch, and, with two-seated body, will be priced at £260. The display on this stand will also include a Certus friction-driven car.
The Vertex 25 h.p. car, to be exhibited by Messrs. James and Browne, Ltd., of Hammersmith, will be on altogether novel lines, as this well-known firm, which has hitherto only manufactured chain-driven cars, have embodied propeller shaft and live axle in this new 1909 model.
The four-cylinder engine will be found to include quite a large number of most interesting features, including the crankshaft running in ball bearings, shaft set "desaxe," overhead inlet valves, worm drive for the vertical shaft of the overhead contact maker for coil ignition, five rings on each of the pistons, and special lubricating device. The ball bearings for the crankshaft are, as they ought to be, very large, a double row being placed for each of the end bearings, and a single row for the central bearing, whilst at the front end there is a clever double-thrust bearing intended to take the strain in both directions.
The overhead inlets are actuated in the usual manner from long exterior rods, the tappets for lifting these being fitted with hardened steel adjusting heads for taking up wear. In order to reduce any possibility of noise, the fulcrums supporting the rocker arms for these valves are mounted on short vertical bridges, which can be adjusted for height so as to keep the outer ends of the rockers in constant engagement with the valve stems, and, as follower springs are attached to the lower ends of the long rods, there is constant contact in every portion of the movement.
Considerable attention has been devoted to the designing of the valves and their seats, these having a very large area, but minimum possible lift, consequently reducing likelihood of wear on the valve stems and cams, reducing noise, and permitting weaker springs to be employed. The pistons are quite a departure from usual practice, being turned up from cast steel of a special alloy made for the purpose. Magneto ignition will be fitted as standard, the design also permitting coil ignition in addition when a customer so desires. In order to secure neatness and to avoid a complication of exterior shafts, the end of the magneto armature shaft carries a worm wheel meshing with another worm attached to the vertical contact-maker shaft. The water pump is altogether unlike the general run of such fittings, as no stuffing glands are used, leakage past the driving shaft being prevented by an ingenious non-return valve that is simple and certain in action; The leather-faced cone clutch is the reversed type, entirely enclosed, and free from the possibility of the entry of dust or dirt, and including, as it does, a metal driving plate, makes the engagement very sweet and soft, at the same time reducing the pressure needed on the pedal for disengagement. The remainder of the transmission plant is in every respect in accordance with the most advanced principles, the selective type gearbox being cast without joints, the universal joint being entirely enclosed and the weight of the car taken on the outer sleeves of the rear axle. The price of this chassis, with 875 by 105 tyres to all wheels, is £350, and, with our knowledge of the superior work turned out for many years past by this firm, we believe the price will compare favourably with other machines on the market.
The remainder of the vehicles on this stand will comprise a six-cylinder chain-driven chassis (66 h.p. on R.A.C. rating), a four-cylinder chassis, with horizontal engine, carrying a landaulet body, with secret receptacle at the rear for a Stepney spare wheel, and a polished chassis of the same type, fitted with the firm's patent starter actuated from the driver's seat.
The new 12-15 h.p. Hillman-Coatalen car, selling at £298, with a four-seated body, will be a very attractive vehicle, for the workmanship, from all that we have seen at the works, is particularly good, whilst the design of the mechanism shows that considerable thought and care have been expended upon it. The car follows the lines of the larger models, with its valves on either side, being held down in pairs by stirrup. The crankcase is very strong, being divided vertically instead of horizontally, and the crank bearings are thoroughly well held. The accessibility of the pump, magneto (which latter is, of course, an extra), and carburetter, as well as the valves, is a marked feature, whilst, wherever a part may at any time be required to be removed (such as the clutch member), provision is made for the work to be done without needless complication. Neither radius nor torque stays are employed, the drive being taken through the forward end of the three-quarter elliptic springs. The steering is carried between two brackets bolted respectively to the frame and to the engine bracket, whilst any desired angle of steering pillar can be given without any trouble. The accessibility of the petrol tap and filter – on the outside of the frame — is characteristic of the thought put into the Hillman-Coatalen cars.
The 25 h.p. four-cylinder and the 40 h.p. six-cylinder curs are not materially altered from last year; a triple jet carburetter is used on the 25 h.p. ear, and the clutch is made very sweet in action by the interposition of springs under the leather.
A new model Fiat is the four-cylinder 12-14 h.p., with live axle. Cylinders are cast monobloc, and are also integral with the upper half of the base chamber. Ignition is by high-tension magneto, lubrication by means of gear pump circulating oil through the hollow crankshaft and connecting rods to main bearings and cooling by the aid of gear-driven water pump and fan-armed flywheel.
The gearbox has three forward speeds, with direct on top, operated by a gate lever, and the propeller-shaft is contained in a casing forming an extension of the rear axle easing. With a wheelbase of 8ft. 4in., tyres 810 by 90 to all wheels, this chassis will be priced at £320. On another chassis of this power will be fitted a single landaulet body seating two persons inside and two on driver's seat, priced at £420.
The four-cylinder 15-20 h.p. will have the cylinders cast in pairs, low-tension magneto, mechanical lubrication, with pump driven by a belt front the inlet valve camshaft, gear-driven water pump and disc clutch running in oil. Transmission is through a four-speed gearbox, propeller shaft and live axle, the pedal brake being external and the side lever brakes internal expanding. Fitted with a landaulet body, and including quite a number of luxurious fitments of a novel character, this will be priced at £650, whilst a similar model, with side entrance phaeton body, will sell at the same figure.
There will also be a 26-35 h.p. polished chassis, the engine having high-tension magneto ignition, pump lubrication, pump water circulation disc clutch, four-speed gearbox, and propeller shaft to live axle. The price of this chassis is £575.
On this stand visitors may expect to see a somewhat surprising type of limousine body, with a unique colour scheme, and pretty well everything that can be imagined as needful or ornamental.
The display will be completed with the new model four-cylinder 40-50 h.p. chassis having propeller shaft and live-axle transmission, priced at £750.
Ford cars will be shown in two distinct models. The four-cylinder 15-l8 h.p. remains much as it was for the past year, but interest on this stand will certainly centre on the new model four-cylinder 20-24 h.p. Cylinders are cast monobloc, integral with the upper half of the crank chamber; the fly-wheel is in the usual position, but entirely enclosed, and behind this comes the two forward speed and reverse epicyclic gear, every portion enclosed, and the whole running in an oil bath. Final transmission is by propeller shaft and live axle. Engine and gearbox form a single unit, lubrication is by gravity feed and simple splash, and the cooling is by a gear-driven pump.
A very peculiar feature of this new model is that a large low-tension alternate current generator, for providing current through a transformer to the spark plugs, is attached to the flywheel, and runs constantly in oil in what is, to all intents and purposes, the gearbox. With a five-seated side-entrance body this new model Ford car is priced at £225, or with landaulet body, at £265, and the figures at which these are offered, low as they are, could, of course, only be achieved by the big production in the American factory.
The F. N. motor agency will exhibit two F.N. cars — a 14-16 h.p. four-cylinder engine chassis, with side-entrance body, chassis price, with Palmer tyres, being £350, and a new model 8-12 h.p. four-cylinder car, which, complete with two- seated body, will be offered at £175.
De Dietrich and Co. will have two stands in the hall, No. 45 devoted to the French-built machines, and No. 18 for the English-built.
The French cars are all chain driven, having four-cylinder vertical engines, fan flywheel, disc clutch, gate-change lever to the four-speed gear-box, with direct drive on both third and fourth speeds, and pressed steel frame. There will be three of the 20 h.p. model, one in chassis form and the others with Kellner landaulet and limousine bodies.
A 30 h.p. model will be fitted with a special limosine body, and a small new model 10 h.p. will have a touring body.
The English-built machines, made in Birmingham, will be represented by one model only — a 20 h.p. four-cylinder, with propeller shaft and live axle transmission. Cylinders are cast in pairs, ignition is by low-tension magneto, and a metal disc clutch transmits to the four forward speed gear-box. In addition to the polished chassis, there will be one with a specially-designed Mulliner cabriolet body, and another with an entirely enclosed carriage body by Salmons and Sons, which can be opened or closed as desired.
Dennis Bros., Ltd., of Guildford, will introduce a new four-cylinder 18 h.p. model, having magneto ignition, four-speed gearbox, with direct drive on third, Dennis patent worm drive to rear axle, and all details of the most modern type. It is claimed that the complete vehicle, with a body to seat four persons, weighs less than 20cwt., and will be sold for £380 complete.
The other models to be shown by this firm will be a polished chassis four-cylinder 40 h.p., four chassis, each 35 h.p., fitted with landaulet, limousine and touring bodies, and a new design with a large folding leather hood, which entirely covers the rear seats and gives much lighter construction than the usual landaulet body.
Piccard-Pictet & Rochet-Schneider
The Swiss-built Piccard-Pictet cars will be exhibited by Donne and Willans Ltd., in two models - four-cylinder 18-24 h.p. and six-cylinder 28-40 h.p. In addition to a chassis of each size, there will be two complete vehicles, fitted with landaulet limousine body, selling complete for £740, and double phaeton body, selling for £680.
On the stand will also be seen a four-cylinder 16-20 h.p. Rochet-Schneider polished chassis, priced at £540.
The Sheffield-Simplex chassis will attract more than usual attention this year, because it is being made in two forms. In this great curiosity, the “improvement" not only makes for greater simplicity and ease of driving, but effects a saving in the cost of no less than £125. The change consists in the fact that the orthodox gearbox has been dispensed with, a small sliding spur-type gear being embodied in an oil-tight case at the live axle end of the torque-resisting member, it being practically little or no larger in dimensions than the usual case for the universal joint fitted to most cars.
The change in the style and position of the gearbox effects a net saving of over 150 parts, and over 300lb. in weight. The chassis, with an orthodox gearbox and a six-cylinder 45 h.p. engine, sells at £750 net; without the gearbox the price is £625.
Virtually the direct drive from the engine to the live axle is relied upon for practically all work, a single low speed allowing for easier starting and for exceptional gradients, a reverse, of course, being provided; but the tests, which have, been conducted over 5,000 miles of road in these islands, embracing every well-known hill, and including those that are invariably taken in the course of the Scottish Trials, as well as the North Devonshire hills and those in the Lake and Peak districts, have shown that, in the majority of cases, the hills can be taken on top gear alone, or partly on the top gear, while on resorting to the low gear the speed has seldom fallen below 20 miles an hour.
The chief points about the Sheffield-Simplex cars are that ball bearings are used throughout the engine, the carburetter has no moving parts, the control is reduced to two pedals, one of which is the side moving foot throttle; the clutch is of the multiple-disc type, and the lubrication is mechanically positive throughout the engine and transmission gear, and is operated from one source. The live axle is arched, both brakes act direct on a double drum on the road wheels, each set of brakes having its own braking surface. The wheels are Rudge-Whitworth detachable wire, and, besides these features, there are others which make for comfort, convenience and simplicity of maintenance.
Two models of the Miesse petrol cars will be displayed. The first is a four-cylinder 14-16 h.p., cast monobloc, 80mm. bore by 110mm. stroke, with valves on either side, nickel steel crankshaft, gravity feed lubrication to engine, worm gear drive for high-tension magneto, and water pump and the Zenith carburetter, having a mechanically-controlled air supply system. A Hele-Shaw clutch comes between the engine and the three-speed gear box, final transmission being by propeller shaft and live axle. Pedal brake is external, and a side lever controls the internal-expansion rear brakes, The price of this car complete with four-seated side-entrance body is £280, or, with two-seated body and glass screen, £275.
The larger Miesse is a 24-30 h.p., 110mm. bore by 120mm. stroke, with other details much on the lines of the smaller model, the price of this with double phaeton body, the wheelbase being 9ft. 3in., and wheels fitted with 815 by 105 tyres, being £510.
Bentall cars for 1909 will be of two tyres only, viz., two-cylinder 11 h.p., selling complete with four-seated body for £250, and four-cylinder 16 h.p. chassis price £285.
No alterations have been made any respect in the design of either model, the makers claiming that they have nearly arrived at finality of pattern. The special features of these cars concern the original coupling of the gearbox to the back axle by means of radius rods. The special fitments on these vehicles include internal cone faced clutch, covered with hard vulcanised fibre, running in an oil bath, distinctive arrangement of change-speed lever and steering gear, and the carrying of four separate brakes directly upon the rear-wheel hubs.
J. W. Brooke and Co
J. W. Brooke and Co., Ltd., of Lowestoft, will exhibit only six-cylinder cars in two sizes, 25 h.p. and 45 h.p., price respectively for chassis, with tyres, £495 and £580. The only alteration as compared with 1908 concerns the smaller model, which will have pump lubrication, pedal-applied external brake on the counter-shaft, and a modified design of float chamber to the carburetter.
The small model will be exhibited in chassis form, and the larger model will be fitted with a double landaulet body to seat six persons, which will be priced complete at £730.
E.J.Y.R / Rutherford
The steamer introduced as the E. J. Y. R. will in future be known as the Rutherford, and has been considerably improved and revised as compared with the model last shown at Olympia. The flash generator consists of a series of spiral tubes, which are heated by a paraffin burner. Steam is conveyed to a three-cylinder vertical engine, which is placed partly under the bonnet and partly under the footboards, which develops 40 h.p. The friction clutch between engine and axle has now disappeared, and the drive is direct, but it is possible to run the engine free for warming up. By an alteration in the automatic control cevices it is claimed that a constant head of steam can be maintained at uniform temperature and pressure, without attention on the part of the driver. It is mimed that enough water can be carried for 100 miles of ordinary running, and that the consumption of paraffin is about a gallon to 18 miles.
The Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., will have one 30-40 h.p. chassis, with a six-cylinder engine, gate change gearbox, dual ignition, honeycomb radiator, gear shafts running in ball bearings, and live-axle transmission. A special point is made of the very long and flexible springs and steering joints of a new type, which are said to obviate accident through connections coming adrift.
The Panhard cars will be found to be thoroughly up to date, and also to show features that, apart from being novel, are in every instance excellent practice. The lubrication system is of the forced-feed type, but old oil is not used afresh, the cam actuated ram pump (worked by worm gearing at the rear end of the exhaust camshaft) drawing oil from the tank carried on the frame, forcing it to the two sight feeds, one of which feeds the oil to the gearbox and the other to the outer end of the ram pump, which forces it to the pipe which feeds the four cylinder wails, any excess of oil drawn by the plunger going back to the oil tank. The dashboard is thus denuded of all fittings except the extremely small twin drip feeds and the switch. The new position for the clutch introduced by Messrs. Panhard's, namely, in a forward extension of the gearbox casing, has proved so thoroughly successful that it is now on all the new live axle models. The side brakes are now connected up by bands of steel 0.75in wide, and it will be observed that the couplings at each end of the strips are worked out with extreme neatness and simplicity. The outer easing over the propeller shaft is forked at its forward end, and is then carried between spring buffers, its chief function being that of a torque stay.
The 10 h.p. car has an engine of 85mm. bore by a 120mm. stroke, the engine being cast in one piece, the inlet and exhaust pipes forming part of the same casting, thus reducing water joints and compression joints to a minimum. The valves are all placed on one side of the engine, thus being operated by a single camshaft. The ignition is Bosch high-tension magneto, and the lubrication is internally applied under pressure, an oscillating pump of a valveless type being used for the purpose. The magneto and water pumps are driven at light angles to the crankshaft, and extreme ease of detachability has been made a strong feature of every accessory to the engine. The carburetter is of a constant-level type, the jet being always visible and easily accessible. The power is conveyed through a leather-faced friction cone clutch, and a three-speed gearbox, with a direct drive on the third speed. The propeller shaft is enclosed in an extension of the back axle, which forms a sleeve, fitted at the forward end with a torque and shock-absorbing device.
The 25 h.p. six-cylinder car has an engine 98mm. bore by 122mm. stroke, the cylinders being cast in pairs. The crankshaft is supported on four bearings, the lubrication being the same as on the smaller model, whilst the general arrangement throughout is also similar. It will be noted that the engine and its component parts form a complete unit independent of the rest of the chassis. A very useful feature of this six-cylinder car is the half-compression device fitted to enable the engine to be easily started.
The English-built Clement cars will be found to be full of good points, the design being really excellent, extreme cleanliness and simplicity being the keynote throughout. Thus, on the 14-18 h.p. car which we had an opportunity of inspecting prior to exhibition we noticed that the magneto had been relied upon solely, although a place has been prepared for fitting a contact breaker if a second ignition system be required.
The method of withdrawing the clutch is particularly good, a very easy action being given, although the spring is amply strong to secure perfect engagement. A striking feature is the position and style of the torque stay, which has been simplified down to its barest element — a stay carried at one end in a pair of lugs on the top of the differential casing and at the other end in a lug, brazed, at an upward sloping angle, on the cross-frame member. The stay is under compression, and, by test, we found it to be quite correctly hinged. This torque stay will create a lot of interest at the Show. The non-binding of the gear change-lever and sleeve is secured in a very simple way. Following the latest practice, no inspection door is provided on the differential case.
The range of Renault models is very extensive, embracing as it does three two- cylinder cars, the 8 h.p., the 9 h.p., and the 10-14 h.p.; five four-cylinder cars, the 10-14 h.p., the 12-16 h.p., the 14-20 h.p., the 20-30 h.p., and the 35-45 h.p., and a six-cylinder car of 50-60 h.p., whilst the 12-16 h.p. car is made with a normal frame and with a dropped frame for elderly people, and the 20-30 h.p. and the 35-45 h.p. cars are made in light forms for fast work, as well as in the normal forms. These light types are new for 1909, whilst the 8 h.p. and the 12-16 h.p. cars are also new models. The former should be a very popular car among professional men, for its total weight is but 900lb., and it should prove a very fast and economical vehicle to run. It will be shown as a two-seated voiturette selling complete at £200. The 10-14 h.p. car will be shown with a landaulet body, whilst the 20-30 h.p. shown as a polished chassis will be typical of the new light-weight types for speedy work. The 14-20 h.p. and the 35-45 h.p. will also be shown in chassis form, whilst the six-cylinder car will be shown as a lierline limousine.
White Steam Cars
The White steam cars for 1909 are being built in two models, which resemble each other in their general constructional lines, merely differing in power, size and price.
The larger model will be known as 40 h.p., and, as a complete open touring car to seat five or seven, will sell for £800, the car having a 10ft. 2in. wheelbase.
The smaller model will be known as a 15 h.p., and, as a completely equipped open touring car, will sell for £425, the wheelbase being 8ft. 8in.
On the higher-powered model the high-pressure cylinder is of 3.5in. bore, and the low-pressure cylinder is of 6in. bore, whilst the stroke is 4.5in. On the smaller model the high-pressure cylinder is of 2.5in. bore, and the low- pressure cylinder is of 4.25in. bore, the stroke being 3in.
The changes in the engine may be summarised as follow: the Stephenson valve motion hitherto adopted on the White cars, actuated by eccentrics on the camshaft has now given place to the Joy valve motion, actuated directly from the connecting rods, whilst the pumps, all of which are located on the left-hand side of the engine, are driven by the levers from the valve mechanism. This new construction greatly simplifies the engine, for not only is there a reduction by nearly a half in the number of parts, but a considerable saving in weight is effected; all eccentrics are done away with, and the engine is more compact, permitting the use of a short one-piece crankshaft.
Both the high-pressure valve and the low-pressure valve are piston valves, steam being admitted from the centre of the valves and exhausting at the ends. Thus the pressure on the valve stuffing box is reduced to that of the exhaust from the respective cylinders. The condenser is large, and is carried in the place usually occupied by the radiator on a petrol car, and is fan-cooled. Greater fan efficiency has been aimed at in the new models, so that good condensation is effected, thus making for economy in water consumption.
