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Olympia Motor Show held in November.
Olympia Reviewed 
The Anglo-American Motor Co, of Heddon street, Regent-street, London, W., are the agents for the Cadillac car, which is of American origin. Up to this year the Cadillac has incorporated in its design a horizontal engine and an epicyclic gear. This type is still made, and cars of this model have made some remarkably good performances in trials and competitions in this country.
The feature, however, of the Cadillac exhibit this year was the new 30 h.p, vertical engine, fitted with a disc friction clutch and the Cadillac planitary gear, with cardan shaft and live axle drive. In many respects this engine is unique, and we give an illustration of it here. The cylinders are built up — cylinder and combustion head separately — and the water jackets pressed on, a method which ensures uniform thickness to the walls of the cylinders and greatly increases the cooling effect.
The engine is automatically governed by means of an ingenious ring-governor mounted on a gear-driven vertical shaft, and operating both the throttle and the timing of the ignition, the contact maker being mounted on the top of the same vertical shaft which carries the ring governor. This is also controlled by a foot accelerator, which allows of the engine being accelerated without any action of the governor.
The transmission is, of course, by the Cadillac epicyclic gear, placed longitudinally in the chassis frame, and coupled to the engine shaft by means of a big, double-faced, flat plate clutch contained inside the engine fly-wheel. In all respects the new car is a great advance on the previous models. The brake control is extremely simple, being by means of band brakes which encircle and retard the various members of the epicyclic train, the movement being made by one lever only, and without the need of any ratchets or gate quadrants.
The rear wheel brakes are also very neatly arranged, being of the double-acting type, and gripping a drum both externally and internally by one movement of a brake lever. The lubrication is forced to all bearings by a special oscillating pump, utilising a roller clutch, so that at any time the lubrication can he accelerated. A definite quantity of lubricant can by this means be fed to the engine in proportion to its speed.
The Brotherhood, made by the Sheffield Simplex Motor Works, Ltd., of Sheffield, is a remarkably fine car. It is unique in its method of control, there being only two pedals - one the ordinary push type, operating both clutch and brake, and the other a side-moving pedal, adapted to the driver's foot and operating a variable lift to the inlet valves by a sideways movement of the foot. A novelty is the outside brake on the ends of the differential shaft and just inside the chain sprockets, which transmit the power to the rear wheels. The high tension distributor is mounted on the dashboard with a glass face, which allows of inspection at all times. The contacts and the insulation are extremely well carried out. The lubrication is by means of a pump, positively driven from the engine, and feeding oil by pressure to the different bearings. The ignition is synchronised, and only one trembler coil is used. An effort has been made to make the car as simple as possible, and in this respect it fully earns its title of the "Sheffield Simplex." It is a real effort, successfully carried out, to put on the market a car embodying the best engineering practice with a regard to simplicity of operation. The price of the chassis is £525. It differs only in minor details from the car whose many points of merit are described under different classifications in our "Encyclopaedia of Motoring."
THE CHENARD AND WALCKER.
The Chenard and Walcker car, marketed by Walter Gutmann, of 2 Bury-street, Mary Axe, London, E.C., embodies many points of interest. It has a one pedal control, which operates on the carburetter, the latter having an automatic air control operated by the valve governed by the suction of the engine. The lubrication on this car is worthy of the close attention of the motorist, the oil being forced by a direct acting pump, driven by the engine, to all the wearing parts of the engine, the gear and the differential. The cooling is on the thermo-syphonic principle, no pump being required. The rear axle is solid, on the lines of the chain driven car, but the differential gear, with its two shafts, is placed alongside the solid axle, and drives the road wheels by pinions on the ends of the two shafts engaging with internal teeth in the hub ring. In this car, too, the clutch is arranged so that the disengaging member comes back on a fixed brake to slow up the gear shaft and allow of an easy change of the gear. A very fine type of differential gear is used, all the wheels being of extra large diameter and width.
The Lanchester car, being of a type by itself, necessarily engages attention. The engine, epicyclic gear, and clutch are contained in one unit, and the transmission is, of course, by means of a worm-drive - a method which was originated by the Lanchester Company some years ago, and has been followed by such a successful car as the Dennis, and latterly by the New Engine Company. The arrangement of the engine between the two front riders makes a particularly elegant vehicle, the front bonnet being replaced by a handsome leather dash apron.
Our illustration shows a fine example of the Lanchester touring car, with seating accommodation for seven persons. The price is £900, and the h.p. 28.
The Hotchkiss car is one of the vehicles very typical of French manufacture. The six-cylinder type has its cylinders cast in pairs, and the engine develops 45 h.p. Very neat is the arrangement of the electric ignition wiring. The big insulated wires are carried to the various terminals in closed copper tubes, and the different wires are coloured differently, so that the tracing of a wire in discovering a fault is rendered very easy. The lubrication of this engine is by an eccentrically driven pump, and the amount of oil going to each bearing or sliding part can be regulated from the dashboard by the driver at any time. The chassis of the six-cylinder model is listed at £1,000, and the work that has been put into it in minute detail shows remarkable engineering ability on the part of the designer.
The 25-35 h.p. four-cylinder model is on the same lines. In this the Eisemann magneto is set on a rocking shaft, and the whole of the magneto machine rocks bodily over to advance or retard the ignition a method which allows of the spark occurring at all times at the moment of greatest inductive effect in the magnetic field. The 25-35 h.p. chassis sells at £650. The cars are in the very top grade as to mechanism and luxurious body work, and are handled in these islands by the London and Parisian Motor Co., Ltd., of South Molton Street, Bond Street, London, W.