Accessibility is given to all parts of the engine, and thorough provision has been made for keeping the pumps and all parts within the crankcase well lubricated. The generator is not altered in construction, and the other excellent features of the White mechanism have been retained, although a few minor details in connection with the pilot light and vaporiser have been changed, the work of cleansing the pilot light being materially lessened.
The Orleans display will include three distinct models. The 35 h.p. four-cylinder will have metal-to-metal clutch and three-speed gearbox, and will be fitted with landaulet body, the price of the complete vehicle being £725.
Two of the 30-40 h.p. models, 136mm. bore by 155mm. stroke, will have four-speed gearbox, leather-clutch, and other usual details. Fitted with touring body and complete with hood, glass screen, and lamps, the price will be £800, the other similar-powered chassis with limousine-landaulet body being £950. The display will be completed with a 45 h.p., six-cylinder Orleans, fitted with a luxurious limousine body that will sell for £1,100.
An automatic starter will be fitted to the 70-90 h.p. Gobron-Brillie chassis, which will be one of the attractions of Stand 51, allotted to Gobron-Brillie Motors. This big car has a six-cylinder engine, and, of course, as its name implies, has dual pistons in each cylinder, making for this model a dozen pistons in all. The starting system is adapted also for inflating the tyres. One of these engines will be shown with glass cylinders to demonstrate the action of the dual pistons on the single crankshaft.
Four-cylinder models of 40-60 h.p. and 28-40 h.p. are also made with engines of the same design, and a smaller 15-20 h.p. for town work. With the exception of the latter, all chassis are fitted with a double clutch, one being of the metal-to-metal type to take all slipping, and the other being of the cone pattern to make the drive positive.
The fast and silent little F.N. cars made by the famous Belgian small arms factory, will be represented on this stand. Two models, both with four-cylinder engines, one of 12-14h.p. and the other of 14-16 h.p., are made by the F.N. Company.
White and Poppe
Of extreme interest to users as well as members of the trade will be the exhibit of Messrs. White and Poppe, Ltd. A range of entirely new engines will be displayed in one, two, three, four, and six cylinders, varying in bore and stroke from the 80mm. by 90mm. to the 120mm. by 130mm.
The chief features of these engines are the accessibility and interchangeability of parts, and the simple yet perfectly effective system of lubrication. On this latter point the makers claim that smoking cannot be caused under the most adverse circumstances. Quite a new engine is the four-cylinder 85mm. by 110mm., which is remarkably compact and complete, including, as it does, a positively-driven fan, oil pump, piping for thermo-syphon water circulation, magneto and contact maker for coil ignition, flywheel and clutch.
The firm's new pattern contact breaker was recently illustrated and described in our columns, and there will also be displayed a very novel and wonderfully simple silencer that exerts no back pressure, an induction coil testing machine for determining whether each unit of a coil is sparking at the proper moment, and a new model W. and P. carburetter. This last, although having the principle of an eccentrically-closed jet that has proved so successful in this firm's carburetter during the last year, has in all other respects been completely re-designed, and is now arranged to suitable for either gravity or pressure feed. By means of universal adjustments, it can be fitted in the most awkward positions, and the devices for adjustment of air control and petrol supply have been materially simplified.
The removal of the staff and plant from Beeston to the great Coventry works has slightly delayed the completion of the Humber plans and production of the 1909 models, otherwise we would be able to give some interesting illustrations of the new features. These will, therefore, be given in our first Show number.
The cars that will be on show and their prices are as follow:— A six-cylinder Coventry with double-phaeton body, £450; a 28 h.p. New Humber with D-fronted landaulet, £700; a 20 h.p. standard Beeston with double-phaeton body, £435; a 22 h.p. New Humber with five-seated body, £465; a 15 h.p. standard Coventry with side-entrance body, £330; a 12 h.p. Coventry side-entrance body, £250; an 8h.p. New Humber, £215; and a 12 h.p. doctor's landaulet, £350.
The 28 h.p. car has a new 100mm engine otherwise the chassis is the same as the standard 30 h.p. Beeston model.
In the same way the 22 h.p. car is an improved 20 h.p. Beeston, having a new engine of 90mm. bore.
The 12 h.p. Coventry now has its cylinders cast in pairs. Forced lubrication, thermo-syphon cooling, and detachable wheels will be employed on all the 1909 models. Moreover, extreme cleanliness of engine is being aimed at by Messrs. Humber, the bearings and valve guides being so designed that oil or grease cannot exude. This effort to produce a car that will not drip oil outside one's house is greatly to be commended. Heavier tyres will be a feature on the new models, thus providing for the increase in power and speed of the new engines and adding to the comfort of the users.
The new 22 h.p. and 28 h.p. engines are modelled upon the valuable experience gained in connection with the "Four-inch" Race, and, whilst silence and flexibility have been retained, the heat losses have been considerably reduced and the efficiency of the engines secured to the utmost.
The 20 h.p. Beeston is unaltered, whilst the other popular type, the 10 h.p. Coventry has had its lubrication, carburation, and ignition vastly improved, the pump being carried in a better position, the Humber carburetter substituted for the one previously employed, and a high-tension distributor placed in the ignition system.
The new 12 h.p. Humber engine, with its cylinders in pairs, has been so successful during the past few months that this model will not be altered.
The new 8 h.p. Humber brings the firm back to its first love, for Humbers were undoubtedly among the pioneers of the small car in this country. The engine is two-cylindered and of extreme neatness, the absence of pipes helping towards this end. With two ignitions and forced lubrication the engine is fully up-to-date, whilst the chassis design throughout is excellent.
The range of Talbot models on view will include the new 12 h.p. chassis; a 15 h.p. and a 25 h.p., each with a side-entrance body; a 20 h.p. with landaulet body; and a 35 h.p. with special limousine body.
The great feature of the Talbot engines for 1909 is the employment of a very simple arrangement, which renders them practically noiseless, the only noise that can be detected being a faint purr from the timing gear wheels. This silencing, moreover, is effected without detracting from the power or affecting the working of the engine.
The new 12 h.p. model has its cylinders in pairs and its valves actuated by a single camshaft. The carburetter is of the usual Talbot type, and two ignitions are employed, a single distributor conveying the current to the plugs. The lubricating oil is pumped to sight feeds on the dash, whence the main bearings and four troughs, one under each connecting rod, are fed. The troughs maintain a constant level for the scoops on the connecting rods to dip into. The drive is through a leather-faced cone clutch, a gearbox, giving four speeds and reverse, all the gear-shafts being on ball bearings, and live axle, the sleeves of the axle taking the weight of the car.
The 15 h.p. model is not materially altered from the past season, the chief improvements lying in the new floating live axle, the differential being quite free from all road shocks.
The 25 h.p. model is un-altered, save that an accelerator pedal inter-connected with the hand throttle control is fitted, and, if required, a new disconnecting clutch can be fitted. In the latter, internal teeth are cut in the clutch sleeve, and corresponding teeth are cut on the gearbox shaft. When declutching, these teeth are disengaged, consequently there is no effect on the gearbox shaft from the spinning of the clutch. Gear changing is thus greatly simplified.
In the 35h.p. model wider springs to the front wheels are being employed, and a new type of front axle is now used. The live-axle casing has been slightly altered and strengthened, and the moving parts now run on eight rows of balls.
The Rolls-Royce six-cylinder will have practically the same detailed features as in the 1908 model, the point which differentiates these from other six-cylinder cars, viz., the casting of the cylinders in two sets of three, being, of course, retained. On the stand will be exhibited the car that won in its class in the 2,000 miles R.A.C. Trials. A number of parts, in addition to the polished chassis, will be displayed.
Through a misunderstanding, we recently described the 12-16 h.p. four-cylinder live-axle Peugeot as a new model, but, of course, this was made last season. The Peugeot range is very extensive, and on all the models the leather cone clutch, mechanical lubrication, gate-change speed, and direct drive on the top gear are employed. The 9 h.p., 10 h.p. and 12 h.p. models have three forward speeds, and all others four speeds.
We find we made two errors in referring to the Belsize models for 1909. The 14-16 h.p. car is priced still at £285. Our statement of £275 was a typing error. The price of the limousine on a 14-16h.p. chassis resulted in some misunderstanding, for our notes clearly give it as £300, whereas it is £450. We were astonished at the time, and raised the query, but must have misunderstood our informant.
Societa Anonima Officine de Luca Daimler, whose works are at Naples, will exhibit a complete chassis, with a four-cylinder Knight engine, 96mm. bore by 130mm. stroke, thermo-syphon water circulation, high-tension magneto ignition, honeycomb radiator and. low straight dashboards, and propeller-shaft live-axle, transmission.
There will also be displayed two complete cars, with four-cylinder 20 h.p. engines, with the usual mushroom valves, fitted respectively with a side-entrance double phaeton body and a landaulet body. On this stand will be a sectional 22 h.p. Knight engine, by which visitors will be easily enabled to follow the action of the sliding sleeves.
7th Annual Motor Exhibition. 13th-20th November. 
Messrs. Warwick Wright, Ltd., come forward with a complete new model four-cylinder 20 h.p. Metallurgique. The engine has been redesigned throughout, and there are enormous water spaces round the valve chests, the cylinders being much wider at one side than the other in order to give sufficient room for this. The water pump disappears, cooling now being by thermo-syphon through a cellular type radiator of the distinctive triangular design, by which one of these cars can instantly be recognised on the road. The radiator has been much increased in size and now provides 25 per cent, more cooling surface than in the same model for last year. The unique Metallurgique expanding clutch is, of course, retained. There is a general alteration in the arrangement of the gearbox, this being now much smaller with very much shorter shafts, although the diameters of these have been slightly increased. An altogether new type of pedal brake is placed behind the gearbox, this giving a double link motion at the anchorage, making it very sensitive without harshness. There is a universal joint at each end of the propeller shaft, and this is practically horizontal when the car is carrying an average load. The rear springs have been completely transformed, the lower portion of the three-quarter elliptic being perfectly flat, and these rear springs are about a couple of inches longer than anything else to be found in the Show. The centres of the steering heads are now canted, the rear internal-expansion brakes are coupled up by a very wide balancing plate, and screwed down greasers are fitted everywhere, including all the steering-joint connections. A departure for the Metallurgique Company is the setting of the crankshaft desaxe in all models. In the four-cylinder 40 h.p. shown there are but a few minute alterations from last year's model. We note that the two chassis and the two completely-finished cars on this stand are fitted with Glissoire shock absorbers. A later model of this make appeared in the Show early in the week, and will be found described and illustrated on one of the later pages.
Next year's Rex-Remo models consist of 16 h.p. and 20 h.p. four-cylinder chassis, the former of which is shown without bodywork on the stand of the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., of Coventry. The cylinders are cast separately with the valves on opposite sides, the high-tension magneto being fitted on the same side as the triple jet carburetter. The petrol tank is fitted to the driver's side of the dashboard and carries the drip lubricator, and also the high-tension coil if supplementary ignition is fitted. The clutch is of the cone pattern, driving through a three-speed Panhard type of gearbox to the cardan shaft and live axle. Universal joints are fitted at both ends of the cardan shaft. The torque is resisted by a splayed rod abutting on a spring damper on one of the cross-members of the frame, and the forward half of the rear springs act as distance pieces. The pedal-applied brake is of the contracting type working on the shaft behind the gearbox, the two rear-wheel brakes being operated by the side hand lever. Both engine and gearbox are carried on separate under-frames. In order to provide greater accessibility to the carburetter and magneto a portion of the wooden panel at the side of the bonnet is hinged and lifts outwards, affording greater hand space to both these parts. A 20h .p. side-entrance car selling at £350, and provided with folding windscreen and Cape hood, is exhibited by the same firm.
The new model 12 h.p. Sizaire-Naudin is fitted with a single-cylinder engine 120mm. bore by 130mm. stroke, and is shown by Messrs. Jarrott and Letts, Ltd., 45, Great Marlborough Street, W. In many respects this car is an enlarged edition of the 9 h.p. model. A new departure is made in placing the inlet valve, which is of large diameter, upon the top of the cylinder, the valve and seating being removable in one unit together with the carburetter. By this arrangement no inlet pipe is required, as the gas from the carburetter and the air from the automatic air valve are carried in passages in this casting, mixing immediately over the inlet valve. The control is upon the lift of the inlet valve, there being no throttle in the ordinary sense of the term. The lift of the inlet valve is regulated by means of sliding a tapered cam along a key upon the camshaft, the cam having a half-compression cam also cut upon it, to be used in starting. The motion of the cam is controlled by a lever on the steering wheel. A very neat arrangement is adopted to retain the tension of the spring upon the valve stems; instead of the usual cotter, which necessitates a slot being cut in the valve stem, a groove is turned upon the stem, into which a split washer fits; the main washer, which presses against the spring end, has an annular groove turned in it. These two grooves serve to retain the split washer in its place when the spring is in position and so transmit the pressure from the spring to the valve stern. The cooling arrangement has been modified in this model, the water tank, instead of being adjacent to the petrol tank, is now fitted as a cylindrical extension behind the top of the radiator. The water service pipe is attached to the cylinder in the vicinity of the exhaust valve; the outlet pipe is led from the top of the cylinder to the tank in the usual way. These pipes are of large diameter. The transmission is of the type adopted in the older models, but parallel teeth are now employed instead of bevel teeth as heretofore. The peculiar cam-shaped sliding motion is still used for operating the gears. The back wheels are now supported on ball bearings. By undoing the three nuts on top of the float chamber, the float chamber can be removed, bringing away with it the connection to jet and the jet itself.
Gobron-Brillie and F.N. Cars.
The cylinders are cast in pairs, with the valves all on one side. The three main bearings are fed by oil under pressure from a pump, the body of which forms an integral part of the crankcase casting, and is driven direct off the half-time gearing from the main bearings. The oil flows into the base chamber, and the connecting rod ends are fed by splash. The water pump has a spring drive. The carburetter fitted to this engine is provided with an air inlet, the size of which is regulated by the opening of the throttle, the suction on the jet being simultaneously varied to suit the conditions. On the dashboard is a lever controlling the supply of extra air, either cutting it off altogether or supplying the necessary volume at a temperature varying according to the position of the lever, the temperature being regulated by the varying proportions of hot and cold air.
Magneto ignition is fitted. The clutch is of the reverse cone type, and is self- centring. A universal joint is fitted between it and the gearbox, in which three speeds, with direct on top, are obtained through a gate. On the direct top all gears are idle. Behind the gearbox is fitted the internal-expanding brake, the outer periphery of which is used for the sprig. At both ends of the cardan shaft the joints are enclosed in oil-tight and dust-proof cases. A glider torque stay and radius rods are used, the spring damper at the forward end being mounted on a shackle. For compensating the rear brakes a balance lever, in which the rods abut in spherical joints, has been adopted. Of the two pedals, the one operating the clutch is also connected to the throttle for deceleration; the other, pedal, which operates a shaft brake, can be adjusted to declutch and decelerate as well if desired, and the degree to which it can be so set is variable. All spring shackles, joints, and other moving parts not enclosed in the engine gearbox or back axle are provided with spring greaser cups. The new 8-12 h p. four-cylinder model is constructed on rather similar lines. The engine and gearbox, however, are mounted on a separate under-frame. Thermo-syphon cooling is employed. In order to provide weight in which to store up the momentum of the engine without-fitting a clutch of unwieldy proportions, a separate small flywheel has been fitted in addition to the small cone clutch. A petrol filter which, in the larger model, is fitted under the floor boards, is in this pattern mounted on the side member of the frame in a very accessible position. The gearbox provides three speeds and a reverse, the selector rods being mounted in an ingenious manner on the cross-shaft which operates the rear wheel brakes.
S. K. Simplex.
One of the novelties of the Show in moderate priced cars is the S. K. Simplex, built by Messrs. Smeddle and Kennedy, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. When we use the word "novelty" we mean in the true sense of that word, and we can foresee a big future for this vehicle.
Apart from the numberless very clever mechanical ideas embodied in every corner of the chassis, the idea of the designers is to scheme everything out, so that the average non-technical user can, with the aid of the ordinary tool kit he carries on the car, pull the whole chassis to pieces on the road. Not that we are seriously going to propose that any man should start to do such a thing, but it really can be effected so simply that it is possible to remove the back axle right away from the vehicle and put it back again in about 30 minutes. The only things that follow standard practice are the pressed steel frame and the honeycomb radiator. The two-cylinder engine, 10 h.p., has all the valves overhead and actuated from a single overhead camshaft running in ball hearings. The camshaft is enclosed by a dustproof cover that can be detached, complete with the shaft and the cams, by undoing four wing nuts. This, of course, upsets the timing, as the bevel drive for the shaft has to mesh with a bevel on a vertical shaft driven from below the engine. To ensure that the timing of the valves is correctly set, all that is necessary is to turn the flywheel round so that the pointer attached to the crank chamber coincides with a mark on the wheel. Similarly, the overhead camshaft is turned until a mark on its side coincides with a mark on the case. A well-designed carburetter of the automatic type is bolted directly on to the inlet ports without the intervention of any piping, and by only undoing two nuts, the spraying jet, together with the float chamber, can be withdrawn for cleaning. The flywheel has fan arms cast integral, and forms the outer member for an internal-expansion metal clutch that appears to be beautifully effective and is extremely simple in construction. From the clutch the drive is taken through a universal joint, with the pins properly lubricated by greasers, to an enclosed propeller shaft, and thence to the gearbox. The latter is bolted in its own casing up to the rear live axle, and is of the selective type, but so entirely different to anything else of the kind that in a future issue we hope to give special illustrations of this, together with the ingeniously-arranged change-speed lever and connecting mechanism. The front axle is a simple flat steel plate, and the chassis is supported on a three-point spring suspension, the front being a half-elliptical reversed, with the ends shackled to the axle, and the rear are also two reversed half ellipticals. These last are free to slide in boxes on the axle. The three-point suspension necessitates distance rods for both axles, and these are attached in the simplest possible way. The tyres are 760 by 90 reinforced, and the complete car, with two-seated body, sells for £210. Although daring originality is revealed in quite a number of features, there is nothing freakish or of a nature that an engineering expert could object to, and we can but express the opinion, after seeing the quality of the gearwheels, shafts, etc., that are employed that the wonder is how it can be supplied for the money.
Dietrich and Co. (French).
French Dietrich models are being exhibited by the Societe Lorraine Dietrich, of France, and of 5-7, Regent Street, S.W. The polished chassis is one of the 20 h.p. four-cylinder chain-driven models. The cylinders are cast in pairs, with the valves on opposite sides, the low-tension igniters being mounted on plates bolted to the outer ends of the inlet valve chambers. Special attention has been paid to accessibility. Improvements in this direction have been effected in the oil and water pumps, both of which are fitted to the near side of the crankcase in an open position, and can be dismantled each by the removal of a couple of nuts. The oil pump box contains three vertical pumps, one supplying oil to the sight feeds on the dash, and the other two replenishing the supply for the splash in the cranks. The carburetter is entirely automatic, the movements of the accelerator pedal opening an extra air inlet, besides actuating the throttle. Testing switches are provided on the common conductor to the igniters.
In addition to the belt-driven fan behind the radiator, the arms of the flywheel are also cast as fans. Adjustment of the fan belt is exceedingly neat, being effected by a thumbscrew, which tightens a spring pulling on the belt crank that supports the pulley spindle. The spring practically affords a compensation against the effect of the weather on the belt. The transmission from the engine is through a multiple plate clutch, the thrust of the spring being taken up by a ball bearing collar attached to the cross shaft, which carries the pedal sleeves. The clutch pedal is linked to the throttle in order to cut the engine down when the clutch is withdrawn. The brake pedal actuates two brakes on the countershaft, the brake drums being dished to overlap the gearbox bearings, thus ensuring that no oil shall be thrown on the brake shoes. A simple adjustment by self-locking thumbscrews is provided. Four speeds and a reverse are provided on the gate system, direct drive on both third and top being obtained. Stuffing glands are now fitted to all gearbox end bearings. Shock absorbers of a new hydraulic pattern are fitted to both front and rear semi-elliptic springs, being attached inside the frame at the back in order not to interfere with the carriage body. A longitudinal tie-rod is fitted each side of the frame from spring to spring, stiffening the frame considerably, and giving, greater strength for the weight of material employed. On the stand the four-cylinder 15 h.p. landaulet, with live axle drive, is shown, besides a four-cylinder 20 h.p. limousine, with chain transmission.
Dietrich and Co. (British).
An elegant new type of enclosed body, known as the Malmesbury, is shown fitted to a 2O h.p. live-axle Lorraine-Dietrich chassis on the stand, of the Lorraine-Dietrich Co., Ltd., of Birmingham, and of 5-7, Regent Street, S.W. Both the front and the rear seats are covered by a single roof, the windscreen forming the front window of the body, whilst the rear portion is designed in the style of a landaulet. On both sides of the front seats full-length doors are fitted, extending from the frame to the roof. These doors hinge forward. Access to the rear portion is obtained through doors hinged at the rear, the windows of these dropping into the door frame. The windows fitted to the front doors and on each side of the front seats can also be raised or lowered at will. The pillars supporting the roof at the back of the front seats fold upwards to the ceiling when the rear portion is thrown open; but the pillars of the front door are permanently fixed. A glass panel folding into the back of the front seats can he raised to divide the body into two sections. Both halves of the front windscreen fold outwards to an adjustable angle to prevent the view being obscured in wet weather, whilst providing proper ventilation at all times. Even when the rear portion of the body is folded back, the front section of the roof and the two front doors remain standing.
The car is handsomely painted in dark green, with black mouldings, picked out in light green lines. The upholstery is of French corded leather. Folding seats are fitted in the rear portion, and electric lamps and various toilet articles are added to the equipment. Only one model is being manufactured at Birmingham, this being a 20 h.p. four-cylinder live-axle pattern. The engine and clutch conform to the French types. The gearbox, which works on the gate system, provides four speeds forward and a reverse, and the brake is fitted between the gearbox and the car- clan. The propeller shaft is enclosed in a tube of very large section, which throws the resistance of the torque on to the shaft close up to the universal joint. The rear-axle casing is built up from two belled side-pieces and a differential casing of drum shape. The semi-elliptical near springs are clipped to spherical bearings on the axle casing, the springs thus being relieved of side strains. In other details this model conforms to the practice of the French factory. A cabriolet body, with front deflector windscreen, has been mounted on one of the 20 h.p. chassis on this stand.
Gladiator cars, made by the Gladiator Company, of 134, Long Acre, London, W.C., have always been noted for being thoroughly in accord with public opinion and requirements, and it is not surprising therefore to find that the excellent models of 1908 have scarcely had to be altered; in fact, the only alterations we were able to find were slight improvements in the timing gear bearings, and in the design of the timing gear, the intermediate wheel having been dispensed with.
The four models shown were a 12-14 h.p. four-cylindered car with touring car body, equipped with Cape-cart hood; a 25 h.p. polished chassis, a 35 h.p. landaulet, an 18-28 h.p. touring car, and an 18-24 h.p. touring car, the last-named being one of the range of British Gladiators made for the Gladiator Company by the Austin Motor Company at Northfield, near Birmingham, the other two British models being a 40 h.p. and a 60 h.p., neither of which, however, are placed on view.
The 12-14 h.p. chassis has magneto ignition, Grouvelle automatic carburetter, pump-driven lubrication, thermo-syphon system of cooling, leather clutch, three- speed gear and live-axle drive. The 18-24 h.p. chassis has a four-cylindered engine, 4.125in. bore, giving 25 b.h.p. at 900 r.p.m. This has a Bosch high-tension magneto, and the Krebs carburetter, the drive being through a multiple disc clutch, four-speed gearbox and live axle. The standard chassis is now priced at £475, that with 12-14 h.p. being priced at £300. The 25 h.p. chassis, which has an engine of 105mm. bore, sells at £540 for a standard chassis, suitable for a side-entrance phaeton, or single landaulet. The style and finish of the bodies on this stand, and the high quality of workmanship apparent throughout the mechanism, will call for general admiration.
The new model four-cylinder 14-18 h.p. B.S.A. car makes its first appearance. It is a miniature throughout of the 18-23 h.p., but, although the details are practically alike, it is not the case as, with some makes, that other than the engines in these two classes have the same parts. The object of the B.S.A. Company has been to provide an extremely light chassis for the power, and from its appearance we should imagine that their ambition will be realised.
We note that the only exception to the similarity of the two vehicles is that on the smaller model a leather-faced cone clutch is fitted. The chassis is probably as light as anything of its power on the market, as the weight with tyres is but 12cwt., and the total weight of the complete vehicle, with a side-entrance body for the road, is only 17cwt. There is also displayed on the stand a four-cylinder 25-33 h.p. chassis, no alterations being made in this for the corning season. A very handsome limousine body painted dark green, fitted on a 25-33h.p. chassis, completes the display of one of the leading firms in the industry.
On the 12-18 h.p. Riley a novel design of combined high-tension distributor and low-tension contact maker is fitted in front of the engine, and altogether overcomes one of the minorr complaints which a few customers have made this past year concerning the coil-accumulator ignition. A position is found for the high- tension magneto between the two cylinders, and this has necessitated a slight rearrangement of the piping for the mechanical lubrication. A new carburetter is shown on this chassis, entirely the production of the Riley Engine Works, in which the float chamber is placed low down and the mixing chamber close up to the inlet ports. The throttle, of the revolving piston type, the automatic air valve and jet can be quickly reached for cleaning purposes, and the jet can he detached by simply unscrewing a cap and removing with a small tool.
E. H. Bentall and Co.
An unusual feature of cardan-shaft design is embodied in both the 11 h.p. and the 16 h.p. models shown by Messrs. E. H. Bentall and Co., of Maldon, Essex. A universal joint is fitted between the clutch and forward cross-member of the frame, the gearbox being suspended on the three-point principle by a trunnion attachment in front to the cross-member of the frame, and by two rear stays, that, fixed to the axle casing, serve also as torque and distance rods, no universal joint in the final transmission to the live axle is required. The 11 h.p. has two cylinders, and the 16 h.p. model has four cylinders; both fitted with low-tension ignition and sight drip lubrication. The carburetter is of a novel design, and can be flooded from the steering wheel, the two levers on which are respectively for the quality and quantity of the mixture. A cone pattern clutch of fibre and metal is fitted in an oil bath. Sliding gears are used, the speed lever working in a spring- clamped quadrant, which renders it impossible to overrun the notches unintentionally. A landaulet and two side-entrance cars, as well as a chassis of the four-cylinder model, are shown, together a two-cylinder open car.
A light four-cylinder model of 12-14 h.p. is being shown by the Connaught Motor and Carriage Co, of 28-29, Long Acre, W.C., on the stand devoted to the N. A. G. cars, which enjoy a considerable reputation in Germany.
The engine of the light model has four cylinders cast in two pairs with a single integral water jacket. All the valves are on one side, the carburetter, which is of simple construction, being situated on the opposite side, delivering its mixture through a pipe under the water jacket between the two pairs of cylinders. The high-tension magneto is placed on the same side as the valves and piping. The steering gear and drop-forged front axle are kept as high from the ground as possible with the small wheels used. A cone clutch and three-speed gearbox are fitted. The transmission to the road wheels is by live axle, the cardan haft casing being finished forward in a Y piece hinged horizontally to brackets on a cross member of the frame, which serves to take the resistance of the torque on to the frame. Two radius rods are hinged forward on the same centre as that of the cardan. A pedal-applied shaft brake and two rear-wheel internal-expansion brakes operated by hand lever are provided. This model is priced at £225.
A 30 h.p. four-cylinder chassis with four speeds on the gate system and live-axle transmission is shown on the same stand. In type the cylinders are cast in pairs with the valves on opposite sides, with high-tension magneto ignition and automatic carburetter. A large inverted cone clutch, with the arms of both members formed as air vanes, is employed. A splayed torque rod with spring damper forward replaces the shaft casing of the smaller model, and the distance rods of the former are suppressed in favour of the use of the springs for the same purpose. A chassis of similar power with chain transmission and low-tension ignition is shown fitted with a limousine landaulet body, whilst a doctor's two-seated body with victoria leather hood, folding windscreen and tool box at the rear is shown on a 12-14 h.p. chassis.
The 20 h.p. Lancia car shown by Messrs. W. L. Stewart and Co., Ltd., of 166, Shaftesbury Avenue, London, W.C., is of extreme neatness in the design of its mechanism, the engine being cast with its four cylinders en bloc. A wide space is given between the second and third cylinders, the gas port being included in the casting between these two cylinders, the water jacket extending over it and thus keeping the gases from condensing. This design also makes the valves extremely accessible, because no induction pipe appears on the valve side of the engine. A magneto is the only form of ignition, whilst the lubrication is effected through a pump driven off the rear end of the cam-shaft, circulating the oil from the sump to all the moving parts. The crankcase, the gearbox, the deep connecting webs and the brackets all form one complete casting — one of the smartest pieces of work that we have seen. The clutch is of the multiple disc type, and it drives through a four-speed gearbox, the reverse being of the sliding order. The pedal-actuated brake is applied through a couple of cams, the shoes being mounted on a short-bladed spring centrally hinged, which ensures complete disengagement. The final drive is through a long propeller shaft, and a very stiff back axle, the drive taking place through the spring blades, the torque stay being stamped out of sheet metal. This chassis is one of the smartest in the Show, and its features will command quite a lot of attention before the close of the exhibition. The price of this chassis is £425.
For the 1909 season a new four-cylinder 20-24 h.p. Ford has been designed, priced at £225, with a side-entrance body, and at £265 fitted with a landaulet carriage. They are being shown by Messrs. Perry, Thornton, and Schreiber, of the Westminster Bridge Road Garage. The four cylinders are cast in one block with the water jackets, the detachable water-cooled heads also being cast in one piece. High-tension ignition, with coil, supplied by either accumulator or magneto, is fitted as a standard, the magneto consisting of a large stator carried by the frame and rotor fixed to the, flywheel behind the engine. Two forward speeds and a reverse with planetary gearing are employed. Either of these can be engaged by the hand lever, whilst, when the top second speed is engaged, the first and neutral can be obtained by pressure on the pedal. The shaft brake is operated by foot and two internal-expansion rear brakes are fitted. The propeller shaft is enclosed in a case, the forward end of which is fixed to the rear axle casing by two radius rods, the torque being resisted by the shaft case. Transverse springs are used at front and rear, the system of mounting the frame being almost equivalent to the three-point suspension, owing to the use of a ball joint on the top of the cardan shaft, connected to both ends of the rear axle. The four-cylinder 15 h.p. is being retained for the coming season.
The three Iris models made by Messrs. Legros and Knowles, of Willesden Junction, London, and sold by Messrs. The Iris Cars, of 19, Great Portland Street, London, W., are the 2 5h.p. (chassis price £575), the 35 h.p. (chassis price £700) — both of these being four-cylindered — and the 40 h.p. six-cylinder (chassis price £875).
The cylinder dimensions of the 25 h.p. and the 40 h.p. models are 108mm. bore and 133mm. stroke, whilst those of the 35 h.p. models are 127mm. bore by 133mm. stroke. The alterations introduced for 1909 in the engine have served to make the water-circulating pump more accessible, the magneto shaft now being parallel to the camshaft, and the magneto being driven through the water pump so that the magneto is now removed from the position across the front of the engine that it formerly occupied, whilst the pump is brought away from its original position behind the radiator. The timing gear is now enclosed. The engine is lubricated by pump, all splash feeding having been done away with. Steel pistons are now used throughout the models, and the standard ignition is magneto on the 25 h.p. and 40 h.p., whilst a supplementary coil in the accumulator ignition is employed on the 25 h.p. The 25 h.p. model is shown with two-seated body of rather original design, having a Victoria hood and windscreen.
The 60 h.p. six-cylinder Austin car which is shown by the Austin Motor Co., has the engine base chamber, which is an aluminium casting, constructed with wide flanges running the whole length of the chamber. The steel apron upon which these units are mounted has two long guide bars riveted along its total length and truly planed. The engine and gearbox can thus be placed in their correct alignment without the necessity of packing or adjusting in any way. These are now bolted to the guide bars by means of a number of bolts.
The method of constructing the cylinders in the Austin car follows on the lines of gas engine practice in that provision is made for the expansion of the liner. When the cylinder is first cast the liner is made to project beyond the water space but in machining a true face is turned at the joint of the water space, a parting tool then separates the liner from the jacket itself, making a narrow annular slit, into which a special type of washer is forced. This retains the water, at the same time allowing the liner freedom for expansion. The cylinders are fixed to the base chambers by sliding the liners into cylindrical aluminium extension pieces and bolting the jackets thereto. A calliper-pattern of footbrake is fitted at the rear of the box, the surfaces being specially wide.
The suspension at the rear of the chassis is by a special form of elliptic springs, which has been designed by this firm. The lower spring is fixed to the axle, and at its front end is directly fixed to the chassis, thus transmitting the drive and acting as a radius rod. A single link at the front end connects this spring to the upper one, which in turn is pivoted directly to the side of the chassis at its centre. The rear ends of these two springs move freely, and are connected together by links. This spring has no side roll, but has all the flexibility of a 6ft. spring. The rear of the car rides very sweetly.
The appearance of the Lucas valveless two-stroke-engined chassis has been completely transformed. The engine itself has been slightly modified in exterior appearance, and is now placed in the normal position under the bonnet in front of the dashboard. A gilled-tube radiator is fitted with belt-driven fan behind, and the ignition is now by high-tension magneto. The Lucas patent mechanically-driven oil distributor is now placed in front of the engine and supplies the lubricant for the two pistons and the engine bearings. Water is circulated by centrifugal pump. The alterations at the rear of the chassis include the fitting of a three forward speed and reverse gearbox operated by a side lever and final transmission through a propeller shaft to rear live axle. The vehicle is now a vastly different machine in construction and general finish to the one exhibited for the first time at the last show, and being made by one of the leading general engineering firms in this country the quality of the material is reliable. The price of the chassis, with tyres 880mm by 120mm. to all wheels is £395.
The 40 h.p. Adler car which is shown by Messrs. Morgan and Co., Ltd., of 127, Long Acre, has a four-cylinder engine 130mm. diameter by 140mm. stroke with cylinders cast in pairs. The construction of the engine and crank chamber is on the massive side. The chamber itself is supported by a steel apron which also carries the flywheel casing and gearbox. The flywheel is almost entirely enclosed by an extended aluminium sheathing, which forms a continuity of the crank chamber and the gearbox. The exhaust and inlet valves being on the same side of the engine, advantage is taken of the proximity of the carburetter to the exhaust pipe in a somewhat neat manner. The exhaust pipe is led away from the forward end of the engine and swept around underneath the crank chamber before passing rearwards to the silencer. The vertical length of the pipe within the bonnet is encased by a brass sheathing which is fitted on its intake or front side with a gauze air filter covered by a slide. This arrangement allows adjustment to be made of the quantity of hot air which is necessary for carburation. Adjacent to it is a cold air inlet in the form of a cylindrical box with a slotted rotary cover, fitted also with wire gauze protection. By means of these two the temperature of air entering the carburetter can be regulated. The air pipe proper descends through the metal foundation plate in the form of a U and arises again to the mixing chamber of the carburetter which is itself situated upon the metal undershield. The carburetter being half on either side of this shield enables the petrol inlet to the float chamber to be so arranged that any possible leakage of petrol will not accumulate upon the apron but falls to the ground. The governor, which is driven from the same shaft operating the low-tension make and break is connected by a lever and rod to a rotary valve on the carburetter. When the engine races, this valve is opened by the governor and admits an extra supply of air around the outside of the choke tube. The control is by means of a rotary throttle contained in the carburetter itself immediately over the choke tube.
The Germain car is shown in several sizes, but the main design is approximately the same in each. The six-cylinder 20 h.p. priced at £550 has a very neat appearance the cylinders being cast separately and fitted with brass water jackets, this system of jacketing having proved satisfactory for the last five years in this car. The absence of lubricating arrangements is very striking, but an inspection of the crank chamber will show that a positive system is arranged by means of a rotary pump driven from the countershaft by worm gear. From this pump oil is delivered through tubes cast in the chamber and thence to the main bearings of the engine. From these points the oil travels through drilled passages in the ordinary way to the large end bearings and up the connecting rods to the gudgeon pins. The clutch which is fitted to this car is of the internal-expanding type, and appears to be at first sight similar to the old Mercedes pattern. A difference, however, is noticed in that the clutch surfaces run in oil, a plate being fitted over the working mechanism, which retains the oil and excludes dirt. The spring required for such a clutch is very light, and the whole mechanism is capable of easy adjustment.
For the purposes of exhibition, the 16-20 h.p. model has been chosen, the engines, however, of the 12-14 h.p. and 20-30 h.p. being staged on tables. In both the larger models the cylinders are cast in pairs, with the valves all on one side, both the induction and exhaust piping being held by only two bolts. The carburetter is on the opposite side, with a fixed hot air and adjustable cold air intake, besides an automatic extra air valve. The size of the jet is adjustable by hand. High-tension magneto ignition is fitted as standard, the machine being driven off the half-time gear by the same shaft which carries the belt-driven pulley for the cooling fan. Except on the connecting rod ends, ball bearings are fitted throughout the car, including the three main bearings of the engine. Lubrication is effected by gravity through sight feeds on the dashboard, the oil being delivered by a pump driven by an eccentric from the camshaft. A fan flywheel, with multiple-disc clutch, transmits the power to the three-speed gearbox of the selective pattern, behind which a powerful and easily adjusted brake is mounted on the main shaft. Universal joints are employed at both ends of the cardan shaft; the rear axle is bridged. At the forward end of the torque rod a pin fitting is employed, instead, of the more usual ball pattern found, with spring dampers on the cross-member of the frame. In the steering system the same idea is applied. The connecting bar, which is operated by a worm and nut movement, has a double pin joint at the rear end, whilst the forward end is fitted with the ordinary ball contrivance, which, however, is rendered as secure as it can possibly be made by the ball being carried on an upturned arm.
The engine for the 12-14 h.p. model has the cylinders cast in one piece, with the valves all on one side, and except that this has plain bearings to the crankshaft, that the lubrication is effected by a constant stream of oil circulating through a sight dial on the dashboard to the main bearings, and that the crank chamber is entirely of steel, the engine exhibits the same ethera0eristics as the other models. The disc clutch and three-speed gearbox with the shaft-brake form, together with the engine, a single unit, being bolted up in three sections. All the Imperia engines have the cylinders set desaxe, and the pistons are of steel bored out, the latter not only conducing to lightness but also to better lubrication, the oil being pocketed in the edges of the holes.
The limousine body fitted to the 16-20 h.p. chassis on this stand is the only one in the show of the single pattern, that is, without extra folding seats, wide entrance doors being provided, besides ample room for the driver.
The 40 h.p. Crossley show chassis which is exhibited by Messrs. Jarrott and Letts, of 45, Great Marlborough Street, has four cylinders cast in pairs of a diameter of 4.75in. by 6in. stroke, with valves on opposite sides of the cylinders. This model has its exhaust pipe arranged with an expansion joint between each pair of cylinders, the water inlet being arranged immediately below the valve pockets and is pump operated. The pistons are lubricated by an exhaust pressure system, oil inlets being drilled in the sides of the cylinders, to each of which, a small pipe is led from a manifold placed adjacent to the cylinders. The supply to this manifold is from a single sight feed drip on the dash. Provision is made for regulating the proper quantity of oil in the base chamber, a small knob on the dash operates two cocks, which are fitted at the end of two vertical pipes projecting upwards into this chamber. The opening of these cocks will allow any surplus oil to flow over the end of the pipes and thus escape.