The new car put on the market by the Deasy Motor Car Manufacturing Co, of 10 Brompton Road, London, S.W., is in many respects an advance in mechanical methods. One of the most novel features of the engine is the arrangement of the cylinders, which are cast all four in one piece. The bottom half of the crank case comes away, leaving the shaft in situ, as shown in our illustration on next page. A big side plate encloses all the valve gears, and is shown removed. The big central bearing of the crankshaft will be noticed, as also the helical or skew gears at the end of the engine. These drive, on one side the cam shaft, and on the other the pump and magneto with the commutator. The orifices of the inlet and exhaust valves arc clearly shown in our illustration, and to the long studs, projecting from the face of the cylinder, are attached the inlet pipes from the carburetter and the exhaust pipes. The method of using worm drives for the shafts is somewhat unique, but while being very expensive to manufacture, it very considerably decreases the noise and adds to the durability of the engine. The Deasy gear, as will be seen, is also on sound lines. The two pairs of sliding pinions are mounted on big, round shafts, with six milled featherways — a construction much stronger than that of the square shaft, and less liable to distortion. Our view shows the cover of the gear box removed, and the accessibility of the gear for purposes of inspection and adjustment.
The general lines of the 24 h.p. Deasy car, to which this engine is fitted, will be well gathered from our illustration of the car, which is a similar model to that which ran in the Tourist Trophy Race. The transmission is by cardan shaft, and in the live axle provision is made for altering the ratio of gearing, a procedure the importance of which is now being recognised by manufacturers who make the gear-driven car. Another point worth attention is the transverse spring in the front of the car, a method of suspension which our experience teaches us conduces to wonderfully easy riding. The complete car sells at 500 guineas, and the chassis at 460 guineas.
Armstrong Whitworth is a name to conjure with in engineering matters. Needless to say, the exhibit of this firm is one which firmly upholds their reputation for original and sound engineering construction. Our illustration, which shows the differential gear, will give to our readers some idea of the very substantial manner in which all the details of this fine piece of engineering work are carried out. The chief feature is the attention given to the gears, and, as will be seen from our illustration, the gears are all cut with helical teeth, a method which is conducive to silence. The same method is adopted in the case of the big gears in the change-speed-gear box. This gives four speeds forward and reverse, with a very neat system of gate control. By means of trip levers the gear operating mechanism is locked until the clutch is taken out, the action being entirely automatic, and preventing the gears being enmeshed with the engine driving the primary gear shaft. In all bearings, with the exception of those of the engine crank shaft, ball-bearings of big diameter are used. Both internal expanding and external gripping brakes are fitted to the drums of the rear wheels. The engine develops from 28 to 36 h.p. on the brake, and has four cylinders. The pressed steel frame work is noticeable on account of the well-designed disposition of the metal and the applicability to a low and roomy body construction.
Our illustration will give some idea of the arrangement of the four-cylinder Thornycroft engine. The chassis of the Thornycroft car was examined at the Show by a number of engineers, and always, as far as we can see, with approbation. The governing is by a butterfly valve on the gas exit pipe from the carburetter, controlled by the engine governor, and also capable of being operated by hand from the steering wheel. The four cylinders are cast separately, and the crank shaft runs on four separate bearings of great length. The clutch is on the Hele-Shaw principle, with V-sectioned plates. A gate system is adopted for t he change speed gear.
The Argyll car illustrated on the next page may be said to have set the fashion to the world in respect of the gate control. Introduced by Mr. Alex. Govan, the principle has been taken up in various forms by many makers, and we should think that quite 25 per cent. of all the cars in the Show were fitted with the gate lever mechanism for changing gear. No radical departures have been made in this car since last it was exhibited, and its mechanism and arrangement are already well known to our readers.
The firm showed a remarkably well-finished chassis of the 14-16 h.p. type, and from our illustration can be gathered the extremely ingenious locking operation of the Govan gear. The attention to small details and adjustments is one of the features of the Argyll construction, and, as it is the company's intention to turn out these cars in enormous numbers, alterations, for the sake of altering, do not come within the scope of their manufacturing methods. The type is sufficiently well known and successful to justify them in continuing to turn out the standard model and giving the customer the advantage in price to be gained by big output and standardised models.
Another firm which has been handling a vehicle with horizontal engine is the Arrol-Johnston. This car, as will be remembered, won the Tourist Trophy race last year, and made a fine performance this year in the same classic event. While retaining the horizontally engined machine, the firm has introduced a new four-cylinder engine of the vertical type, and of this engine, which presents many unusual features, we give an illustration on the next page.
The control and transmission arrangements are similar in most respects to the older type of vehicle, and need no further description. The horizontal type is still marketed, and the same touring type of car which ran in the Isle of Man is shown on the stand. For neatness of bodywork and clean, speedy appearance it would be hard to beat this particular vehicle. It has a speedy and rakish look, which must commend it to the keen automobilist. The type of engine, too, commends itself to us, and while we chronicle the fact that firms who have been making horizontally cylindered engines are now putting on the market vertical types, we by no means mean to infer that the horizontal type is inferior to the vertical. Our own experience points to a doubt to this suggestion, but fashion has a great deal to do with motor car design at this particular epoch of the development of the horseless carriage.
In our last issue we gave a photo of a part of the chassis of the Metallurgique car. The 60-80 chassis of this car is remarkable as an example of the highest class of engineering design and construction. The cylinders are placed ‘desaxe’, as is the practice of more than one well-known Continental manufacturer. They are four in number, with a most solid and substantial appearance, being cast in pairs. The engine is governed by an ingenious variable lift to the inlet valves, which are placed on the top of the cylinders and operated by rocking levers. There is an automatic variable air inlet to the carburetter, with a glycerine dash-pot arrangement in place of the usual spring control, and there is a positive lock to the clutch, by means of which both members are locked together and are automatically unlocked on any movement of the gear lever or clutch pedal. The gear gives four speeds and a reverse, and the universal joints, which are shown in our illustration of last week, are of exceptionally big design. The frame is also strengthened by a scientifically arranged arch, which stiffens the pressed steel frame at its vital part. The clutch is of the expanding metal-to-metal type, being operated by two right and left-handed screw cams. Lubricant is forcibly fed to the various journals and hearings, and the petrol is pressure-fed to the carburetter.
It has an engine of high-class appearance and good design. The transmission is by means of a cone clutch, then through a universal joint to a gear box, giving four speeds forward and a reverse. The gear box transmits the power via a cardan shaft, with two universal joints, to a differential in a separate casing, and from the outside shafts of the latter by means of chains to the road wheels. On these outside shafts of the differential are two internal metal-to-metal brakes, compensated. The transmission is novel, and the same arrangement was only to be seen on a few cars in the Show. There are also internally expanding brakes on the rear wheels, and the springing is on the three-point suspension principle with a transverse spring at the back of the chassis frame. Ignition is by h.t. Nilmelior magneto gear, driven from the engine.
A car which attracted our attention by reason of its up-to-date construction and reasonable price was the "West" made by West, Ltd, of South Molton Street, Bond Street, London, W. It is fitted with the celebrated Aster engine, which carries the Aster Company's guarantee. It is otherwise made in Coventry, and good, sound construction is put into every part. A feature is the expanding metal-to-metal clutch, operated by toggle levers and right and left-hand screws, which expand two semicircular shoes into contact with the inside of the clutch drum. The clutch runs in oil, and is entirely enclosed. There is a Panhard type of gearing with a live axle, a propeller tube taking the torque to the live axle drive, and only one universal joint being used, all gearing, with the exception of the engine crank shaft, running on Hoffman ball-bearings. The lubrication is by pressure from the exhaust, and the ignition is by h.t. coil and accumulator and h.t. magneto gear-driven from the engine. The long frame work is hung on exceedingly well-designed springs with a transverse spring at the rear. The price of the chassis which we have been describing is £475, while a model having similar construction, but with a 15 h.p. four-cylinder engine, sells at £400 chassis price. These cars appear to be really good value. While they embody no very revolutionary features, they are undoubtedly sound and well-constructed vehicles.
The S. C. A. R. car, shown by the Central Motor Car Company, of 119 Long-acre, London, is one which, while only a short time before the public, has already been favourably spoken of, and has made some creditable performances in competition, notably in the Tourist Trophy Race of this year. We illustrate the four-cylinder engine of this car, which shows some points of interest, indicated by the description which accompanies our illustration.
The Rover car, on account of its distinctive and original design and the success which has attended its marketing, together with its comparatively low price, was one of the cars which was carefully examined by the discriminating buyer at the Show. Our photo shows the distinctive appearance of this car, and is taken from one of the red-bodied and upholstered cars which were shown on the company's stand. The 6 h.p. Rover, already well-known to our readers by its successful performances in Ireland, is now made with artillery wheels, and while improved in appearance in that respect, it is quite open to question whether the wire suspension wheels — which may still be had if required — are not the more safe and serviceable.
While the price of the 6 h.p. has been increased to £130, the value is even better than ever, for the little car is now fitted with a most handsome two- seated body on tulip lines.
The 8 h.p. now has the side-entrance body, which takes the place of the former four-seater, in which the front seat swings back to admit the passenger to the rear seat. The plate clutch running in an oil-tight case, and the disposition of the engine clutch case and gear-box is one three-point suspension casting, is a courageous idea of the designer, which has been justified by its success. We had the pleasure of pointing out the features of the car to a well-known French designer, and his opinion was that it was a wonderfully sound method of construction, in spite of the fact that he showed a distinct bias against English design as compared with that of his compatriots.
The four-cylinder Rover is a really remarkable car when compared with others at the Show. In appearance it has a clean and completely artistic look, which is quite distinctive — a by no means invaluable characteristic in any car. Its price, £450, fitted with canopy and glass wind shield, made it one of the most attractive cars in the Show, and, coupled with the high reputation of the firm manufacturing it, should make it a great favourite amongst buyers.
The 16-20 h.p. Mass car is worth the consideration of motorists. We have already described the little 8 h.p. under the heading of "Light Cars." The bigger type has a Panhard type of gear, with cardan drive, and a very big and substantially constructed live axle. It has a four-cylinder Gnome engine and a leather cone clutch. All the gear shafts run on ball bearings. The engine is governed on the throttle by means of a very neat centrifugal governor. Accumulator h.t. and Nilmelior h.t. ignition are fitted to each car. The contact maker is conveniently carried on a vertical shaft, which also carries the centrifugal governor. Lubrication is by means of a gear-driven oil pump attached to the engine, and oil is forced to all the wearing parts under pressure. There is a very powerful expanding metal-to-metal brake back of the gear, and internal expanding brakes on the rear wheels. The price of the Mass 16-2o h.p. car, complete with five-seated side-entrance body, is £500, and it shows up as a really good and soundly constructed machine. It was shown by the Lancaster Motor Garage Co, of Lancaster Gate, London, W.
THE QUADRANT GEAR.
The cross-roller gear of the Quadrant Cycle Company attracted considerable attention at the Show, in spite of the fact that the firm had to put up with a far from prominent position in the exhibition. Our illustration gives a somewhat better view of the gear than that which we published with a description a few weeks ago. In the present view, the big ball-bearings of the transverse shaft and the arrangement of the rows of hardened steel rollers are plainly seen. An ingenious arrangement is provided by means of which the driver can make ready for the change of speed before he needs it, when a simple movement of a lever will engage automatically the gear required.
In a recent issue we gave some particulars of the improvements in the Daimler vehicles. These are all in the direction of lowering the centre of gravity, and the principal departure from current practice lies in the new arrangement of the change-speed and epicyclic gear. The relative positions of these are now transposed, and the result is that the body can be got much nearer the ground. Our photo illustrates the new disposition of the gear, and incidentally shows the curved-up ends of the deep pressed steel frame. In other respects the Daimler retains the features which have made it so popular and such a highly efficient and reliable vehicle. There seems to be something solid about the engineering policy of the Daimler car which puts the vehicle in a class by itself.
THE WHITE AND POPPE ENGINE.
On many of the cars at Olympia, as our report will show, there is fitted the well-known White and Poppe engine. The remarkable success of the makers of this engine is phenomenal in the English automobile industry. The engines are distinctive in the disposition of the cylinders, and the arrangement of the water jackets and cooling system.
The new type of engine made by this firm is illustrated in our photo; it is of 25 h.p., with four cylinders. The new engines have a very neat extension of the crank chamber casting, which allows of the easy fitting up of a magneto machine, gear-driven from the cam shaft on one side.