The 40 h.p. model is fitted with two footbrake drums, one placed in front of the gearbox of a similar size and in addition to the one at the rear end of the gearbox. The brake shoes are of massive, construction and are lined with metal. The neat adjustment of these shoes can very readily be made by means of a wing-nut held in position by a small die, which prevents the wing-nut from rotating. The universal joints throughout the car are arranged with oil-retaining reservoirs. The block at the centre of the star piece from which the four pins radiate is drilled out, thus forming a receptacle for oil. The four bushes which are fitted over the star pins are in the form of a hat, and completely cover the end as welt as the circumference of the pins, the lubricant thus being retained in the joint.
Several rather unique features are to be found in the Miesse cars exhibited by the Miesse Petrol Car Co., Ltd. On the 24-30 h.p. chassis one of the first features to catch the eye is the position of the steering box just above the slide member of the frame, which permits the steering bar to be carried outside the frame by taking it over the top instead of underneath, as is done in by far the greater number of cars on the market, or through the web as on some of the new 1909 models. In the position the worm and sector are as accessible as they can possibly be rendered. In casting the four cylinders in one block the importance of having five bearings to the crankshaft has not been overlooked, and the extra length required therefore is small. The valves are on opposite sides. The magneto used for the high-tension ignition is fitted on the same side as the Zenith carburetter, which, for engines of this size and over is fitted with two jets, on which the suction acts, in addition to the single jet acted on by the automatic pressure at all engine speeds. Of the two jets affected by the engine speed, one is used for small throttle openings and the other for running with heavy loads. No radiator fan is used, the air being drawn in by the vanes of the flywheel, in which a Hele-Shaw clutch is fitted. Three speeds and a reverse are provided through a gate, and final transmission is by cardan shaft to the live axle. The pedal-applied-brake is mounted behind the gearbox, and, unlike the two hand-operated rear wheel brakes, is independent, of the clutch. Engine lubrication is effected by a pump drawing its supply from a tank under the sloping footboard and distributing oil directly to the crank chamber as well as through sight feeds to the cylinder walls. No accelerator pedal is furnished, the control resting entirely with the throttle and ignition levers mounted on the steering wheel.
Two chassis of the 12-14 h.p. type are mounted with touring bodies; in one case it is a four-seated side-entrance body with Cape hood and folding screen, and in the other case a two-seater with a smartly-raked toolbox at the rear and sloping windscreen.
A single-cylinder 8-9 h.p. and a double-cylinder 10-12 h.p., both of similar design, except for the engine, are shown in the Annexe by Chenard-Walcker (England), Ltd., of 34, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. Thermo-syphon cooling is employed. Bosch high-tension magneto is fitted as the standard ignition, and the carburetter is of the G. and A. automatic pattern. Forced lubrication, with a glass gauge on the dashboard, supplies the bearings with oil. All driving is done on the accelerator pedal, a throttle lever for use in starting up being, however, fitted to the dashboard. The power is transmitted to the road wheels by pinions meshing with geared drums on the wheels, the weight being carried by a, separate dead axle
The show chassis is the same as was exhibited last year, with several small improvements, which have been embodied with a view of further protecting the working parts from dirt and dust. The engine is of the standard 25 h.p. type, having four cylinders 4.25in. diameter by 5in. stroke, cast in one block, with the inlet and exhaust manifold chambers cast upon them. On the induction side a carburetter of the Binks two-jet type is fitted, and adjacent to it is a four-way Lacoste type of distributor, in an accessible position. High-tension magneto is also fitted at the front of the engine, the two systems of ignition working two sets of plugs, which are situated over the inlet valves. The water circulation is so arranged that, should the pump fail, thermo-syphoning will take place, a very large outflow pipe being fitted for the purpose. The footbrake drum is of a particularly large size, having both internal-expanding shoes and an external band fitted with cast-iron wearing blocks. The brakes fitted to the back wheels are connected by a steel cable to the operating gear. The special forced lubricating system is retained.
Although last year there was no Panhard model manufactured with less than four cylinders, the famous pioneer firm has introduced for 1909 an 8-10 h.p. two- cylinder chassis constructed very much on the same lines as the larger models of the same name. An example of the new type is being exhibited by Messrs. Panhard and Levassor, of 14, Regent Street, S.W.
The two cylinders are cast in one _piece, with the valves on one side the single induction pipe leading to gasways formed in the casting and the branched exhaust pipe being held by two dogs. A Krebs' automatic carburetter is, of course, fitted. The magneto for the high-tension ignition is driven by skew gearing oft the crankshaft at the front of the engine. The fan spindle is carried by a bell crank, which automatically tightens the belt under the tension of a spring attached to the lower arm of the belt crank and anchored to the gear casing. The lubrication is effected by a slow speed pump operated by a worm at the end of the camshaft and supplying a stream of oil to a couple of sight feeds on the dashboard, whence it is delivered through the pump again to the crank chamber and gearbox, as described and illustrated in our Tuesday's issue. Transmission is effected through an inverted leather cone clutch, with an accessible and handy adjustment, to the three-speed gearbox of the traditional or sliding pattern, thence through a double-jointed cardan shaft to the live axle. The shaft brake is actuated by a pedal, the two internal-expanding rear wheel brakes being operated by the hand lever. The pull-on links consist of two thin steel strips, compensated by two small bell cranks pivoted to the transverse actuating rod, inside which a thin rod is carried as a distance piece between the free ends of the two bell cranks. The trussed torque rod abuts against a horizontal spring carried by a ball and socket joint on a cross-member of the frame. The chassis price of this model is £240.
The Electric Vehicle Company.
The Electric Vehicle Co exhibits for the first time a really practical touring car which is electrically propelled. This car is fitted with a victoria body to seat two persons. Thirty cells of the necessary battery are carried in front under a bonnet; the remaining 10 cells are contained in a box at the rear of the car. The Tudor Company, who manufacture special traction cells for this purpose, guarantee maintenance of one of these sets for five years at the rate of £25 per annum.
A splendid little doctor's car is staged by the British Motobloc Syndicate, Ltd., of Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. This is a neat two-seater, with side doors, victoria hood and folding windscreen, painted and upholstered in dark blue on a single-cylinder 8-9 h.p. chassis, and selling complete at £260 inclusive. Half compression is fitted to the engine by means of an auxiliary exhaust cam, brought into action from the front of the radiator. The outline of the car is similar to that of a multi-cylindered model, and presents a smart appearance. It is constructed on the characteristic lines of the Motobloc design, except that the petrol and oil tanks are fitted to the dashboard under the bonnet, and that the rear springs, being shackled at both ends, two radius rods are added.
From the two chassis shown, one an 18-22 h.p. model and the other of 25 h.p., both having four cylinders, a good idea of the Motobloc practice can be obtained, especially since the chassis have only the works' finish and are not polished. It is generally conceded that this firm introduced the engine-cum-gearbox unit about seven years ago, and the principle is still retained. The lower portion of the crankcase, which forms an integral casting with the gearbox, is divided into three sections, the central one being for the flywheel, with the moving parts for each pair-cylinder casting on either side. The clutch is of the expanding ring pattern, and, being small, though, with a good grip, fits nicely into the gearbox. Four speeds of the selective typo are provided. Owing to the long length, of cardan shaft, the angularity is considerably reduced, and therefore also the work on the universal joints.
Burgess and Harvey.
A new type of the speedy Werner voiturettes which France has learnt to build, under the encouragement of the races specially held for this class of vehicle is being introduced into this country by Messrs. Burgess and Harvey, Ltd., of 463, Oxford Street, W., and is shown on their stand, just on the left-hand side of the main entrance of the exhibition.
The cylinder, which has a bore of 100mm. and 130mm. stroke, is listed to develop 9 h.p. The valves are mechanically operated at the front of the engine, where also is situated the high-tension magneto which has been adopted as a standard for these smart little cars. The carburetter, like the engine, is the new De Dion pattern with annular valve chamber, in the centre of which is the jet, situated at the side of the crankcase, and supplying a rich mixture through a pipe of small bole to the automatic extra air inlet and throttle chamber fitted close to the inlet valve pocket. Just below the chamber, where the rich mixture is diluted by the extra air, an arrangement is set for cutting off the supply of the mixture and permitting the entry of pure air only to the cylinder for using the engine as a brake. The cooling is by natural circulation of the water through the jacket and radiator, and this is so efficient that no fan has been found necessary. Half compression is obtained by the introduction of an auxiliary cam under the exhaust valve tappet for starting up the engine, and a device for agitating the float from the front of the bonnet is also employed. A leather and metal cone clutch transmits the power to a gearbox of the sliding pattern, in which three speeds and reverse are provided. An internal expanding brake, actuated by a pedal, is mounted on a shaft behind the gearbox. Sliding couplings are fitted at both ends of the cardan shaft, and a splayed torque rod is brought from top and bottom of the rear axle gear casing to a spring housing linked to the cross member of the frame. The three-quarter elliptic springs carrying the upward frame at the rear serve the function of radius rods. The rear wheel brakes are of the internal-expanding type operated by a hand lever.
On the steering wheel are mounted the throttle and ignition levers, no accelerator pedal being employed. Both petrol and lubricating oil are carried in a tank on the driver's side of the dashboard, the rear panel being sloped towards the pedals. The engine, clutch and gearbox are maintained in alignment on a stiff underframe, which renders the use of more than one central cross member unnecessary. This smart little chassis is a thoroughly well designed and excellently constructed job, and is being retailed at £170, or, with a little two-seater body and a sloping toolbox at the pear, as shown on the stand, at £185.
A small car of 6 h.p., with a De Dion engine of 90mm. bore by 110mm. stroke, was brought into the exhibition on Monday. The same general features are embodied in it, and at £140 for the chassis, or at £155, fitted with a little two-seater body, there should be a large market for the excellent little car that this promises to be, if the previous productions of the Werner Company in the motorcycle world can be taken as a criterion. Both these models are built very low and present a rakish appearance. With direct drive on top speed they should prove fast little vehicles, for the new De Dion engines are known to be gluttons for work.
For the next season the three models which proved so successful during 1908 are being retained by the Alldays and Onions Pneumatic Engineering Co., Ltd., of Birmingham, and of 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. The 20 h.p. four-cylinder type remains the same, whilst the 10 h.p. two-cylinder model can be supplied either with the three-speed gearbox of last year or with four speeds on the gate system.
On the 14 h.p. four-cylinder chassis the four-speed gate change has been adopted as standard. It is one of these latter which is shown on the stand, and illustrates the chief features of Alldays and Onions design. The cylinders are cast in pairs, with all the valves on one side. The carburetter, which in this model has a single jet, is very accessibly situated, and, with the device for quickly detaching the cover of the mixture chamber, the jet can, if desired, be removed in a few seconds. Forced-feed lubrication is employed, the oil being pumped to the main bearings, whence it flows through leads in the crankshaft to the crank pins, splashing out from these and so being thrown on the cylinder walls and gudgeon pins. At the front of the sump, which is placed at the forward end of the engine, there is a mica window to indicate the level of the oil. In addition to the gallon of oil carried in the crank chamber, there is an additional gallon in the tank under the sloping footboard, the oil from the latter being pumped by hand to the sump when the pressure on the dashboard gauge commences to fall below 4lb.
The water pump and magneto are driven on the shaft carried alongside the crank chamber on the opposite side to the valves, both details being very accessible. Transmission is through a leather cone clutch to the four-speed gearbox, in which direct drive is obtained on third speed, the indirect fourth giving a gear ratio about 20 per cent. greater. The internal-expanding shaft brake of last year has been replaced by a contracting brake of much larger dimensions connected to the pedal. At both ends of the cardan shaft the joints are of the spherical pattern, and this design has been found in the 14 h.p. model suitable for resisting the torque. The driving effort is thrown on the front ends of the rear springs, which are shackled only at the rear. A small inspection cover is fitted to the gear casing of the live axle. The brakes on the rear wheels are of the internal-expanding type, operated by a hand lever. By mounting the engine, clutch, gearbox and cardan head on a stiff underframe, a rigid alignment is obtained.
On the 20 h.p. four-cylinder chassis the engine consists of two sets of the 10 h.p. motor, which has the two cylinders cast in one piece, with the valves on opposite sides, a triangulated torque-resisting system is fitted on this chassis, and radius rods also on each side. The springing at the rear consists of two side and a transverse spring. The general design and construction follow the lines of the 14 h.p. model, with the control on the wheel for both ignition and throttle, the toothed ring on which the levers work being stationary at all times, and unaffected by the movements of the steering wheel.
On the 10 h.p. two-cylinder chassis, the carburetter is fitted with two jets, one for each cylinder, with an automatic extra air inlet on both mixture pipes; forced lubrication is employed also in this engine.
Five cars are exhibited on the stand, three being of the 10 h.p. models, one fitted with a four-seated body to the rear, to which access is obtained through a swing front seat, another being a side-entrance car, and the third a smart doctor's two-seater, with leather Cape hood, windscreen and a luggage platform at the rear. A roomy landaulet body, with extension canopy over the driver's seat and folding windscreen, is mounted on the 14 h.p. chassis and also on the 20 h.p. chassis. A standard feature of all Alldays and Onions' carriage work is the side extension of the splashboards, to which lips are also fitted. Being carried well down over the front of the wheels, these form as ample a guard against splashing as could be desired.
An inspection of the Mass cars shows that a large amount of thought has been devoted to the provision of means whereby all the parts can be easily and quickly reached for overhauling or replacements, should these ever be rendered necessary by any accident. Considerable ingenuity is also evident in the design of those parts from which noise or rattle are liable to proceed when wear occurs, special attention having been paid to those details for instant adjustment.
Both the special 15 h.p. and the 20 h.p. chassis are designed on identical lines, even the engine of the latter being a larger replica of the motor on the smaller model, The cylinders are cast singly with the valves on opposite sides, and occupy what is really a small amount of space, when it is considered that the crankshaft is supported by five bearings. The cover of the half-time gearing at the front of the engine is webbed in order that the hum of the teeth, which is already small with the accurately cut wheels employed, shall be as far as possible still further deadened. On the exhaust side, the water pump, which is bolted to the top of the crankcase, is driven through a jointed coupling from a small pinion in mesh with the camshaft wheel. A grease stuffing-gland prevents leakage, whilst a grease lubricator on the pump bearing provides proper lubrication of the bearing surfaces. The exhaust piping being kept high, there is nothing to hamper the removal, of the pump, which can be detached by the unscrewing of three nuts. On the inlet side, a similar drive to that employed for the pump is used for the high-tension magneto.
An automatic carburetter supplies the mixture to the engine, which is controlled by a throttle connected to the hand lever on the steering wheel, where the timing lever for the ignition is also situated. A sump is formed in the base of the crank chamber for collecting the oil, which drips down after passing through the hollow crankshaft and hollow connecting rods from the main bearings, that are themselves supplied by gravity from a tank on the dashboard, to which oil from the sump is constantly pumped, an overflow pipe leading back to the sump being fitted to prevent an excess in the tank. Air is drawn through the radiator solely by the turbine flywheel, in which a cone clutch is fitted. Not only the bonnet and undershield are made to fit tightly, but a thin metal sheet fastened to the lower portion of the dashboard is shaped closely round the rim of the flywheel. The clutch spring is boxed inside the square coupling between the clutch and gearbox, the coupling being split for convenience in the adjustment of the spring. The brake and clutch pedal shaft can be instantly detached by the removal of half-a-dozen very accessible bolts. Extending from the radiator as far back as the gearbox, the undershield, which serves to protect all the mechanism as far as the cardan shaft from mud and dirt, can be dropped from the frame by merely lifting half-a-dozen spring clips. In order to reduce the noise of the gearing, the three speed and a reverse, provided on the gate system, are contained in a very small and compact box, the shaft being of large diameter and extremely short. On the direct top the lay-shafts and reverse pinion are stationary. At the front and rear the main shaft is carried by 1.5in. double ball bearings.
The shaft brake fitted behind the gearbox has two adjustments — one on top, whereby the two shoes can be centred, and the other, which is easily reached from underneath, for taking up the wear on both shoes when they are properly centred; this adjustment being effected by a self-locking winged nut. At each end of the cardan shaft a distinctive universal joint is employed. The pins being expensive pieces to replace it is, of course, desirable to give them as long a life as possible, and in the Mass car this is effected by giving them a glass-hard finish, and making the bushes of a softer steel, which can be replaced at an insignificant cost when worn. At the forward end of the cardan shaft these bushes are attached by eye-bolts: two to the brake drum and two to the driving plate, those at the rear end being fitted into lugs on the cardan head. Internal-expansion brakes operated by hand-lever are fitted to the rear wheels. The torque of the rear axle casing is resisted by a pair of rods splayed at a wide angle pinned respectively to the top and bottom of the gear casing, the apex being established in a jointed spring damper on the cross-member of the frame. Three-quarter elliptic springs carry the frame at the rear, these serving also as radius pieces for the axle. An excellent feature of the steering connections is the employment of a complete wheel, instead of merely a small sector in the box at the bottom of the steering column, the connecting bar being placed outside the frame and passing through the web to obtain its motion from the steering box. Should any wear show itself, the connecting bar can be readily slacked off and the wheel turned through 90 degrees to bring new teeth into mesh with the worm. On the new front axle also provision is made for taking up wear on the stub pins.
Several features which are new to Sunbeam practice have been introduced into the new 14-18 h.p. Sunbeam car which is being brought out for the coming season by the Sunbeam Motor Co., Ltd., of Wolverhampton, who are showing a side-entrance car of this type on their stand.
For the first time a pressed-steel frame is employed by the firm in place of the armoured wood type they have previously favoured. Also the steering bar is placed outside the frame, through the web of which the sector axle is brought. The sight-feed lubrication, which is effected by gravity from the oil tank at the top of the dashboards under the bonnet, is controlled by a tap, which forms also the earthing switch of the high-tension magneto. When stopping the engine by cutting off the ignition the oil supplied is therefore also arrested. The side members of the frame are braced by fore and aft trussing, extending almost from axle to axle. The merit of the side-entrance body exhibited on this chassis is that the rear seats come within the rear axle and are therefore exceedingly comfortable.
As mentioned in our first review of the exhibit of du Cros-Mercedes, Ltd., of Long Acre, the chief novelty of the Mercedes design for 1909 is the live axle transmission of the 35 h.p. chassis — a fine piece of work. In the engine no great alterations have been made. Low-tension ignition is still used, but instead of the mechanical igniters which were so long associated with Mercedes cars, Bosch electromagnetic make-and-break plugs are now employed. The carburetter is of the same pattern as last year, but the hand regulation of the extra air has been moved from the near side of the dashboard to a position at the bottom, of the steering column. The oil feed box from which the lubrication is effected by separate pumps to each of the feed pipes is now driven by worm gear off the exhaust-valve camshaft. To fittings on the dashboard has been added a multiple testing switch for the low-tension plugs. Instead of three large pedals which are found on the Mercedes chain-driven model, the 35 h.p. live-axle chassis is provided with only two, there being only one shaft brake and that behind the gearbox, with a handy adjustment.
The cardan shaft and live-axle design was described in the review of this car in the first show report. It remains only to be added that the drums of the internal-expansion brakes on the rear wheels are provided with a drilled-out flange designed to afford a larger radiating surface for the dissipation of the heat caused by the use of the brakes. We give an illustration of the multiple plate clutch with its cover removed and a separate plate. The scroll clutch has been dropped for this model.
Daimler Six-cylinder Car.
On Monday morning the Daimler Company staged a six-cylinder 57 h.p. model for 1909, with the new Daimler-Knight engine, the arrangement of the engine itself being exactly the same as is employed for the smaller models. The carburetter is the Daimler Company's own pattern of triple jet, in which the smallest jet of the three is only used for partial throttle opening, the two larger jets being then closed, but they are gradually opened for full throttle, when the smallest is closed. The piping for the gas supply is schemed so that equal quantities can reach every cylinder, without starving one or the other, by means of a two-branched conduit, which is taken up to the big pipe that runs across the front of the cylinders, entering the latter at one-third distance from each end.