One of the most important exhibits at the Show was the new White and Poppe carburetter, which, while being extremely simple, yet provides an entirely new principle in carburetter practice. It has two super-imposed jets, one of which — the under one — is concentric with the upper one, which forms a cap over and around it. The operation of the extra air opening by hand also alters the relative position of the two jets, and lets more or less aperture be operated on by the suction of the engine. At the same time, the suction of the engine operates a spring controlled piston, which draws up the cap with the second spray jet, and so allows of the full aperture automatically, independently of the hand control. A trial of this carburetter on a Singer car running out for trials from Olympia convinced us of the remarkable results which can be obtained, for the engine was remarkably silent and most flexible, and could he driven at a remarkably wide range of speeds on the top gear. In the White and Poppe we have got a new type which bids fair to give another impetus to the most important question of carburation.
THE SIMMS 100 H.P. ENGINE.
A novel engine of 100 h.p. was shown in the Gallery by the Simms Manufacturing Company, and we illustrate it herewith. It is designed for marine work, and is a wonderfully well-thought-out engine. All the valves are accessible and readily taken out for adjustment and examination. The description which accompanies our photo will make the general arrangement of the engine quite clear.
THE "ADAMS EIGHT."
The "Adams Eight" is the name given to the new Adams-Hewitt type of car shown by the Adams Manufacturing Company, of Bedford. It incorporates the epicyclic gear, illustrated and described in our last issue, with the new eight-cylinder engine built at Bedford under licence from the makers of the Antoinette engine of France. This is another example of the use of the epicyclic gear in conjunction with engines having their crank shafts fore and aft of the chassis. The new engine is of 30-40 h.p., and very flexible. As our illustration on the next page shows, the cylinders are arranged four on each side at an angle of 90 degrees with each other. Two carburetters are used, and one set of four cylinders can he used independently of the other four when desirable. A new type of two-cylinder vertical engine, in a chassis incorporating the Adams' epicyclic gear, was also shown, as well as the single-cylinder horizontally engined chassis, the features of which are already well known.
Each year at the Shows the Jackson dog-cart comes up smiling, to use a vulgarism, and remarkably good value the Reynold-Jackson Company, Ltd., give. Their address is 13 High Street, Notting Hill Gate, London, W. The new dog-cart, at £130, with a pressed steel frame, three speed and reverse gear and cardan shaft transmission, is wonderful value. The 9 h.p. car at £210, fitted with single-cylindered De Dion engine or 9 h.p. Gnome engine, has seating accommodation for four people. These vehicles have been improved in many ways; large side footboards are now fitted, and a novel method of arranging the extra back seats, one of the front seats swinging over and allowing of easy entrance to the rear seating accommodation. In springing, too, the car has been improved, and a rear transverse spring is now fitted. Our photo on the next page shows the 9 h.p. four-seated car, a remarkably handy and efficient little vehicle.
The 20 h.p. Rolls-Royce car which won the Tourist Trophy Race is exhibited by C. S. Rolls and Company. The 40-50 h.p. six-cylinder car which we illustrated last week has the cylinders cast in two groups of three each. This gives the engine a most neat and workman-like appearance, and the details both of the engine and the gear and transmission amply bear out this opinion.
The gear gives four speeds and a reverse, with, of course, the usual direct drive on the top speed. The ignition on the car is, unlike that of the majority of British cars, entirely of English manufacture, and made at the company's own works. Both systems are fitted to all cars — the h.t. magneto and h.t. accumulator types — and in the latter case only one coil is used, and the ignition in the different cylinders is synchronised by means of a h.t. distributor, handy to get at, and driven off the engine cam shaft. Lubrication of the engine is by a positive pump, which forces the oil through the hollow crank shaft to all the main bearings and the crank pins. In general design and mechanical detail it would be hard to find a chassis at the Show so complete as the Rolls-Royce. The relative sizes of the different parts is worthy of notice, and we do not see one heavy part depending for support on another much too weak, as is the case in many vehicles — especially those of foreign manufacture. The transmission is by the usual type of cardan shaft, with two universal joints and a rear live axle, the road wheels revolving on the outside of the axle sleeve, and the drive shafts taking none of the weight of the car, but only the direct driving torque.
Olympia Show Items.
The trade done by Humbers at the Olympia Show was, by all accounts, simply prodigious, and, no doubt, is responsible for the continued rise in the shares. In every direction this year's car is splendidly spoken of. The 15 h.p., in particular, is considered the most marvellous value. The improvement in the springing has been received with general satisfaction.
Amongst the cars which we tried during our visit to London was the single-cylinder four-seated Cadillac. Mr. Bennett kindly placed one of these excellent little vehicles at our disposal to bring us back to the city, and it behaved most creditably in most trying circumstances, for the traffic was dense, and most of the distance had to be traversed at a very slow pace. Notwithstanding this, the high gear was in operation during the greater part of the journey. The car, too, is well sprung, and proved exceedingly comfortable. It is an agency which should be most suitable for Irish firms, as the car is strong, reliable, and sells at a very moderate price.
While at Olympia we had an opportunity of a lengthy run on the new 15 h.p. Enfield, and were charmed with its good points. The engine is absolutely silent; in fact, when running slowly there is no noise to be heard at a distance of a few yards. It is wonderfully responsive, also, and picks up splendidly. Right through the heart of the London traffic we were skilfully driven by Mr. Crocker, and never once had he to drop off the high gear, even when blockages in the traffic necessitated the car coming to a stand-still. We had an opportunity of judging as regards the excellence of the springing, as we drove over some vile wood paving which had been worn into deep holes — a very severe test.
We were greatly pleased with the Argyll body work at the Olympia Show. In recent years the firm, like many others, were rather disposed to over-body their cars of moderate horsepower. In the 1907 models this tendency is absent. Though more comfortable than ever, the tonneau is of reasonable dimensions, and the backs of the seats of moderate height. The body work in itself also seems to have been lightened. The difference of even half a cwt. to a car such as the 10-12 h.p. is apparent at all times, but especially pronounced up hill. The shorter tonneau, too, has another advantage. It minimises the side draught. The new bodies look exceptionally neat and workmanlike.