The absence of outside valves, of course, materially simplifies the piping, and permits of easy sweeps without any sharp angles. On the carburetter side is placed the high-tension magneto and the control rods for ignition advance and throttle, and a desirable point in respect to the connecting rods for these is that they are carried considerably above the frame, and yet do not in any way interfere with access to the magneto or carburetter. The exhaust piping for the rearmost cylinder follows that adopted for the four-cylinder 38 h.p. that we illustrated in our last issue, but the two foremost cylinders have the exhaust led away by a pipe which runs down parallel with the first cylinder, and than is taken below to join an expansion box in which the gases from the six cylinders are conveyed by a long pipe to the silencer.
The contact maker for the coil accumulator ignition is supported on a vertical shaft above the level of the cylinders, there being not the slightest difficulty in reaching this for cleaning or lubricating purposes. A large copper petrol tank is supported at the rear of the frame, pressure for this being obtained from a small plunger air pump projecting from the air chamber below the fifth cylinder, and actuated off the shaft which controls the action of the sliding sleeves.
The crankshaft is suspended from the upper half of the very deep crank chamber, and at one side of the latter are large inspection doors, and at the other side a series of draw-off taps for maintaining the proper height of lubricant. Below the crankcase is another set of draw-off taps for draining the oil away completely from below each or all of the cylinders.
The typical Daimler radiator with its series of long, gilled tubes is retained, draught being maintained by a four-bladed, belt-driven fan, the belt being automatically tensioned by a neat device of a spiral spring above the bracket. We notice in connection with this last fitting that the fan shaft can be lubricated by an attached screw-down greaser, as can also be the short, vertical rod which tensions the belt. Transmission is by the aid of an enormous leather- faced cone clutch, the entering member being mounted on six aluminium arms projecting from a central boss, a ring midway between the rim of the clutch and the boss serving for a braking surface against a leather-faced clutch stop that comes into action when the pedal is depressed, preventing the clutch spinning, and materially aiding silent changes of gear. These is a large coupling joint between clutch and gearbox that permits of a slight universal movement, so that the clutch shaft and the primary gear shaft are always maintained in alignment.
The gearbox is a revelation as to what can be done by clever designers, for although the wheels have large diameters and very wide faces, the size of the box itself is but small, owing to the peculiar arrangement of the gear wheels by which the width of one set of the gear wheels is saved. This car has but three forward speeds and a reverse, and, as practically the whole of ordinary driving can be accomplished on the third direct speed, the second is merely a standby gear for very exceptional gradients, and the bottom speed is only necessary for starting. The gearbox is suspended from trunnions supported by two tubular cross-frame members, and behind it is a large drum or the band brake, which is applied by the side lever. This latter is not, as is usual, carried on the same bracket as the change-speed lever, but is situated about 18in. nearer the rear of the frame. The pedal applies a pair of internal-expansion brakes of enormous diameter at the rear wheels, a very neat balancer being employed, and adjustment for wear can be made on each brake rod separately, whilst the length of motion of the brake pedal can be varied by a coupler, which is readily accessible.
Accessibility a big feature on this car — we might truthfully say on all Daimler cars for the coming season — the brake spring being placed on a level with the top of the chassis frame, adjustment for wear of the clutch or extra pressure of the springs being obtained by the turning of a single nut that can be reached by pulling up the floor boards of the front seats. A universal joint on the front of the propeller shaft has the ends entirely enclosed by oil-tight and dirt-hoof casings, and, so far as one can observe, with all the parts properly hardened there can be no fear of it ever giving trouble. The car is supported front and rear by half-elliptic springs, the rear frame being swept up and downwards so as to clear the rear axle.
In addition to the details of the Calthorpe cars given in the first Show, report, there are one or two further features of interest to be found on the 25 h.p. chassis shown on Stand 14 by the Calthorpe Motor Co., Ltd., of John Bright Street, Birmingham.
The steering column is rendered somewhat more rigid than it would be if its sole attachment were at the steering box, by means of a knuckle joint tying it to the dashboard. From the cylinders the burnt gases are passed first into an expansion box fitted alongside the engine before being directed into the main pipe leading to the silencer. This feature, although extensively applied in marine motor practice, has found few adherents in the motorcar world. Yet it seems to be of considerable service in reducing the noise of the exhaust, owing to the cooling by expansion, which must also reduce back pressure. The system of bolting up the induction and exhaust piping to each pair of cylinders by means of a double dog is also interesting, by reason of the adjustable studs which permit each branch of the pipe to be separately tightened. In the steering box, it may be mentioned, there are two ball bearings, which enable wear to be taken up on the worm and sector.
Both the 25-30 h.p. four-cylinder landaulet and the 40 h.p. six-cylinder limousine have the cylinders cast singly, with the valves on opposite sides. Four speeds are provided on the gate system, and the final drive is by live axle. In detail both these models remain the same as in 1908.
On the 20-22 h.p. four-cylinder chassis, which is exhibited with a side-entrance body, Cape hood, and folding windscreen, the variable lift on the inlet valves, which was used last year for controlling the engine, has now been replaced by a throttle. The cylinders of this engine are cast in pairs, with the valves all on one side. Three speeds and a reverse are provided in a gearbox of the sliding pattern, and, as in the larger cars, live-axle drive is employed.
The 15 h.p. Deasy car is an entirely new model, and has four cylinders of 90mm. bore by 120mm. stroke. These are all cast in one piece with the top halves of the crank chamber. This casting is in many places only 5mm. thick, and is an excellent example of what can be done in the foundry. It is claimed that this method of construction is more simple to carry out and that the cores are easier to fix than in the usual method of single castings.
The valves are all on the left-hand side of the engine, and large water spaces are provided, particularly between the two middle cylinders, where the spacing is greater than between other neighbouring cylinders. This water space has a pipe running through the centre of it, which is, in fact, the induction pipe, leading from the carburetter, this being fixed on the right-hand side of the cylinder casting to the two-way branch pipe on the left side of the engine leading to the inlet valve pockets. The inlet and exhaust pipes are particularly neatly arranged, the exhaust pipes being two in number, each one branching to a pair of cylinders. The one at the front of the engine is swept forward and downward, the one at the rear of the engine is swept backwards and downwards. This arrangement of piping leaves the whole of the valve side of the engine clear, and makes the valves themselves easy of access.
The left-hand side of the crank chamber is fitted with two removable doors, and these are in no way obstructed by pipes or other mechanism. The forged crankshaft is supported at its ends and at the centre by ball bearings of large diameter. The train of wheels which drive the camshaft is fitted to the forward end of this centre ball bearing, and immediately adjacent to it. The crank chamber itself is divided by a large partition plate extending right across the top half, the bottom half being provided with short flanges, which extend upwards front the bottom in order to prevent any excessive longitudinal motion of the oil.
The cam operating mechanism is transmitted through short levers, which are attached to small eye bolts fixed to the side of the main base chamber casing. The extended lip, which is case-hardened, is in contact with the end of the tappet rods, and thus a very small cam motion is required to give the proper lift to the valves. The front end of the camshaft actuates a water pump, which delivers to the tops of the cylinders in the vicinity of the valve pockets.
Removable covers are fitted to the water spaces and to which the delivery and return pipe flanges are fixed by studs. The lubrication of the crank pins is carried out in a very effective and simple manner. To the crank webs are bolted scoops, a pair of scoops being fitted to the same web on opposite sides. Oil is injected into the base chamber in such a direction that the scoops, in revolving, pick up a quantity of oil each time they revolve. This oil is led through a drilled passage in the web to each crank pin. The connecting rods have each a copper pipe fixed to them, which lies in the webbed recess of the H section. This pipe delivers a portion of the oil to the gudgeon pin. The centrifugal force which is delivered up by the rotating of the crankshaft produces sufficient pressure to force the oil to these bearings. The oil is pumped from a tank, which forms a portion of the base chamber, by means of a small rotating disc pump driven by a 12-to-1 reduction gear from the camshaft thus rotating 1-24th of the engine speed. The construction of this model facilitates overhead replacement, and as no parts of the mechanism are supported by the lower half of the base chamber, this can be removed when the oil pump connections are slackened off, and a piston with its connecting rod ciao be drawn downwards.
The way in which the radiator is supported is noteworthy. Two long studs project from the transverse member of the frame which supports the engine, and the metal casting which constitutes the base of the radiator is fixed to these studs, two long eyes being cast upon it for the purpose.
In our last issue we dealt with the principal features of the new model two- cylinder 10 h.p. and four-cylinder 15 h.p. Napier cars.
The engine of the six-cylinder 30 h.p. has been completely redesigned, all the valves being enclosed by face-plates. The design of the carburetter and its arrangement of parts has been so modified that the float chamber is now placed on a level with the middle of the crankcase, the fuel pipe to the mixing chamber above the cylinders being curved so as to clear the exhaust and inlet pipes. This fuel pipe, being longer than has hitherto been the case on the Napier cars, is now hot water jacketed for an ample portion of its length. Each set of the inlet and exhaust pipes is held on by a dog plate. The cylinders are cast in usual Napier fashion, viz., much wider on the valve side than on the other, in order to provide ample water jacketing space around the valve chests. The supply from the water circulating pump is taken in at the opposite side to that of the valves, and passes out from between the inlet valve chests. The lubrication follows usual Napier practice of an oil pump in a sump, which draws its supply through a gauze strainer and delivers under pressure to all the bearings. An extra supply of oil can be quickly added to the crank chamber through a very large filler with gauze strainer that is attached to one of the engine bearer arms, the arm being cast with a passage through it so as to reach the crankcase.
On the dashboard is an oil pressure gauge connected up to the main circulating system with a bye-pass. Standard ignition is secured by a high-tension magneto, with fixed ignition point, consequently there is no control lever on the steering wheel. The entire control of the vehicle is obtained with an accelerator pedal actuated by the driver's right foot, a turn button, conveniently placed on the dashboard in a line with the steering column, setting the minimum point of opening of the throttle.
Transmission is through a Napier pattern disc clutch, and a gear box, with all shafts running on large ball bearings, gives three forward speeds and reverse, with direct drive on top gear. The differential is of the straight-through type, with spur wheels, instead of the usual practice of bevels for this portion of the mechanism.
Springing consists of half elliptics at the front and rear, the braking being by the aid of a metal-to-metal pedal-applied and side-lever applied for the brake drum beyond the gearbox and the internal-expansion brakes on the rear wheels respectively. The rear wheels are, of course, carried on ball bearings on the sleeves. This chassis is priced at £545 with tyres.
We quite recently gave a description of the new model six-cylinder 45 h.p., a sample of which is on the stand fitted with a magnificent landaulet body to seat five persons inside, in addition to two on the driver's seat, this having been built by the Regent Carriage Co. It is finished in a tone of colour somewhat darker than the standard Napier green, picked out with wide black bands, with an edge of light green tint, has a folding luggage rack at the rear, also the Ideal "lazy tongs" landaulet head, which can be opened and shut by one person. The price of this chassis, with tyres, is £795.
There is also on the stand a unique six-cylinder 65 h.p. chassis, a new model for 1909, carrying a luxurious limousine body seating five persons inside, the colour of this being a brilliant yellow, with a narrow band of black running round, which provides excellent contrast. The window frames are polished mahogany and altogether this is one of the most striking vehicles in the exhibition. The usual Napier finish of plated parts combines admirably with the special tint of colour. The chassis is priced at £1,050. A six-cylinder engine, working on the stand, is driven by an electric motor.
Details of this firm's car are always well considered, and from time to time, although the, model has proved so successful, the smaller details are made and added to in order to reach as near perfection as possible. The new type of car is fitted with improved and enlarged brackets, which support the front ends of the radius rods. These are scientifically designed to give increased strength. They are made in triangular form, with the centre cut away. The bracket foot has a large bearing upon the channel side member, and the arms, which are of angle section, are of an increased area. Very neat pressed-steel supports are fitted to carry the wings and running boards. These are dished out throughout their length and flanged in a very neat manner, where they are bolted to the side members of the chassis.
The dash is particularly well constructed, and supported by small angle and supporting brackets. At either side of the dash turned columns are fitted to support the windscreen. Amongst other details of this car the gearshifts may be noticed. That on which the sliding train works is made from a tough nickel-steel forging of large diameter. Instead of this shaft being made of a square section, it is fluted by milling, which process leaves six long keys protruding from the shaft throughout its length. The sides of these keys form surfaces at right angles to the driving force, thus obviating any tendency to bursting the wheels which are prevalent in the square shafts. The connecting rod is made of very light section, bushed at the small end with a solid cone metal bush; at the large end the cone metal casing is cut up the middle to form a bearing. The two halves of these wide metal bushes are clamped on to a liner, which can at any time be taken up or filed without touching the bushes selves. This system facilitates adjustment at any Lane.
The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Co., Ltd., in addition to the models described in our issue of the 17th instant, are exhibiting the 14-20 h.p. new model, which has proved to be one of the most popular models of the present time. There are four cylinders cast in blocks of two, the dimensions being 90mm. bore by l05 stroke. The valves are all situated on the left-hand side of the engine, the inlet valves in each pair of cylinders being adjacent to one another. To the inlet valve pockets is connected a branch pipe, at the centre of which is the mixing chamber of the carburetter. The extra air inlet valve is adjustable from the top, and the pipe itself is retained in position by means of two dogs. These dogs have one foot pressing on the inlet pipe, the other foot retains the exhaust pipe, which is situated immediately above in position in a similar manner. One bolt at either end of the exhaust pipe retains the pipe and its joint in position over the exhaust flange of the two end cylinders. The exhaust pipe sweeps towards the rear of the car inside the undershield, but a branch is taken from it to an annular casing round the jet chamber of the carburetter, which is situated low down in the chassis. Lubrication is carried out by means of a vertical shaft operating the oil pump situated between two pairs of cylinders. The arrangement of lubrication is the same as has been described in connection with the 20-30 h.p.
The transmission is primarily by means of a leather cone clutch, which has three plunger springs placed round its periphery and beneath the leather. This arrangement gives a sweeter engagement when putting the clutch into action. The gearbox is suspended by its rear end from a channel transverse member of the frame. At its centre there is a continuation of the aluminium casting of the cross tube, this enveloping the change-speed rod. This casting contains the lever which actuates the selector rods. The rear axle is of the usual type, and is fitted with a torque rod of tubular construction. The landaulet body rests upon a transverse spring attached by shackles upon the two ends of the back springs, the front ends of these springs being attached directly to a pin on the chassis, thus transmitting the drive and acting as radius rods. The side members of the frame are parallel through their length, but are swept upwards at the rear. The channel members form a square construction, but at the two rear corners are riveted the ends of a large semi-circular bracket. This bracket is set down at the back, and forms a seating for the transverse rear springs. In addition to the strength afforded by this construction, an appearance of neatness and lightness is produced, and these features are evident throughout the vehicle.
F. I. A. T.
A small popular model of 12-14h.p. has been introduced by the famous F.I.A.T Co., and is shown on Stand 53 by F. I. A. T. Motors, of Long Acre, W.C.
The four cylinders are cast in one block, with valves all on one side. The induction and exhaust pipe is neatly clamped by only four bolts. High-tension magneto ignition is fitted as a standard, the magneto being situated on the off side; which is remarkably free from other fittings.
The carburetter is of the twin jet type, the small and large jets being used singly for running at low and high speeds respectively. The control is effected solely by the accelerator pedal, the timing being automatically varied by the magneto itself, a hand lever being omitted from the steering wheel. The small lever fitted to the dashboard gives, however, hand control over the throttle if needed. A float tickler is brought out through the side of the frame arm to enable the carburetter to be flooded without lifting the bonnet.
Pressure-feed lubrication is employed, the oil being forced to the main bearings, through the crank webs to the connecting rod big-ends, and thence to the gudgeon pins through tubes clipped to the connecting rods. The lower half of the crank chamber is cast in one piece with the gearbox, a deep pan being provided for the flywheel, which acts also as a fan. Three speeds and a reverse are fitted on the gate system. The propeller shaft casing is finished at the forward end in a Y piece pinned to brackets on the gearbox. The propeller shaft case and rear axle casing are formed by bolting together two T pieces of semi-circular section with horizontal flanges, the forward end of this case floating on the stem of the Y piece; in this manner neither radius nor torque rods are required, although the rear springs are shackled at both ends. All twisting strain due to unevenness in the road surface obtains play in the end of the Y piece.
A very sharp steering lock can be obtained on the front wheels, the turning radius being about 25ft. A feature of the frame design is the stiffening afforded by widening the webs for a few feet behind the front in-sweeping. The rear portion is swept upwards. On the same stand there are a 28-35 h.p. polished chassis and a 40-50 h.p. chassis with the same characteristic of design, except that the cylinders are cast in pairs, with the valves on opposite sides, and that four speeds are provided. A 12-14h.p. landaulet is staged at £420. A 28-35 h.p. limousine and a 15-20 h.p. landaulet — the latter, unlike the others, being fitted with low-tension ignition — are also to be seen on the stand.
On the six-cylinder 45 h.p. model which is being shown by Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft and Co., Ltd., of Chiswick and Albemarle Street, W., the valve pipes are all of the breech-block pattern. Tightness is obtained by a seated plate held down by a stud in the breech-block cover. A twist of the stud loosens the cover, which can then be drawn out leaving the plate that makes a gas-tight joint to be lifted off its seating. This arrangement enables one to get at any of the valves in a couple of seconds, should it be necessary to replace them or grind them in on their seatings.
Cylinders are cast in pairs, with large core panels on each side, which enable the water jackets to be easily cleaned out if at any time they become furred. Lubrication is effected by pump through a hollow crankshaft. The high-tension magneto ignition is inter-connected with the throttle control, which is arranged only on the steering wheel. A multiple disc clutch is employed to transmit the power through a three-speed gearbox working in the gate system to the cardan shaft and live axle. The brakes of each are internal expanding, including that on the shaft, and are of large diameter and ample dimensions. Very long springs are fitted at the rear, the top portion of the three-quarter elliptic having the leaves bevelled off instead of cut straight off at the spring hanger, as is generally found on cars fitted with springs of this type.
Minerva Motors, Ltd., 40, Holborn Viaduct, E.C., are now fitting on the larger models, and optionally on the smaller models at an additional cost of £12, the Nieuport combined coil and switch, which is fitted on the dash. This coil is an ordinary single trembler type, working in conjunction with an accumulator and a combined four-way low-tension make-and-break and high-tension distributor placed under the bonnet. The low-tension contacts consist of four brass squares, about 10mm. square, let into a fibre disc, which disc is rotated to advance or retard the timing. Over this disc a fibre block carries the distributing brushes that operate over the low-tension contacts by means of a circular brass rod. On the top of the rotating block a square-sectioned carbon brush is held in a brass sleeve, which is let into the block and connected to a central contact. The lid of the distributor contains brass high-tension collecting segments, which, in turn, are connected to the four terminals for the high-tension wires.
The 15 h.p. Minerva, which is a new model this year, has a conveniently-shaped frame for fitting a body with a low platform, 1ft. 8in. above the road level. This is obtained by sweeping the side members downwards at the rear of the front seats, and again sweeping them well up to give clearance over the rear axle. The back springs are three-quarter elliptical, and are hung below the axle itself, the quarter ellipticals or spring dumb irons being curved well over so that the rear shackles are in tension.
The 15 h.p. is fitted with a belt-driven pump in connection with the lubricator, which is fitted on the dash, with an additional hand pump enabling a flush of oil to be supplied if desired. The gearbox is suspended on a separate channel-sectioned underframe; fixed at the front end to a cross member.