The Olympia Show 
The 40 h.p. Rapid.
The Societe Torinese Automobile Rapid, of 41 Pall Mall, London, S.W., had on view the 40 h.p. Rapid car. The general arrangement of the chassis is on quite up-to-date lines, especially as regards the arrangement and strengthening of the rear axle. The substantial torque radius rods are of deep H section steel. The transmission is by a cardan shaft with very big universal joints. The gear is on the Mercedes principle, with two sets of sliding gears and direct drive by dog clutch. There is a multiple plate clutch, with an external spring, easily get-at-able for adjustment. The four cylinders are cast separately, and have their valves interchangeable on either side. The polished chassis of these cars were remarkably well-finished, and showed the greatest care in design and general construction.
The new 15 h.p. Clement Talbot car shown at Olympia has all its cylinders cast separately, with the valves on either side. It has a centrifugal governor acting on the throttle. On the shaft which drives the governor is a high-tension distributor, which distributes the high-tension current from both the accumulator and magneto systems of h.t. ignition. The new engine has all the bearings in the top half of the crank case, and the under part is detachable, forming only a cover. This is a method which is being largely adopted by the best manufacturers. One long exhaust pipe, or expansion chamber, lies alongside the top of the cylinders, and has radiating ribs along it, which accelerate the cooling of the exhaust gases. On one side of the crank case is the gear-driven, centrifugal pump, and on the other the h.t. magneto machine.
A cone leather-faced clutch is fitted with buffer springs, which allow of part only of the leather face of the cone coming in contact with the female part of the clutch at first, thus preventing any tendency to fierceness, and allowing of an easy and gradual engagement. The gear-box is arranged with the two shafts, one above the other, instead of, as in the usual practice, lying side by side. Both shafts run on large ball-bearings, and there are two sets of sliding pinions, as in the Mercedes type of gear. A direct top speed is provided by one wheel sliding into the other, which is cut with internal teeth to match it. This is a much better method than that of the dog clutch, as it gives a quicker and more exact engagement. From the gear the power is transmitted through a single universal joint to a propeller shaft, carried in a long, forward extension of the rear live axle, which is swivelled to the spring plates. The forward extension takes the place of the usual torque rods, is much more effective, and does away with one universal joint, itself a distinct advantage. The differential gear employs straight-line pinions, and the wheels run on large ball-bearings outside the rear live axle. A large transverse spring is employed at the rear, very neatly mounted on an extension of the pressed steel chassis frame. Lubrication is pressure fed from the exhaust. The workmanship of finish shown in all the parts of the Talbot car are of the very highest class.
The exhibit of the Star Engineering Company at the Show was a very fine one. We illustrated the new six-cylindered engine.
The new 16 h.p. four-cylindered chassis is the same as the six, the engine being identical, with the exception of the two additional cylinders. Lubrication is by a plunger pump driven off an eccentric on the cam shaft, which circulates the oil from the well in the bottom of the crank case, and around through the various bearings. There is side-chain transmission from a gear-box using the Panhard type of gear, with only one sliding member. A new feature, too, is the pressed steel frame. A chain-driven h.t. magneto provides the ignition, and the cooling is by a centrifugal pump and a honeycomb radiator, at the back of which is the belt-driven fan. Very strong construction marks the new model, the former tubular front axle being replaced by a solid forged one of H section.
The four-cylinder 10 h.p., with four seats, sells at £260, and was amongst the best value at Olympia. It has cardan drive, with live axle or side chain at the option of the purchaser.
Another model which provides wonderful value at £200 is the three-seater, with two cylinders, 7-9 h.p. engine, and thermo-syphon cooling by honeycomb radiator and belt-driven fan. It has governor control on the throttle, with hand and pedal accelerator. It also can be provided with live axle or side chain transmission.
The Richard-Brasier and Unic Cars.
These cars were exhibited by Messrs. Mann and Overton, and made a very fine display, indeed.
The Richard-Brasier has earned a wonderful reputation, and has been recently described in our columns. It is flexible, perfectly hung, and being made of the very best material and workmanship, is exceedingly durable, as has been abundantly proved by those Irish motorists who have tried it on our roads.
The Unic, though not so well known, is a car which has also given great satisfaction in Ireland. The two-cylinder 10-12 h.p. is almost as flexible as a four-cylinder car, and is very free from noise. It will run on the high speed at a very low pace without a suspicion of thump. The 14-20 h.p. at £465 is a really splendid production, and, notwithstanding its high horse-power, the complete car scales under 18 cwt., one having been weighed in Dublin by a friend of ours. Like the Richard-Brasier, the ignition is by low-tension magneto, with a most novel method of advance and retard. The mechanism, too, is particularly easy to get at, so that adjustments can be effected with the least possible delay. Here, too, the engine is very flexible, and will start on the high speed even on a comparatively stiff incline. The springing is very perfect.
The car which set the six-cylinder fashion, which has been extensively followed both in this country and on the Continent, is, of course, the six-cylindered Napier shown by S. F. Edge, Ltd., of New Burlington Street, London, W.
The 40 h.p. model is the firm's speciality, and a remarkably silent and flexible machine it is. No pains are spared to make the Napier car a vehicle of the highest excellence, both mechanically and in the direction of comfort and luxuriousness. Our readers are well aware of the general lines of the Napier chassis, and this year only modifications in details differentiate the machine from last year's patterns. The cylinders arc cast in pairs, and the firm still keep to the h.t. coil and accumulator, with their famous and much-copied synchronised ignition. By this method they get a practically relative firing position for each of the six cylinders, however advanced or retarded the ignition may be. That is to say, the firing takes place at exactly the same position of the piston in all cylinders. We understand that a great deal of the even running and elasticity of the Napier engine is due to this fact, as, indeed, would appear to be theoretically presumable. A feature of interest is that the firm do not use a trembler coil, and find that the synchronisation of the engine is more thorough with a simple non-trembler coil than with the usual trembler arrangement. Even the interval between the vibrations and the appreciable time taken to set them up has an influence on so delicately-balanced and high-running engine as the Napier.