On Stand No. 91, occupied by the Singer Motor Co., Ltd., of Coventry and Holborn Viaduct, E.C., two very smartly designed chassis are being exhibited. A 16 h.p. four-cylinder model has been added for the coming season to the 12-14 h.p. and 25 h.p. types of 1908, which have been improved in details for 1909, and except for the engines and that the frame and transmission are somewhat heavier on the 25 h.p. model in order to withstand the extra power, the two cars are similar.
The 25 h.p. motor has the cylinders, which are set desaxes, cast separately, with the valves all on one side, the expansion box for the exhaust gases and the induction pipe being neatly clamped by four dogs. Five main bearings are employed in the crank chamber. The engine, clutch, gearbox, and cardan head are all carried on a low subsidiary frame, which keeps them all in correct alignment over all road surfaces, and, being kept low, renders the line of shafting from the forward end of the engine to the bevel drive in the rear axle casing practically horizontal when the weight of the body depresses the rear three-quarter elliptic springs. Between the cone clutch and gearbox there is an Oldham joint. Four speeds operated through a gate, and a reverse controlled by separate lever, are provided. At the cardan head there are a universal joint of the centred pin pattern and a universal sliding coupling, both fitted on a short shaft between the gearbox and cardan shaft. The latter is enclosed in a tubular casing rigidly bolted to the gear casing of the back axle. At its forward end it is hung by a universally jointed link from a cross member of the frame. The strap by which it is hung from the link is free to move round the casing, and there being in addition a pin joint and a ball and socket joint, it is allowed freedom of movement for all motions of the rear axle in any direction. It is also to be noted that the employment of the two universal joints so closely together, and practically on a horizontal line, completely removes all binding strains from the gearbox bearings. The radius rods are carried well forward, almost to the centre line of the cardan joint, thus reducing wear on the universal joint. The rear wheels are provided with two concentric sets of internal expanding brakes, one set being connected to a pedal and applying the brake by double cams connected by a short rod, the other set being operated by the hand lever, both sets being compensated by the balance system. It is claimed for this system of braking that the application of the retarding force directly to the wheels instead of through a differential, as is the case with a shaft brake, reduces side-slipping, as it must reduce tyre wear, unequal braking of the wheels being impossible.
Two small Charron models are being exhibited by the London Motor Garage Co., Ltd., one being of the two-cylinder 8-10 h.p. type, and the other of the four-cylinder 12-14 h.p. pattern, both new for next season. Both these are designed on the same lines, the cylinders being in each case cast in one piece, with the valves all on one side, and with ports formed in the casting to lead from a single induction pipe to the inlet valve chambers. The exhaust is taken out on the same side through a single pipe. Only a small quantity of air is taken in over the jet, which, together with the float chamber, is situated low down on the engine. The rich mixture thus provided is diluted by extra air admitted through the throttle box in proportion to the throttle opening. The control is entirely by throttle, a small lever on the dashboard being, however, inter-connected with the accelerator pedal to set a minimum throttle opening. The ignition is fixed. In both these light models the radiator has been removed floral the usual Charron position just in front of and above the front axle, to a more prominent position in front of the dashboard, a fan, driven-by belt off the main shaft, being fitted its centre.
Albion cars have always possessed certain characteristics that single them out as reliable and economical cars. Alone in the motor world, they are as often fitted with solid rubber tyres as with pneumatics. The Lacre Motor Car Co., Ltd., of Poland Street, W., solo concessionaires for Albion cars in England and Wales, are unfortunately relegated to a position in the Annexe, which is in marked contrast to the imposing stands they have occupied in the main hall in previous years.
In the two-cylinder 16 h.p. Albion chassis, the cylinders are cast together, with the valves on opposite sides, the cups being held down by a dog with central bolt, those on the inlet side having let cocks fitted. On the exhaust side two separate pipes run right away to the silencer. The ordinary air intake of the carburetter is fitted with a silencer to deaden the hissing sound of the air aspiration. The extra air passes through the same pipe, but branches off just outside the mixing chamber, and is regulated by a throttle controlled from the dashboard. The governor controls the throttle, at the same time gradually opening a third air intake, besides governing the low-tension ignition by drawing the shoes of the igniter tappets forward or backward to meet the cam earlier or later.
The control of the car rests with a single lever placed under the steering wheel and regulating the governor; through which indirectly it controls both ignition and carburation. The Murray magneto is of an unusual type with a very large armature carried on the main shaft between engine and radiator, the magnets being fixed horizontally and a shield protecting the whole. The Albion mechanical lubricator is fitted to the dashboard. Half-compression is obtained by sliding the exhaust camshaft. Between the leather cone clutch and the gearbox there is a spring drive. The speed changes number three forward and a reverse. These are operated through a gate, the gear lever being locked on each speed by a notch. There is a double-bevelled drive to the countershaft, a brake being fitted on the through extension to the main shaft behind the bevel and differential box. Chain cases, stiffened in order to perform the function of radius rods, enclose the chains.
On the, 24-30 h.p, chassis the cylinders are cast separately. The float chamber and jet are on one side with the ordinary and first extra air inlets, and the mixture passes then over the top of the engine through a hot-water jacketed pipe to the throttle chamber, where it meets the extra air admitted by the action of the governor, which, as in the smaller model, controls also the throttle and the low-tension ignition. The magneto in this type is completely enclosed at the front of the engine, and above it is situated the lubricator, which, before starting up, can be turned round by means of bevel gearing and a rod over the top of the cylinders passing to the driver's side of the dashboard. Large air scoops are bolted to the flywheel arms. The spring drive is entirely enclosed and a universal joint is fitted between it and the clutch. Four speeds are provided on this chassis. The pedal brake is placed on the near side of the countershaft. Double elliptic springs are employed at the rear, clipped under the axle with the spring hanger bolted, to the top of the upper leaves, this disposition keeping the frame low. A pin on the rear axle slides in a vertical guide bolted to the rear cross member, thus preventing any side strain being put on the spring shackles as variations occur in the levels of the two wheels. Only a 24-30 h.p. Lacre limousine can be shown in addition to the chassis, owing to the space restrictions.
There are two distinct types of lubrication systems adopted in the latest productions of Renault. The four-cylinder model has a large oil tank on the dash, in the lower corner of which a force pump is fitted. This pump is made to reciprocate by an oscillating motion, driven from a worm gear on the camshaft. This pump delivers oil to a distributing pipe at the top of the oil tank, from which position, through sight feeds, the oil is led to the different bearings of the engine. The six-cylinder type of lubrication is carried out with an entire absence from view of oil pipes. The large ends receive their supply of oil from scoops which are fixed to the crank webs. Each time the crank traverses the base chamber oil is scooped up and thrown by centrifugal force into an annular casing, from whence it is led through drilled passages to the crank pins. The lubrication of the main bearings is carried out by a pump, which draws its oil from the base chamber of the engine, injecting it on the top of the journals through internal passages. A manometer is connected up in series with this system, and, being fixed on the dash, indicates the proper working of the pump. The universal joints between the flywheel and gearbox are two in number, and are of the enclosed star type.
No mechanical alterations have been made in. the highly popular Rover 6 h.p. for the coming year, but there is increased value offered in the bodywork, a large toolbox now being fitted behind the seats, still leaving ample space for the carrying of luggage. Footboards and running boards are now covered with rubber matting instead of linoleum, and purchasers have the option of standard Rover red or green. The model displayed on the stand, of this power, is shown with a Cape cart hood, and County curved glass and adjustable windscreen, the complete car, without lamps, as exhibited, being priced at £150.
No changes can be found in the 8 h.p., excepting that grooved tyres are fitted in place of the plain previously offered. There is an addition in the shape of a polished wood dashboard behind the petrol tank. The price remains the same, viz., £210 for the two-seater, or £235 for the four-seater.
The four-cylinder 20 h.p. has not been altered in mechanical detail, nor has the price been varied.
One of the new 15 h.p. chassis is shown on the stand with a very handsome landaulet body, seating two persons on the rear seats, two on seats folding against the sides of the body, and two on the front seat, with fixed canopy and glass screen
The new 25 h.p. four-cylinder Vertex chassis reflects credit upon the designers responsible for the general arrangements. Overhead inlet valves are contained in cages that are fitted in chests at a somewhat greater height than the exhaust valve chests, enabling the gas passages, that are cast integral with the cylinders, to be carried through without interfering with the water-jackets. A single camshaft operates all valves, the overhead ones being actuated from the usual tappet rods that abut against long rods exterior to the cylinders that are joined at the top to the rocker arms. Overhead valves have a reputation, perhaps deservedly, for being noisy, because the usual practice has been to leave the long rods without any bearings and from the heat of the adjoining cylinders some amount of distortion is bound to be set up unless the rods are made of stouter material than the case warrants.
In this new engine each rod is contained in a couple of extremely long bearings bushed with hard phosphor-bronze in a similar manner to those for the shorter tappets that are worked from the camshaft. It can thus be understood that, whatever may be the work that has to be done by the rods, they must always be in true alignment, noiseless, and cannot be distorted under any circumstances.
Another novel feature is the support for the rocker arm on the cylinder heads. Instead of fixing the supporting bridge permanently, it has a thread cut on the studded portion that enters the cylinder casting, and, with a nut on the thread, it is possible to raise or lower the bridge to any desired height and therefore adjust the valve arm so as to time the opening of the valve at the right moment.
The crankshaft is suspended from the upper half of the chamber and runs in very large ball bearings: at one end of the shaft is a double thrust ball bearing that will take the strain in both directions. The pistons have received considerable attention, being made from a special alloy of steel, and carry four piston rings at the head and a fifth ring lower down. A neat wipe contact maker is placed to the side front of the engine, and the casing holding the gear which drives this and the magneto can be lifted apart for examination at any time.
The chassis of the 25 h.p. live-axle Vertex car is built up on two channel steel side-members, which are inswept at the rear of the dash, and where they pass- over the back axle are swept upwards at the point where the transverse member is riveted to the side-members two large projecting pieces are fitted. These are riveted to the side-members of the chassis, and extend outwards, acting as seats for the rear, quarter, elliptical springs. These form a portion of a three-quarter spring suspension which is fitted to these cars. The front ends of the back springs are riveted to the side members of the chassis, and act as radius rods, the springs being thus fixed to the sleeves. The driving axle is within these sleeves, but its outside or driven end, where it engages with the wheel centre, is of somewhat peculiar construction. A large flange with six fingers is forged in one piece, with this driving shaft, and to each of these fingers is attached a spring, the drive being transmitted by these pins to a recess drilled in the retaining flange at the centre of the spokes. This shaft is prevented from coming adrift by a large nut which forms the wheel cap, and which is screwed to the axle tube. The change-speed gearbox is supported by four arms to an underframe provided for the purpose. This box is an aluminium casting in one piece with the exception of the top, which is of large size, and is removable for the inspection of the gears. The gear shafts lie side by side in the box, and are inserted from the end members, plugs being screwed in and forming covers at these ends. The footbrake drum is of large diameter and rotates with the shaft. The shoes are internally expanding, and are swung from a large lug at the foot of the gearbox. Four speeds are provided, with direct drive on top. These are actuated by means of two selector rods, the lever working in a gate. The reverse is obtained by a separate lever and mechanism.
A very fine show chassis is exhibited on the Itala stand, which does not differ materially, however, from that shown last year in its general principles. The four-cylinder engine, which has its cylinders cast in pairs, is bolted on a crank chamber of considerable dimensions. The crank chamber encloses the cam gear and the trains of operating wheels in a very neat manner. The ignition mechanism is particularly noticeable for its small number of working parts, there being only one wire from the magneto to the high-tension terminals of the four plugs, which are connected together electrically. One camshaft actuates the make and break to one pair of cylinders. On the end of this shaft two small ears are fitted adjacent to one another, and a single spring holds the two rockers in contact with the cams. The rear live axle is of substantial construction, and is supported upon semi-elliptical springs of considerable lengths the top blades of which transmit the drive to the chassis. The V-shaped torque rod is of tubular steel and is fitted in the usual way. In this year's model an extra universal joint is fitted between the clutch and gearbox, enabling the former to dismantled without disturbing latter.
We illustrate some of the features of the new Humber models, and we also give a photo of the new side-entrance body modelled upon the lines that made the Beeston type so comfortable; the gracefulness of the side and door being, we think, amplified by the new rotund shape which has taken the place of the Roi-des-Belges body. The new models have an oil-circulating indicator on the dash, a knob being moved in a slot, marked "Danger" at the bottom and "Safe" at the top. The knob is pushed up by a piston acting through a cable wire carried in a tube, the piston being acted upon by the oil pressure in the pipe. One can feel the position of this knob without the need for a light at night. The stub axles have been strengthened at the heel by being turned to a tapered section, the bearing being countersunk to allow of this
The Eclipse Machine Co., Ltd., of Oldham, are showing a 20 h.p. and a 25 h.p. Rothwell car. This latter has four cylinders 4in. in diameter by 5in. stroke, with the cylinders cast in pairs. The inlet valves are arranged on the top, and are removable with their seats. These seats in turn form part of a casting which constitutes the valve cap and the fulcrum for the operating rockers. A pair of these caps are held in position by a single dog. The tightening of one nut secures these cans in place, the joints being a machined fit. The inlet valves are located upon the left side of the engine over the exhaust valves. The carburetter is on the right side of the engine, the inlet pipe being led up between the two pairs of cylinders. Large inspection plates to the water jackets are fitted on the tops of the cylinder castings, and small ones are also fitted on the sides of the water space over the valve pockets. Thermo-syphon circulation is used. Five bearings support the crankshaft, which at the forward end drives the camshaft by means of the usual wheels, which are enclosed in a large case. A worm gear is also fitted, which drives a cross shaft operating the magneto and low-tension contact breaker. The high-tension magneto is inter-connected with the contact breaker, the two being operated by a lever on the steering wheel.
Lubrication is carried out on the splash system in addition a small tank is fitted on the side of the chassis, pressure from the exhaust forcing oil from this tank to a series of sight-feeds on the dash. The gearbox has an extra bearing fitted around the dog clutch, which is engaged for obtaining top sped. The live axle is swung from radius rods fitted at their forward end to projecting pins on the spring brackets. The torque rod consists of a triangular plate with flanged edges. The chassis is supported on a transverse rear spring shackled to the two side springs. The brakes on the back wheels, which have internal-expanding shoes, can be easily adjusted by right and left-handed screw adjustments in an accessible position. The flywheel has a large number of thin blades attached to its outside periphery, which draw air through the radiator and bonnet.
Direct drive, or a drive as nearly direct as it is possible to obtain it in motorcar construction, has been a feature of Clyde cars for the last ten years, which is a guarantee that it has been found successful, and its retention in the 1909 models was therefore to be expected. In order to obtain this drive the engine is set athwart the frame. The two, three and four-cylinder types, an example of each of which is shown by G. H. Wait and Co., of Leicester, on Stand No. 141, in the Annexe, are all constructed on these lines. Under the bonnet, fitted in front of the dashboard, as in the ordinary type of car, the engine is suspended transversely from two cross-members, the flywheel being fitted on the off side. Between the latter and the crankcase is the sprocket for the Hans Renold chain that drives directly to the primary shaft of the gearbox, which forms part of the rear axle casing.
Inside the gearbox there are spur wheels mounted on the differential gear case, and corresponding pinions on the primary shaft that receives the chain drive. The gears are always in mesh, the speeds being chosen by dog clutches. This system of transmission obviates, of course, the bevel drive.
On the two-cylinder 8-10 h.p.; as well as on the three-cylinder 12-14 h.p., only one chain is used; but on the four-cylinder 16-20 h.p., owing to the length of the chassis, the chain drives from the engine shaft to a transverse shaft in the middle of the frame, and thence by another chain to the gearbox. White and Poppe engines are used on the three models, with Longuemare semi-automatic carburetter, the control of which, as well as that of the coil and accumulator ignition, is brought to the steering column just underneath the wheel.
The three control levers are fitted one above the other, that for the throttle being fitted at the top, so that it can be regulated without taking the hands from the steering wheel, the second lever being for ignition, and the third for the extra air inlet. No fan is employed for the radiator, the excellent design of the centrifugal pump and gilled-tube radiator serving to keep the water sufficiently cool. The starting handle is arranged at the side of the dashboard, and geared to the main shaft by a chain. A side-entrance body has been fitted to the 16-20 h.p. chassis.
A four-seated body, in which access is obtained to the rear seats through a swing front seat, is shown on the 12 h.p. chassis, and a neat two-seater on the smallest model, side doors being fitted in each instance, and all being provided with Cape hoods and folding windscreens.
A unique feature is to be found on all Delaunay-Belleville chassis, leading models of which are being shown by the Burlington Carriage Co, of Oxford Street, W. This is the method whereby the resistance of the driving torque is placed upon the frame. The cardan shaft is encased in a tube almost up to the forward universal joint. The forward end of the tube carries a spring pot, in which is fixed a ball rigidly attached to a cross-member of the frame, the spring pot being mounted on a spherical joint on the tube, permitting the torque to be resisted by the frame without any illegitimate strains on the connections.
Another feature that deserves notice is the accessibility of all parts of the carburetter. The filter attached to the float chamber, the float itself and the automatic air valve can all be removed without the use of any spanner. The jet is also rendered extremely accessible by the situation of the ordinary cold air intake half surrounding it. Means are provided for adjusting the permanent air inlet, and the automatic air inlet can be entirely closed, if required, for starting. The method of bringing the hot air from around the exhaust pipe to the carburetter through a pipe passing underneath the crank chamber is also a neat feature. Details of the models and other features of their construction were mentioned in the first Show report.
The new model 12-14 h.p. Metallurgique car, shown by Messrs. Warwick Wright, Ltd., has four cylinders cast in a single block and placed desaxe on the chassis. The cylinders are 75mm. diameter by 110mm. stroke, with the valves on the left-hand side, and are cast in one piece from the top half of the crank chamber. This casting has four massive arms which spread across the total width of the chassis, and are supported on fitting blocks which are placed within the channel section resting on the lower flange of the section. The front end of this casing is formed as a cover for two trains of wheels, one of which operates the camshaft. On the front end of this train a rotary pump is fitted. This pump draws oil from the sump, which is formed at the front end of the base chamber, and forces it through the tops of the main bearing caps, whence it passes through a drilled crankshaft to the crank-pin bearings. Water circulation is by thermo-syphon; the distinctive shape of the Metallurgique radiator is employed. A new type of radiator tube is employed in the casing. This tube is of a flat, corrugated type, placed vertically in the radiator casing, but is bent into a wavy form, thus making a honeycomb appearance to the radiator itself.
The flywheel is of large diameter and some 5in. wide; its arms form fan blades: these are five in number. The base of this wheel forms the female member of the clutch, which is of the Metallurgique standard pattern. An outside spring is employed, which is easy of access, and its tension can be altered by means of nuts, and, at the same time, the connecting rods can be adjusted to vary the relative position of the clutch pedal. A coupling is fitted at the front end of the gearbox; the brake drum at the rear end contains the spring drive. This drive is effected by four springs in compression, the end of these being attached to the outer or the inner portion of the casing by hinged links. The gearbox provides three speeds and reverse, and is operated by two selector rods and a single side lever working in a gate. The side brake operates through a link to a wide crosshead bar, which compensates the tension on the two rear brake drums. These are the internal-expanding type and are self-centering. The back axle is contained in a pair of steel castings which are heavily webbed.
The 18 h.p. four-cylinder De Dion car, which is shown by the English De Dion Co., of 10, Great Marlborough Street, was referred to in our last issue, but it has many interesting features which will bear further consideration.