The finish of the cars shown on the company's stand was remarkable. No detail is spared to make the car as efficient and luxurious as possible. The 60 h.p. chassis sells at £1,295, and the 40 h.p. at £975, while the various patterns of body shown range from £170 for the side entrance tourist type to £350 for the Pullman limousine, as built to the order of the Duke of Fife. The Napier car can be very rightly regarded by its makers and designers as the "car de luxe" — to use a hackneyed expression — of the Show this year. Being all British, it reflects the greatest credit on the English industry, and with numerous other cars of English make, puts Great Britain well in the running with high-class motor manufacturers in any other part of the world.
Some of the technical details of the Napier engine and chassis which distinguishes it as a vehicle of high degree are worthy of mention, though many of them are not strictly new as regards this car for the Olympia Show.
First, in regard to carburation, the Napier carburation is worth looking at. The method of keeping the mixture automatically correct whether the engine is running slow or fast is one which has a great many points of merit. It is only a mechanical question to get it set perfectly at first, and afterwards everything works automatically by virtue of the proportion of air and gas. The system whereby the hand throttle sets the caruretter to any desired engine speed, and this is overcome by the foot, is also another point worthy of attention, as one can drive either by hand or foot control, each independent of the other.
In the Napier gear-box the four ball-bearings support of the shaft has many good points of merit, while they insure quietness of running. The Napier cone clutch, with the three balanced and self-contained engagement springs, has been found highly successful, and has been retained. It gives wonderfully easy engagement and a gradual take up. As regards the cooling arrangement, in the ordinary way a pump circulates the water, and if the circulation pump stopped, a thermo-syphon circulation would come into operation, so that no danger of over-heating is to be anticipated. In regard to brakes, these are noticeable in that they are so designed as to run in oil, with the result that they go on with wonderful smoothness and yet with ample power.
Tyres at Olympia.
Of detachable tyres or rims at the Olympia Show there were comparatively few examples.
The Michelin Company showed their own arrangement, in which the tyre rim is complete, and a rim with tyre fully inflated is carried as a spare. The rim with its tyre slides bodily sideways on a steel rim on the artillery wheel, and is then held in position by a number of bolts passed through the wooden felloe.
Another detachable tyre is the Moseley, made by David Moseley and Co, of Ardwick, Manchester, the well-known tyre experts. They were amongst the first to make a quickly detachable motor tyre, and their system is still amongst the best. It consists, as our readers are aware, of the edge of the cover being kept in position in a groove in the rim proper by a right and left-handed screw, which answers the purpose of expanding the wire sufficiently to allow of its slipping over the rim edge and then contracting it in the groove. It can be manipulated more easily than most other tyres by means of a tommy lever, when the tyre can be easily pulled off or pushed on without the exercise of any great force. The lady operators on the Moseley Co.'s stand demonstrated how easily and quickly the tyre can be attached or detached without the exercise of any undue force.
The North British Rubber Co had, as usual, their extensive exhibit of tyres. The non-skid studs in the Clincher non-skid tyre are vulcanised into the rubber. The tyres of this Company are too well known to need any further description here. Their solid rubber 'bus tyre is one with which they have net with a large amount of success.
Parsons' non-skid bands have been improved. In the new type the curb chains run across the tyre square with the tread and not diagonally as in other year's types. In place of the old stranded wires which were formerly used in the Parsons' non skid, the firm have now substituted a chain with one coupling. This very greatly increases the ease of attachment of the non-skid, and at the same time renders it much more compact for carrying on the car in fine dry weather.
Palmer tyres deserve attention. The company showed their new Palmer cord tyre. A method of construction has been adopted in which the cords composing the tyre fabric are not interlaced, but are built up side by side in the position which they will occupy when in use, thus putting no strain whatever on the tyre other than that of supporting the load and taking the weight. This method of construction is unique, and adds greatly to the life and resiliency of the tyre. The company also showed a very neat arrangement of detachable rim, in which one flange of the rim is detachable, and the tyre then easily removed.
The Collier Tyre Company, Ltd., of Long Acre, W., showed the now well-known Stepney wheel. This comprises, as our readers are aware, a complete rim in tyre and tube, which can be bolted alongside the usual wheel when the tyre of the latter is punctured or otherwise injured. It is now arranged with a more adaptable fastening, by means of which it can be attached to any type of artillery or other wheel.
It is almost unnecessary for us to describe the products of the Dunlop Company shown in the gallery. The only zeal novelty, which, we understand, was exhibited for the first time, was the tyre with steel-studded treads, the steel studs being embedded and vulcanised into the rubber tread, and no leather being necessary to the non-skid. Formerly the company relied on the cross grooves for the non-skid effect, and these tyres have been introduced to meet the demands for a studded non-skid tread without the disadvantage of a leather band, which undoubtedly shows the tyres.
The Continental Tyre Co made a good show with their various types of tyres. They were, we believe, the first to make a tyre with steel studs embedded in the rubber tread. The quality of the Continental Company's rubber goods is well known. They have opened a depot in Dublin in charge of Mr. R. A. Morrow, so that through the agent Irish motorists can get spares and replacements in the shortest possible time.
The Sirdar Rubber Co., Ltd., had a most comprehensive exhibition. Heretofore the firm has devoted most of its attention to the production of solid tyres for motor cars, motor buses, and horse-drawn vehicles. During the present year, however, they have made great additions to their large factory at Bradford-on-Avon, and are now in a position to turn out pneumatic tyres on standard lines.
For some time they have been manufacturing a non-nipping and partially self-sealing air tube, which has proved most successful in practice, and which has been alluded to on former occasions in our columns. It is so constructed that when deflated it takes up a position along the tread of the cover instead of dropping towards the rim. There is, therefore, not the slightest danger of nipping, provided the operator does not adopt the method necessary when fitting the ordinary air tube and slightly inflating same. This air tube is somewhat larger than the inside of the tyre, and consequently when inflated is compressed to such an extent that even when penetrated by a nail or pin air will not, as a rule, escape, and the owner can safely drive home and effect the repair at his leisure. Irish agents would find it to their advantage to apply for terms, which are liberal. The air tube is one which appeals to all practical motorists.