The stroke is 10mm. longer than the last year model; the engine is suspended on a steel end frame which is continued rearward, and to which the gearbox is bolted. This underframe is supported in the vicinity of the gearbox by a large tubular cross-member of the chassis, and at the front end is supported in the centre by a deep channel cross-member below the radiator. This gives a three-point suspension to the underframe. At a point between the two pairs of cylinders a skew gear on the camshaft drives a vertical shaft projecting downwards to the base of the steel apron. On this end of this shaft a rotary pump of the Albany type is fitted. This pump draws oil from an unusually deep box, which is a portion of the crank chamber and cast with it. Oil is delivered from this pump through a pipe which traverses the base chamber in a lateral direction between the two pairs of cylinders and protrudes beyond the other side, where a further pipe is led off and distributes the oil under pressure to the main bearing brasses. The crankshaft is drilled at the journals and up the crank webs, making continuous passages. The oil which enters the main journals traverses these passages in the crankshaft, and reaches the crank pins, lubricating them efficiently. Tubes are carried up to the gudgeon pins, allowing the oil to be forced upwards to these points in the usual way. The arrangement for operating the supply of extra air admitted to the carburetter is very simple, but, at the same time, effective. The button at the back controls the movement of a wedge piece, which, in sliding to and fro, is made to vary the tension on the spring of the extra air valve. This valve is opened in the ordinary way by the suction of the engine in opposition to this spring, and is prevented from hunting by a dashpot, which constitutes the cover of the arrangement, the piston being turned on the same spindle which supports the air valve. Large annular slides which support this piston form the admission ports for this air. By such an arrangement as this it becomes an easy matter to adjust the amount of air entering the carburetter when the engine is practically at work.
The De Luca cars, which are made in Naples on the general lines of the Coventry Daimler cars, are being shown for the first time in England on a separate stand, No. 49, by the Daimler Motor Car Co., Ltd., of Piccadilly and Shaftesbury Avenue, who are the selling agents in this country for the Italian manufacturers.
Like the parent company, the Italian factory has adopted the Knight slide valve engine, for which they have the rights of manufacture in Italy. Only one model is being manufactured for the coming season, this being the 22 h.p. live-axle type. The salient features that distinguish this engine from those which have been used on petrol cars up to the present time have frequently been described in these columns of late in connection with the Coventry Daimler models, and it need therefore only be mentioned that the De Luca engine is constructed on the same general lines, tappet valves being superseded by the slide valves. Only one ignition is fitted, this being of the high-tension magneto pattern.
The water-jacketing has been devised with a radiator of very efficient construction to enable natural water circulation to be adopted. In departing from the gilled-tube radiator, which has for a couple of years past been associated with the De Luca chassis just as on the Coventry Daimler types, the De Luca Co. has adopted a shape which closely resembles that of the Mercedes and FIAT is formed of flat vertical tubes, the cooling of which is assisted by horizontal ribbing continuous from side to side, the whole presenting a very smart appearance the top and sides are finished in polished brass.
The power is transmitted through a cone clutch, in connection with which a stop is fitted, to the four-cylinder gearbox, which is of very compact shape with very short shafts. Between the clutch and gearbox a universal sliding coupling is interposed. A split collar takes the drive through this joint. In the gearbox the wheels have been so arranged that in order to save space the wheel on the main shaft for the third speed moves inside the wheel for the second speed when on the direct fourth. The direct drive is obtained by teeth on the main shaft meshing with an internally-toothed ring inside the primary wheel on the main shaft. The reverse pinion is brought into gear by an eccentric movement. The gearbox is suspended on the three-point system, being carried at the fore and rear ends by rigid attachments to two cross-members of the frame and at the side by a linked bracket.
Behind the gearbox is a shaft brake, with a simple self-locking screw adjustment actuated by the hand lever. It is the internal-expanding brakes on the rear wheel hubs that are in this model connected up to one of the pedals through a compensating balance. At the forward end of the cardan shaft the universal joint is of the single centre-pin type, that at the rear being of the sliding pattern. Easy access to the gearing in the live axle case can be obtained by removing a large rear panel, through which the whole of the bevel and differential gear can, if necessary, be withdrawn. Just over the axle the frame is swept sharply upwards, but falls again at the rear, where the petrol tank is suspended.
The Stanley Steam Car.
The boiler of this car is different front that usually employed, in that it is a fire-tube boiler, that is to say, a certain quantity of water is always contained in the boiler itself. A very ingenious arrangement has been devised to enable the water level in the boiler to be ascertained without resorting to the usual type of gauge glass, which is so apt to give trouble with high pressures. A small casting with a diaphragm up the centre is connected up so that the feed water on its passage to the boiler must traverse the length of this casting. The adjacent half is connected by means of a pipe from the top leading to the steam space and one from the bottom leading to the water space of the boiler.
Into this space a tube is fixed, which is filled with water and is connected through a small U tube to a glass pipe fixed vertically on the dash. The whole of this pipe and connection is filled with water. The indication of the level of water in the boiler is given by the expansion or contraction of the water in the small internal tube, due to the presence of either steam or water, as the case may be, round this tube, which is fixed in the casting before mentioned.
The engine is suspended beneath the car body, being supported at one end from the axle and swinging upon two bronze bushes, which form extensions of the guide bars upon which the crossheads work. Ball bearings are fitted to the crossheads, thus minimising wear. The connecting rods and link motion are constructed of steel stampings of the best material, and case hardened where necessary. The engine drives the back axle through a single gear, giving a ratio of 4 to 1.
A Norfolk convertible shooting brake is staged in the Annexe by Commercial Cars, Ltd., of Luton, and of Cambridge Circus, W.C.
A 24 h.p. four-cylinder engine is fitted, and the change-speed gear is really fool-proof, the selection being made by a handle under the steering wheel, but the actual change only being effected when the clutch is withdrawn. It is impossible to miss a gear. The body consists of a roomy saloon with seats on both sides, and at the front end, the upholstery being in green leather. Windows are arranged along both sides, but as these do not fold down, ventilation is provided by fanlights above the windows as well as by a drop window in the partition behind the driver's seat and in the rear door. The ceiling is lined, with alternate strakes of light and dark wood, and the floor is covered with linoleum. To convert the brake into a station or luggage car, the whole of the upper portion, including the roof, all the windows, the padded backs of the seats and the top of the rear door, is removed. When the seats are lifted out a large luggage car is obtained. In fine weather a light wooden canopy may be erected over the seats on iron stanchions, roll-up canvas curtains being fitted in case of showers. Finished in natural colours and well polished, this brake forms a handsome as well as useful vehicle. The body being stoutly constructed, luggage may be piled on the roof, a folding iron ladder being provided for this purpose. As accommodation can be found for ten people in comfort, the design answers its purpose splendidly, and not the least merit of the vehicle is that the chassis is specially constructed for heavy work and has not been adapted from a pleasure model.
Shown by Osborn and Co., Ltd., the 9 h.p. two-cylinder Gregoire model is particularly interesting, the two cylinders, 80mm. by 90mm., being cast in one piece. The general construction is well thought out, and the finish is well up to the best French practice. The method in which the back axle is suspended and the drive transmitted to the chassis is worthy of special notice. A tubular casing surrounds the propeller shaft, but instead of any thrust being transmitted through the universal joint, an A frame is attached to this tube. The ends of the A frame are carried by a cross-member of the chassis, with a hinged connection, and transmit the thrust direct to the chassis. The differential casing is divided horizontally, and is so arranged that the top half can be easily removed for inspection of the bevel gear, without in any way interfering with the location of the same. The rear of the chassis is supported on three-quarter elliptical springs. The foot-brake drum, which is situated in its usual place behind the gearbox, is enclosed.
In addition to the Humphris patent gear, which has of late attracted so much attention as a novel and very efficient system a 15 h.p. chassis exhibiting a new feature of very great interest is shown by Humphris Patent Engineering Co., Ltd., of 5, Albany Courtyard, Piccadilly, W.
In the Humphris system of transmission, the gearbox, as generally fitted to cars, whether it be of the Panhard, gate or epicyclic type, is entirely abolished, as well as the bevel drive for the live axle or side chains. In its place, the propeller shaft carries a small pinion with six circular teeth like six short fingers, engaging with a plate on the live axle, in which four concentric series of thimbles are sunk, these giving four different ratios of gearing owing to their different radii. Each circular tooth is cut to a special form, the thimbles being correspondingly shaped, so that the pressure on the teeth is always spread over a surface instead of being only on a line, as in spur or bevel gear, and the contact is rolling without slip. From the engine to the road wheels, on all the forward speeds, there is only one geared drive, which of itself is claimed to be more efficient than an ordinary bevel-tooth drive, and therefore there is a smaller loss of power on all speeds in the Humphris gear than on the direct top of any other car in which bevel gearing is employed.
On last year's design the large driving plate was moved sideways out of position in order to allow the pinion to be moved from one series of thimbles to the other, but in the latest design the large plate is fixed, and an ingenious device draws the pinion on one side before the gear lever slides it backwards or forwards for the change of speed.
On the 15 h.p. chassis shown by the firm on their stand, the suspension is arranged in such a manner that no unsprung weight is carried by the live axle casing, nor can any side strains be thrown on the springs. This is effected by tying a rear transverse spring to the frame with a parallel motion given by two diagonal rods pinned at top and bottom to two arms, one on each side, each pinned centrally to a bracket on the rear portion of the frame, the rear transverse spring being bolted in the centre to a lug on the gear casing of the live axle, with the two ends jointed to the lower portions of the arms to which the diagonal rods are applied.
The engine is mounted on an underframe, which extends past the clutch to form an attachment for the torque tube that encases the propeller shaft. This underframe is carried in the main frame on two trunnions fitted on the horizontal transverse line of the centre of gravity of the unit. The torque is therefore thrown on to the trunnions, and when the rear wheels bump over an uneven surface the slip on the tyres is practically nil, owing to the very long length of the radius connection, which is, of course, that between the rear axle and the trunnions. For a movement of the springs equal to 7in. vertically, the slip with rigid tyres would be 3/64ths of an inch, which is so small that it could be taken by the yielding of the rubber. Seven inches movement on the springs would break them, but the figures are useful as an illustration. We shall be interested to see how these claims are borne out by performance on the road.
The new four-cylinder 30 h.p. Cadillac makes its first bow to an English audience at this Show, and as it is constructed on the standardised lines that have helped to make the smaller single-cylinder 10 h.p. Cadillac popular, we can foresee great demand for this newer model. The cylinders are separate castings with copper water jackets, the sliding heads and valve chests being separate and held down in the same way as on the 10 h.p. model. Water-circulating pump, oil-circulating pump, and high-tension magneto are driven by extensions of a shaft from the front of the engine, and it might he noted that the magneto is an extra — the standard ignition being accumulator-coil.
In connection with the coil ignition there is a very novel type of contact maker fitted with knife-edge rubbing contacts that self-clean at every revolution and do not appear to be subjected to the same disadvantages as the roller type. The transmission is through a large leather-faced cone clutch, which embodies a very smart device for giving gradual engagement between clutch and flywheel and a joint between clutch and gearbox with three forward speeds and reverse. The nicely-raked column is cleverly arranged so that both the worm and the sector can be simply adjusted to take up wear without removing the steering gearbox from the chassis.
The rear springing is by means of a pair of half-elliptics and a transverse cross, the connecting shackles being carried on steel balls allowing a large range of motion in every direction without interfering with the action of the springs. The price of the complete vehicle shown on this stand, with a well- finished, five-seated, side-entrance body, upholstered in leather, is £336 including also complete equipment of lamps, horn and tool kit.
The Buick car has been modified in a number of details for the coming season, these points being in the direction of greater accessibility and neater arrangement of piping, etc. The four-cylinder engine, bore 3.75in. by 3.75in. stroke, is cast in pairs, and the valves are carried overhead, both inlet and exhaust being worked in this way. A single bridge held by a couple of nuts on the cylinder head supports a shaft at either end of which the rocker arms are lifted up by the usual exterior rods. Either arm and the valve it controls with the cage can be taken away without disturbing the corresponding valve for that particular cylinder. Proper adjustments are provided for the exterior rods.
A noticeable, point is the large water space round the cylinder jackets, and so deep are these above the combustion spaces, that the first view of the position of the spark plugs gives one the impression — wrongly, of course — that they must foul the pistons. A gear-driven pump circulates around a smartly designed gilled tube radiator, and it is quite evident that much attention has been devoted to this important matter of cooling, the pipes being well proportioned and without sharp angles.
A Schebler carburetter is fitted to the car. It is possible with this to vary the setting of the needle valve from the exterior without disturbing any of the other adjustments in respect to the automatic air port or throttle. For ease of starting a set of dry cells with induction coil are installed, but all the running, is done by the aid of a high-tension magneto gear-driven and placed so as to be readily accessible for cleaning or oiling. Lubrication is by mechanical pump situated in the engine crankcase, which first delivers the oil to a single pipe on to the dashboard, where it spurts out into a glass dome and then gravitates to the engine bearings, the dome serving the two-fold purpose of gauge and whether the oil is really moving.
Transmission is by means of a two forward speed and reverse epicyclic gear, and with the engine developing 22.5 h.p., R.A.C. rating, it is claimed that the majority of travelling on average roads can be effected on the top gear. Propeller shaft and live axle are on standard lines, with the driving wheels carried on the axle sleeves. The tyres are American Michelin 30in. by 3.5in., wheelbase is 7ft. 8in., rear springs are full elliptic, front spring half elliptic, rear brakes internal-expansion, and the circular petrol tank is carried under the front seat. The price, with two bucket seats in front and a third detachable one at the rear, is £240, or with four bucket seats £255. In both cases the price includes pair of acetylene heal lamps, generator, pair of side lamps, rear lamp, horn and kit of tools.
The Highclere Motor Car Syndicate, Ltd.
In general appearance this car follows the lines of the modern petrol car, and has three vertical cylinders situated in the vicinity of the dash and immediately behind the boiler, which is under the bonnet. This boiler is of the Serpollet type, the tubes being heated by a paraffin burner of the single-jet circular pattern, the fuel is carried round three turns of tubing in the fire zone before issuing from the nozzle. The engine is single acting and is fitted with mushroom valves operated by a camshaft. The cams are tapered, thus giving a variable cut off; further movement of the camshaft reverses the engine. The fuel is pressure fed to the burner, an air pump worked from the engine providing the necessary pressure in the fuel tank; two water feed pumps are driven from the same shaft.
Turner-Miesse is showing a new model of 10 h.p. three-cylinder steam car with a live axle, in place of the chain drive which has, up to the present time, been universally adopted in this firm's manufactures. The engine, therefore, is placed longitudinally in the frame instead of transversely, but the other mechanism remains practically as before. The steam generator is of the flash type, built up in sections and contained in a double casing lined with asbestos and situated under the bonnet. A regenerator or feed heater is placed in front of this boiler, and the radiator is now enclosed, and in appearance similar to the gilled-tube radiator of a petrol car.
A four-seated model is also shown with propeller shaft drive, the engine being slightly larger than the 10 h.p.; in other respects the arrangement is the same.
Theoretically perfect steering, which the ordinary motor of to-day does not possess, has been adopted by the Nameless Motor Car Co., of Hendon, who are showing a 14-16 h.p. four-cylinder chassis on their stand (No. 121) in the annexe. The front wheels are centrally pivoted. The axle eyes are in the centre plane of the wheel, the wheel itself being carried on two ball bearings on the stub axle, which is hollowed out to take the axle eyes. The front axle is dipped slightly backwards, which permits a rack and pinion steering gear to be employed, there being no tendency whatever for the wheels to deviate from the straight path. The rake or dip of the front axle can be adjusted by a screw bolt in the shackle at the rear of each of the front springs. The engine is by White and Poppe, Ltd., with the carburetter by the same firm.
Both petrol and oil are carried in tanks on the upper half of the dashboard, which has a rearward-sloping and two side panels. The transmission is through leather cone clutch and three-speed gearbox of the gate type, with an ingenious speed-locking device, the whole being manufactured by the firm. The power is taken to the road wheels by an encased cardan shaft and live axle, the torque being taken by the cardan shaft tube, whilst two distance rods are attached at their forward ends on the same centre line as the cardan head. Double cams connected by a rod are employed to operate each of the internal-expansion brakes on the rear wheels.
Decauville and Nagant-Hobson.
Only one model of the Decauville cars is being exhibited by Messrs. H. M. Hobson, Limited, of Vauxhall Bridge Road. The new Claudel-Hobson carburetter and dual high-tension ignition are fitted to this type. The transmission is through a cone clutch to a three-speed gearbox of the sliding pattern, the speed changes, however, being effected by a lever working in a quadrant so notched that it is impossible to overrun any speed unintentionally.
The shaft brake, which is pedal-applied, is of the internal-expanding type. Neither torque nor distance rods are fitted, the propeller shaft casing bringing the torque on to the shaft close to the universal joint, whilst the sliding coupling allows the necessary movement due to the working of the springs. Three- quarter elliptics are fitted at the rear, the front shackle being carried on a spring hanger by means of a pin at right angles to the shackle-pin itself. This gives the springs full play for the twisting strain thrown on to them by the bumping of the wheels over uneven surfaces.
For the coming season a new four-cylinder 14-18 h.p. Nagant car has been introduced. The cylinders are cast in pairs with the valves all on one side, actuated by a single camshaft. Gas is supplied by the Claudel-Hobson carburetter placed on the opposite side to the valves, delivering the moisture through a pipe passing through the water jacket between the two cylinders on each casting and delivering the gas direct to the inlet valve chambers without any other exterior fitting. By this system, the mixture, after its formation, is prevented from recondensing. Thermo-syphon water circulation has been adopted, and the cylinders are desaxes. A Hele-Shaw disc clutch is fitted.
The gearbox, which has three speeds and a reverse, is of the sliding pattern. It is suspended at three points from two cross members of the frame. An internal-expanding brake is fitted to the shaft, just in front of the universal joint of the Cardan shaft. This latter, like the rear joint, is enclosed in an oil-tight, dust-proof case. The torque rod is of the girder type, and the rear springs act as distance pieces.
A 25-40 h.p. phaeton-landaulet with leather hood extension over the driver and a new pattern windscreen is shown on the same stand. The whole of the roof, including the extension over the driver and the pillars at the back of the front seat, fold right back, the window frames of the doors folding down inside, and the glass screen across the centre dropping into the hack of the front seats.,
Messrs. Dennis Brothers, of Guildford, are showing on Stand No. 39 their new 18 h.p. side-entrance car, priced at £380 complete.
On the four-cylinder 40 h.p. chassis the leading features of Dennis design can be noted. Owing to the over-type worm drive, a straight line of shaft is obtained from the engine to the back axle, but universal joints are fitted for road twisting strains. The torque of the axle casing is resisted by a pair of girders abutting in double spring dampers suspended from the cross member. The springs act as distance pieces. Four speeds are provided on the gate system, direct drive being obtained on the third. The shaft brake, fitted with cast-iron shoes in a steel band, is interconnected with the clutch.
The engine is fitted with a variable jet carburetter and Bosch high-tension magneto. The lubrication is effected by a pump supplying oil direct to the main bearings and through the crank webs to the connecting rod big-ends, where it splashes out on to the pistons. A pressure gauge is mounted on the dashboard. A petrol tank placed under the driver's seat feeds the carburetter by gravity, aided by 2lb. pressure. A noticeable feature of the design is the very high clearance of all the steering connections.
Maudslay show a four-cylinder chassis, which contains many interesting features principally designed to impart accessibility. The cylinders are in pairs with overhead valves — all operated from one central countershaft. This shaft, together with six tappet rods, will revolve so that it can be easily brought out of engagement with the valve stems, thus enabling the valves and their seats to be bodily removed from the cylinders with the greatest ease. This overhead camshaft also operates the distributor and the low-tension contact breaker at the forward end. At the rear end of the shaft the magneto, which is fixed on the dash, is driven by means of a pair of fibre wheels. The crank chamber has large doors' fitted into its sides, thus enabling the pistons to be drawn without lifting the cylinders. The gearbox is of massive construction, and is fitted at its rear with a wide brake drum, upon which the foot brake actuates.