MOTOR SHOW REVIEW 
Recognising the impossibility of describing every exhibit in the vast building, we have followed the plan adopted last week of picking out a few noteworthy exhibits and describing these, giving such details as we were able to collect. The crowds surrounding the stands made it impossible to obtain all the information we should like to give our readers. The following stands and cars should be seen by every visitor.
DUCROS-MERCEDES. STAND 60.
The handsome oak stand of Messrs. Ducros-Mercedes is a fitting canopy for the Royal car — the Mercedes — beneath. The new 1907 car is the 35 h.p. type, and one notes at once the refinements and simplifications and the modifications in design, which tend to make this the best known and most appreciated car in the world. The lubricator is now driven by an eccentric from the crankshaft, and the carburettor is water heated, and has a small spring shutter over the jet to regulate the air supply. The water pump has been still further improved and the fan is now behind the radiator instead of being in the fly-wheel.
One of these chassis is shown fitted with a Roi-des-Belges body, upholstered and painted a very dark colour. It is fitted with a double extension Cape cart hood with folding screens, and is one of the most comfortable touring cars in the exhibition. It carries six large travelling trunks, four of which are placed under the platform steps, another being stored away under the front seat, and the sixth is in the boot at the rear.
Another fine car is the 45 h.p. model, seating seven in all, the body being of the limousine type. The upholstery is grey cloth, and the body-work painted in dark green with fine red lines.
Another exhibit is the 35 h.p. chassis with Roi-des-Belges body with a detachable closed-in top. This is easily removable and can he used for theatre or touring work. It is very widely reported in the show that there is a £200 premium on every Mercedes sold since about a week ago, though the stand attendants will do no more when questioned on this point than inform the enquirer that during Thursday and Friday they sold two each of their 35 h.p., 45 h.p., and 70 h.p. models!
DE DION. STAND 63.
Stand 63 ( De Dion Bouton, Ltd.), is conspicuous on account of several innovations in de Dions. The automatic inlet valve, which this firm have retained so long, has now given way to the mechanically operated type, and the exhaust throttle, by varying the time of the lift, has also been discarded.
This is not all; another well known feature of this car has been dropped in the new models. We refer to the expanding clutch type of gear. During the last year this has only been used on the smaller models, but henceforth all types will be fitted with the sliding type of gear. The rear axle of the de Dion car has special features which visitors should make a point of seeing. Its immense strength will at once be apparent.
A novelty in the 15 h.p. and 14 h.p. models lies in the forced lubricating by pump to the gear-box bearings, the pump forming part of the gear-case, a system which is sure to be adopted by others.
CROSSLEY (JARROTT AND LETTS, LTD.). STAND 18.
For the first time, the famous Crossley car, manufactured entirely at Openshaw, is on view at Olympia (on the Charles Jarrott and Letts stand). Hitherto the car has been partly made in England, and partly made abroad, but for the future, the well-known builders of Crossley gas engines, will make absolutely every nut and bolt of the Crossley car in their own works.
The new model is a 30 h.p. chassis, with live axle, and has metal-to-metal clutch, automatic carburettor, gear-driven magneto, and all up-to-date refinements.
The 40-45 h.p. model, fitted with a handsome landaulette body and finished in dark green, is a beautiful and comfortable vehicle, fast enough for anyone, and reliable to a degree.
MESSRS. ERNEST ARNOTT AND HOLLOWAY. STAND 35.
The sole concessionaires (Ernest Arnott and Holloway) for the 40 h.p. six-cylinder Minerva cars are being joined by Mr. Warwick Wright, who brings with him his concession for four-cylinder Minerva cars. Immediately after the Olympia Show the title of the company will be altered to include the name of Mr. Warwick Wright.
E. H. BENTALL AND CO. STAND 133.
Perhaps the firm of E. H. Bentall and Co is not very well-known outside engineering and agricultural circles, and it may surprise many to know that they have been for some years helping British firms to turn out all-British cars.
The Bentall engine was shown at Cordingley's Show for the first time last March. The cylinders being cast independently are rather curiously shaped, the valves being placed forward of the cylinder, enabling a narrower engine to be built as the cams do not then come in line with the throw of the crankshaft. Two sizes are shown, a two-cylinder and four-cylinder chassis, rated at 8 and 16 h.p., the bore and stroke being 90 x 95 mm. The engine is carried upon a sub-frame. Low-tension ignition is fitted and so designed that a very rapid break takes place at slow speeds as well as high. An internal cone clutch running in oil is fitted, running upon ball hearings.
The transmission and support of the gear-box are rather unusual. Three point suspension has been obtained for the latter by bracketing the forward part of the gearbox to a cross member and running two long arms to the extremities of the back axle, thus torque rods and universal joints are unnecessary, the only universal joint being against the forward end of the gear-box. Ball bearings are used throughout, three speeds and reverse being provided with the usual direct on top. The change-speed lever works in a quadrant, having the two sides held in place by springs instead of being firmly fixed, and instead of a spring trigger a side motion is taken by the lever to make a change of speed before the forward push is given.
The price of the Bentall car is very reasonable, the 8 h.p. chassis with tyres costing £220, while the four-cylinder 16 h.p. chassis costs £305. We predict a great future for the Bentall.
THE GLADIATOR COMPANY. STAND 47.
This is as much a carriage exhibition as a motor-car stand, as certainly what is being shown is absolutely the latest refinement in the coachbuilder's art. The work is done by those well known French houses, Driguet, Rothschild and Lamplugh. The new six-cylinder Gladiator show chassis at once arrests the attention of the visitor, as it is splendidly well finished, and has the very latest modifications in design. The under-frame supporting the gear box has been reintroduced, and gear-box and differential are cast in one piece. Four powerful brakes are fitted, one on each side of the differential, and two internal expanding brakes on the back wheels.
These cars are all chain driven, and the chain runs in a case to make the running as silent as possible. Four finished carriages are also shown, in limousine and landaulette styles, and they are finished off in the highest possible manner.
MESSRS. J. E. HUTTON AND CO., LTD. STAND 33.