Six-cylinder models only are being manufactured and shown by J. Brooke and Co., Ltd., of Lowestoft. The general design can be studied in the 25 h.p. chassis staged alongside a 40 h.p. limousine. Cylinders are cast in pairs, with valves on opposite sides. The carburetter is of novel design, the petrol feed being automatically regulated by the suction. Air enters through a suction valve round the base of the jet, the hollow valve-stem extending upwards through the cover of the mixing chamber. Through the valve stem is fitted the controlling needle of the jet, an adjustment being provided for setting the needle to suit the engine and climate. As the suction of the engine lifts the air inlet valve higher, so does the jet orifice become virtually enlarged by the upward movement of the needle the lower end of which is cut away in a parabolic curve. A dashpot device on the cover damps the movements of the needle. The entire contrivance can be removed in a few seconds by loosening three set screws on the cover.
New Rudge-Whitworth Wheel.
Considerable improvements have been made in the locking device of the Rudge Whitworth detachable and interchangeable wheels. These alterations are far the purpose of making the detachment and attachment easier (if that be possible) than it has been, although the "lock" has been absolute from the time the wheel was first marketed. The new pattern spanner works on a very large diameter, and by its engagement close to the extreme periphery of the flange, the strain is distributed on both nut and spanner, and is not concentrated on the notches. The lever, which operates the pawl (A), is attached permanently to the spanner, and takes the form of a small cam, the turning of this to left or right determining whether the wheel is to be put on or taken off. The spanner has a plate at the bottom which engages with the notches in the locking ring, and when the handle is pushed towards the wheel it automatically fits into position without any other action. When the cam lever is turned to the right it depresses the pawl (A) and engages in the pawl box so that the spanner is firmly fixed, and by turning the handle round and round, clockwise, the cap is turned. To remove the wheel, all that is necessary is to turn the cam lever to the right, and the, pawl (A) is depressed, engaging in the pawl box, and so firmly fixing the spanner, when a counter-clockwise motion of the spanner handle unwinds the locking ring and the wheel is then drawn off. The pawl (A) is supported on the collar of a screw, which is fixed to the box or locking cap, the head of the screw engaging in a circular recess in the locking ring. Should the pawl give trouble in any way (a very remote contingency), or inspection is desired, it is only the work of a few moments to take it off and, if necessary, replace with a new pawl, only two screws having to be undone. These screws cannot accidentally come out, having the heads slightly riveted over at the back. The newer construction allows the inner hub to come right through the locking cap.
Considerably more interest is being evinced in Benz models this year than in previous years, owing to their smart performances during the past season. In design these cars possess no features of novelty, being modelled entirely on approved lines. Benz Motors, Ltd., of Gt. Portland Street, W., are exhibiting two 28 h.p. four-cylinder cars, one a landaulet and the other a side-entrance phaeton, with Victoria hood. The polished chassis, unlike the two cars, which are of the live-axle pattern, has chain transmission. The engine, rated at 40h.p., has the cylinders cast in pairs, with the valves on opposite sides.
MOTOR CAR EXHIBITION AT OLYMPIA. 
The Exhibition of pleasure cars and accessories organised by the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT), and opened at Olympia, Addison-road, on Friday last, is the seventh which has been held. The exhibitors number over 300, and the whole of the floor space and the galleries is again well filled. Not only are commercial vehicles excluded from the Show this year, but it has also been considered advisable to prohibit the giving of undue publicity to machines built expressly for racing purposes. In this respect we think the exclusion is well advised in view of the strong feeling which exists in the minds of a section of the public against the use of such vehicles on the common roads. Up to a certain point the racing motor car has justified its existence and has certainly assisted designers in arriving at methods of construction and operation which would not otherwise have been evolved in so short a space of time. Those days have, however, been passed, and the self-propelled carriage has now attained such a pitch of perfection that little or no further reason exists for the production of racing cars for road purposes.
Apart altogether from the racing machine, this year's Exhibition seems to point in an unmistakable manner to the fact that the limit, of power for pleasure cars has been reached, and the present tendency seems to be in the direction of reduced power and increased efficiency. Several of the most prominent factories which have hitherto been identified with ultra-powerful cars have evidently discovered that there is a much more limited market for such commodities than was once thought likely, and these firms are now identifying themselves with the production of cars of quite modest powers. Apart from two or three new departures in engine design, this is, perhaps, the most marked feature of the present Exhibition.
With regard to design generally, notable departures are few. The four-cylinder vertical engine predominates, and the most general size of cylinder varies between 3in. and 3.5in. bore, with a tendency to lengthened strokes, probably the result of the high speeds which were obtained in the Isle of Man race this summer. Forced or mechanical lubrication is becoming quite general, as is also magneto ignition. Gear-boxes remain much as before. For transmission of power from the gear-box the cardan shaft and live axle seem greatly in the ascendant. Much improvement is noticeable in the general construction of the live axles and differential gearing. We are glad to note that many firms are making the latter much more easy of access, and that stresses other than those due to driving pure and simple are being removed from the axles themselves.
As regards frame-work, the steel tube with its brazing difficulties is now almost obsolete. Pressed steel sections are produced on much more scientific lines than hitherto. In wheel construction there is a decided tendency to reduce weight by the introduction of wire wheels. When properly designed these combine with lightness all the good features of the wooden wheel. The pneumatic tire stands unrivalled, and as a considerable amount of competition exists in this branch of the industry, motor car users will probably reap the benefit shortly both in respect of price and quality.
Improvements to render tires more reliable and less prone to skidding are gradually being evolved. So that, on the whole, the cost of upkeep of the motor carriage seems in a fair way to being reduced.
Quite the greatest attraction at the Exhibition is the new Daimler engine about which so much has recently been written in the motor car press. On our part we are not disposed either to be hypercritical concerning the claims made for this engine, or to accept these claims without reserve. The Knight engine provides simply another method of arriving at the same result as has already been achieved by engines of other makers. It is said to be less costly to construct in large quantities. Our illustrations — Figs. 1,2,3,4 and 5 — show very clearly the construction. The engine works on the four-stroke principle, but instead of the usual pair of mushroom valves for controlling the inlet and exhaust ports, and operated by cams on one or two cam shafts, worked in turn by gear wheels from the crank shaft, the piston is surrounded by two concentric shells, 5 mm. and 3 mm. thick. These shells or sleeves slide up and down through a space of about one inch, between the piston and the cylinder casting, the degree of motion being governed by short links mounted on a second crank shaft. In these shells circumferential ports are provided, and these are covered and uncovered periodically by the vertical movement of the shells over one another, being so timed that the ports in the respective sleeves coincide at regular intervals with the inlet and exhaust passages in the cylinder casting. The lay shaft which operates the sleeves is driven by a silent and very strong Renold chain from the crank shaft, and is in two parts. It also serves to operate the magneto and water pump by spiral gears.
Referring to Fig. 3, A, B are the cast iron sliding sleeves or shells; C, D the operating links; X, X the lugs on the sleeves; W the lay shaft; G the exhaust port; I the induction port; M1 the piston; E the water inlet for the head; N the sparking plugs; F, H the valve openings in the shells; and Y the joint between the head and cylinder. It will be observed that the cylinder cover projects down into the cylinder, and has a number of piston rings to secure a gas-tight joint between the combustion chamber and the inner sleeve. An advantage claimed for this cover is that it embraces the combustion space, and is turned on its inner surface, so that in each unit of the engine the cubical content is identical, and therefore the compression is uniform throughout.
On the suction stroke the openings in the sleeves are brought opposite the inlet port, and the mixture of gas and air is drawn into the cylinder, the ports meanwhile remaining open till the piston has reached its bottom position.
On the up or compression stroke the piston rises with all valve openings closed until the position shown is reached. In this position the openings in the inner shell are brought up into the gastight head.
Upon the explosion of the gases and downward movement of the piston the valve opening in the inner sleeve is being brought down until it corresponds with that in the outer sleeve, which is fully open to the exhaust when the piston has completed the explosion stroke, and so on.
The sleeves are provided with circumferential grooves and holes for lubrication, which is effected by splash in the crank chamber, and the makers state that no trouble at all has been found with this method of oiling. The makers also claim that no trouble is found with regard to cooling. But there seems to be reason in the contention that the inertia forces of these sleeves, which weigh some 12 lb. or so when the engine is running up to the highest speeds, will have to be reckoned with. The method of operation of the shells from one side, too, is open to criticism, while the differential expansion of long thin cylinders with thick lugs cast on them, such as these sleeves are, also suggest a possible source of trouble. As far as can be gathered the engine does not seem to give any economy in fuel consumption, and the claim of simplicity is somewhat doubtful. If any advantage is derived as regards the torque of the engine, compared with poppet valve engines at slow speeds, it is possibly due to the design of the ports.
Another feature of novelty in the Show is the six-cylinder car produced by the Sheffield-Simplex Works, Tinsley, near Sheffield. On page 535 — Fig. 6 — we give a sectional elevation and plan of the chassis of this car, while Fig. 7 shows sectional views of the transmission gear. The claim that this is a car without a gear-box is true in a measure only. The change gear case, as generally understood, is certainly absent, and the makers claim that no change speed gear is necessary, but in order to make "assurance doubly sure," in case a gradient of extraordinary steepness is met with, an extra low gear is provided, together with a reverse gear. This is placed in a neat casing adjoining the back axle casing. The low gear is a sliding spur wheel operated by a side lover in the usual way, and gives a ratio of 6 to 1, the ratio of the top gear being 8 to 1. The design of this gear will be readily followed in the drawings.
Some thought has been exercised in the design and arrangement of the differential gear and back axle casing — see Fig. 8. The differential gear is composed of bevel pinions, and the ends of the giving axles are allowed a certain amount of play in the sun wheels by being slightly rounded. The ends of the axles can be withdrawn slightly, and after a large plate on the casing has been removed a simple operation allows the whole of the differential gear to be withdrawn for inspection. This is an advantage which will appeal with some force to many motorists who have experienced trouble with live axles. The engine crank shaft is built up in sections, and is fitted with ball bearings throughout, and the bearings are designed in such a way as to reduce friction. This, coupled with an efficient carburetter which enables a comparatively rich mixture to be supplied at low speeds, and a multiple disc clutch having forty-five plates, gives the necessary torque to start the car on the top gear under all ordinary conditions. The engine cylinders are cast in pairs and have a bore and stroke of 4.5in.
Two-Stroke Engine Co
A third new feature in the Exhibition is a two-stroke engine working on the Korting principle. This is fitted on the Dolphin car made by the Two-Stroke Engine Company, Limited, Shoreham, Sussex. We shall describe this engine in our next issue.
The valveless engine, invented by Mr. Lucas, which has already been described in THE ENGINEER, is shown by the firm of Valveless, Limited, 7, Upper St. Martin's-lane, London. Mr. Lucas' ideas of transmission have been discarded in favour of a system which conforms in most respects to the standard practice adopted in live axle cars, and the whole results in a simple form of chassis which should commend itself to motor car users who are not too much "wrapped up" in the standard type of engine.
Although several firms exhibit what are claimed as improvements in carburetters, on the whole the alterations are not of much moment. The Scott-Robinson carburetter has a variable jet, through which the flow of petrol is maintained constant owing to the air velocity also being kept constant. The inventor arrives at this result by providing an air-regulating float of predetermined weight A, a jet needle B, and a throttle valve C. The air enters through gauze at the float, and the petrol is maintained at a given height below the jet in a tube. If the engine is running slowly and with no load, and the throttle only slightly open, the air is drawn past a number of minute holes in the float, causing a vacuum in the latter, which in turn causes the spirit to flow past the jet needle through the minute holes, where it is sprayed into the incoming air to form the mixture. In accordance with the further opening of the throttle the partial vacuum in the float is intensified and the float rises higher, lifting the jet needle and allowing more spirit to pass into the incoming air, and so on. It has been noted in practice by the inventor, Mr. Scott-Robinson, that the weight of the float is such that the velocity of the mixture is about 100ft. per second, and as the weight is always constant, being devoid of springs, the head of the liquid never exceeds about 8in. of water. Thus the disturbing element, namely, the momentum of the petrol, is obviated. The inventor's address is 24, Norfolk House-road, Streatham, S.W.
Atlas Resilient Road Wheels In the construction of road wheels and tires there were not many noteworthy new departures from orthodox practice, but a road wheel with a detachable rim was shown by Atlas Resilient Road Wheels, Limited, Levenshulme, Manchester. The wheel is of cast steel, and the hub, spokes, and rim form one complete casting. The hub has a phosphor bronze liner, while the rim is machined to fit the inside diameter of the tire, and has eight equally spaced slots in between the spokes. The tire rim is held in position on the wheel by means of four small brackets riveted in position, and which fit into the slots cast in the rim. Slots are also provided for the tire wing nuts and valve stem. By releasing the four wing nuts on the eye bolts the rim can be slipped off the wheel quickly.
In machine tool exhibits the Exhibition was singularly lacking. Mention, however, should not be omitted of two tools particularly suitable for motor car repairing establishments made by Drummond Brothers, Limited, Rydes Hill, Guildford. One of these is a radial drilling machine of novel construction for foot driving, and the other is a model makers' lathe which can be adapted to a variety of operations. The design and workmanship shown in these machines leaves nothing to be desired.
Two-Stroke Engine Co
As mentioned in these columns last week the Two Stroke Engine Company, Shoreham, Sussex, exhibited cars fitted with a two-cycle engine. Fig.10 shows a general view of this motor, and Fig. 11 represents it in transverse section. The chief feature about the design is the adaptation of the Korting system to a single-acting explosion engine. For motor car purposes the engine is built up in four units, each of which comprises a working cylinder and a pump cylinder, and the cycle of operations for each unit is as follows:— On the downward stroke of the pump piston A air and gas are drawn in through the valve B. This continues until the working piston C commences to uncover the exhaust ports D to allow the exhaust gases in the working cylinder E to escape. On the return stroke of the pump piston the mixture of gas and air is driven through the pipe G and enters the working cylinder through the valve H, driving the residual products of combustion out through the exhaust ports as soon as the pressure in the pump cylinder exceeds that in the working cylinder. The pump piston reaches the top of its stroke simultaneously with the covering of the exhaust ports by the working piston, and the working cylinder is thus fully charged with a mixture of air and gas, which is compressed and fired as usual. The means adopted for operating the pump piston is shown in the sectional view. The upward stroke of the piston is made as rapid as possible in order that the fresh charge of gas may be forced into the cylinder E while the exhaust ports are uncovered. On the other hand, the downward stroke occupies a period equal to about two-thirds of the revolution of the crank shaft. The stroke is also much shorter than that of the working piston. The makers claim that this differential piston speed is one of the most important features of the engine. It is effected by attaching the pump connecting-rod to a point on the working connecting-rod some distance from the big end.
Another special feature of the engine is the design of the pocket J. Its function will be best understood by noting the conditions which exist when the working piston is nearing the end of its stroke. At this time the exhaust ports will be partly uncovered and the spent gases will be escaping. The valves B and H are closed and the pump piston is commencing its upward stroke. Now, as soon as the pressure in the working cylinder falls below that in the pump the valve H opens automatically and the new gas drives out any of the spent gases which may not have been discharged. The relative proportions of the pump and working cylinder are such that the volume of gas in the former is insufficient completely to fill the working cylinder, and so expel all the waste gases. Therefore, in order to increase the volume without augmenting the quantity of the gas, the inventor introduces the hot pocket J, which, it is claimed, also serves another purpose, namely; the expulsion of the burnt gases by the incoming charge. This effect is explained by the makers as follows: - The gas is collected in the pocket J as it enters through the valve, and is made to pass through the narrow neck at the base at a high velocity, so that it spreads out in the form of a cone, sweeping the exhaust gases before it, the top of the cylinder being cone shaped to assist in the desired effect.
A touring car fitted with an engine of this type, on which we made a short run, had four 4in. working cylinders, and developed 37 brake horsepower at 1,000ft. piston speed. It seemed to have elastic qualities, and could be run at a very slow speed for "crawling" on the top gear. With regard to the fuel consumption and loss of gas in the scavenging process, we cannot speak from experience, but the engine is said to be economical compared with four cycle engines. The working cylinders are cast in pairs, and have inspection doors for both the water jacket and exhaust ports. As the valves are both automatic, no cam shaft is required.
The transmission gear differs only in minor details from the gear of ordinary shaft driven petrol cars but a good feature of the back axle is the care which has been taken to render the differential gear easy of access.
There seems to be no tendency on the part of steam car builders to increase in number. Four makes of car were shown in which steam engines provide the motive power.
Turner's Motor Manufacturing Company, Limited, Wolverhampton, exhibited the Turner-Miesse car, in which the chief features remain unaltered.
White Steam Cars
The White Company, London, showed two sizes of steam cars, namely, 40 horsepower and 15 horse-power. The most notable feature of the White cars for 1909 is a change in the type of valve mechanism. Hitherto the engines have been fitted with Stephenson valve motion actuated by excentries on the crank shaft, as were also the water pumps. In the new engines the Joy valve motion has been adopted. The pumps are also driven by the levers of the valve mechanism. This enables the number of parts to be reduced, excentrics to be done away with, and the crank shaft to be shortened owing to the cylinders being brought closer together. Piston valves are fitted to both the high-pressure and low-pressure cylinders. The steam generator is of the flash type as heretofore.
The Highclere Motor Car Syndicate, Limited, Basingstoke, exhibited the Rutherford steam car, known last year as the "E. J. Y. R." car. Several modifications have been made in the motor mechanism. The friction clutch has been abandoned in favour of a jaw clutch, and a thermostat placed in the main steam pipe provides an automatic control for the water and fuel. This thermostat operates a valve on the water pipe between the pump and the boiler. Between the pump and this valve is a water relief valve which returns water to the tank when the thermostat valve is shut. The pressure on this relief valve varies with the action of the thermostat valve, and is utilised for regulating the burner.
Although the tendency in motor car engine design seems to be generally in favour of four-cylinder units, several well-known builders are now turning their attention to engines having two cylinders only. Amongst these are the well-known Napier firm, the Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company, and Panhard and Levassor. Compared with the design of the last few years this seems to be a retrograde policy, and can only be explained by the fact that some large works are beginning to find difficulty in keeping all their plant occupied on the larger types. Napiers are building a 10 horse-power car with two cylinders cast in one, mechanically operated valves all on one side, and with the fly-wheel in front of the engine.
Smeddle and Kennedy
Smeddle and Kennedy, Limited, Newcastle-on-Tyne, showed a two cylinder petrol car which has some original features. The cylinders are 3.5in. bore by 4.5in. stroke, and give 10 horse-power at 1,000 revolutions. All valves are placed on top of the cylinders, and are actuated by a single cam shaft which derives motion from the crank shaft by skew gearing. The same shaft also operates the magneto. The engine has three fly-wheels, two inside the crank chamber and one outside in the same casting as the clutch. The engine is cooled on the thermo-syphon system, the water pipes being particularly large for this purpose. The clutch is of the internal expanding metal-to-metal pattern operated by a cone on the sliding shaft. The change-speed gear-box adjoins the back axle. The gears are amply large, and the gear shafts easily removable.
J. Liversidge and Son
The question, how best to apply the brakes on a motor vehicle, is brought to the front again by the system shown by J. Liversidge and Son, Limited, London. Front wheel brakes would probably have been more extensively adopted in the past had the problem of designing the brake gear not been complicated by the necessity of providing some form of compensation for the varying angles of the wheels due to steering. In the Liversidge front wheel brake the friction drums are secured to the wheels much as is usual in rear wheel brakes, while the bands and arms are fixed to the stub axles. The arms are connected together by a steel cable passing round a system of pulleys beneath the steering pivots, which allows the cable to adapt itself to varying angles of the wheels while providing an equal pull on the bands. For very hilly countries with greasy road surfaces front wheel braking would probably be a decided advantage.
The illustrations referred to above are included in the specific company entries.