Messrs. J. E. Hutton and Co., Ltd., have two stands, one devoted exclusively to Berliet cars and the other to Mercedes, Panhards, and one Berliet. Stand 33 (J. E. Hutton and W. Watson, of Liverpool, sole concessionaires for Berliets), contains the exhibition of Berliet cars, three complete vehicles and one six-cylinder chassis being shown. This six-cylinder car is a magnificent piece of work, and the engine has the valves on opposite sides, all of which are mechanically operated. The four-cylinder patterns closely follow their more powerful brother, and each has four brakes. The gear box contains four forward and one reverse speeds, with direct drive on the third and fourth speeds. The lubrication is forced by a pump, and is positive in its action.
A fine example of carriage work is shown on the chassis, made for the recent Town Carriage Competition. Unfortunately this car was not completed in time, or it would certainly have secured an award.
On Messrs. Hutton's other stand are staged Mercedes and Panhard cars, of which this firm holds the London agency under Messrs. Harvey du Cros. A 45 h.p. Mercedes chassis is shown, and on this car is now fitted a half compression tap to facilitate the starting of the powerful cylinders. Another 45-h.p. chassis is fitted with a luxurious limousine body for J. Rothschild et Fils, and it is a beautiful carriage for fast touring.
The Panhard cars consist of the well known three-cylinder 8 h.p. type, so suitable for light covered carriages and the four- cylinder 15 h.p., with a comfortable Roi-des-Belges side entrance phaeton body, complete with double extension Cape cart hood.
DUPLEX MOTORS. STAND 54.
One of the real novelties of the show is that exhibited by the Motor Engine and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., on Stand 154 in the Annexe, in the shape of a two-stroke motor called the Duplex. The particular feature of this is, of course, that the motor gets an impulse at every revolution instead of being dependent upon the ordinary petrol engine's cycle of operations, in which an impulse occurs only at every other revolution.
In the Duplex the pistons and cylinders are of two measurements, the former having collars at the lower end, the virtual effect being that each crank has two cylinders acting above it. The bottom half of one cylinder acts as a compression cylinder for the top of the other, thus combining the intake with the exhaust stroke. After the impulse has occurred the piston of the first cylinder descends, whilst the second half takes in the mixture for the power portion of the second cylinder. Immediately the second cylinder begins to descend the top of the first cylinder exhausts, the lower half compressing the gas for the second cylinder. Thus an explosion occurs in each cylinder at every revolution of the engine. The advantages of the system are obvious — scarcity of working parts, lightness, cheap cost of manufacture, and simplicity. It is claimed there is an almost complete absence of vibration under the Duplex method. Everybody mechanically minded should visit Stand 154.
JACKSON DOGCARTS. STAND 162.
There are few of the smaller vehicles which have achieved a greater vogue than the useful little Jackson cars. Messrs. Jackson have put their reliance on a well-reputed single-cylinder engine, set in a sensibly-lined chassis, surmounted by substantial though natty body.
Only those who have toured the southern and western counties can believe how many Jacksons are in use. A few days' driving through Surrey, Sussex, Hants, Dorset and Wilts would convince the reader that they are as frequently met as were governess cars five years ago.
THE NEW MARTINI. STAND 542.
Olympia visitors will have been pleased to find Mr. A. C. Hills on the stand of the Corre Depot, Ltd., by whose indulgence he was enabled to show a Martini car. His new company, Hills-Martini, Ltd., was only set going in such time that to get an exclusive stand was quite impracticable. Mr. Hills informs us that the alterations in the 1907 Martinis are slight, the most striking being the reversion to the leather-faced cone clutch in place of the metal clutch used in 1906 types. All wearing parts, also, have been eliminated from the carburettor, and in place of the decelerator pedal formerly used, a foot accelerator is now fitted. The lubrication system has been changed, in that one set of pipes now communicates direct to the base-chamber. The new cone clutch is adopted, because of the trouble experienced in the use of the all-metal clutch by all but really expert drivers. The new pattern is of very large diameter and long bearings, with ball races at either end.
Mr. Hills' new premises are at 43-44, Great Windmill Street, W.C., opposite the Trocadero. The showroom will he in charge of Mr. E. G. Williams, who sold and drove Martinis so successfully when with Deasy and Co., in Brompton Road, of which company, it will be recollected, Mr. Hills was lately general manager.
SIZAIRE-NAUDIN. STAND 43.
Messrs. Gauthier and Co. are showing the remarkable little Sizaire-Naudin, which triumphantly won the Coupe des Voiturettes a week ago. This little car had already made for herself a number of good friends in England, and the number would have been greater had direct drive pinions been of harder steel. This we understand has since been remedied, That one of the type should have run well with the best of French light cars argues that the car as a whole is good goods, and we look to see the Sizaire-Naudin in the hands of Messrs. Gauthier make a name for herself.
THE STRAKER-SQUIRE. STAND 82.
Those who remember the great interest shown at the last Paris Show in the C.S.B. chassis, will have ample opportunity of examining this car, which is now marketed in England under its new name, the Straker-Squire.
The cylinders are all cast in one block, and the casting extends out on either side, forming two long boxes in which the valves are placed. The inlet camshaft is hollow, and a steel spindle runs through it, having eccentrics formed on it, opposite each cam. By moving the spindle in either direction, by a control lever on the steering wheel, the degree of lift to the inlet valves is varied.
The car bristles with novelties and improvements, hence the successful result of its 4,000-mile run under the auspices of the Automobile Club. The dimensions of the 25 h.p. car are: Wheelbase, 9ft. 9in.; track. 4ft. 8in.: front tyres, 870mm. X 90mm.; back tyres, 880mm. x 120mm., cylinders, bore and stroke, 110mm. x 130mm.; normal speed of engine, 1,000 revs. per minute, giving 32 h.p. Mr. Sidney Straker is the genial president of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders.
MAXWELL. STAND 56.
The F. W. Peckham Motor Syndicate, Ltd., show 8 h.p., 10 h.p., 16 h.p., and 32-40 h.p. models, the 8, 10, and 16 h.p. types having opposed horizontal engines. Their crankcases and transmission mechanism are encased in one aluminium casting, suspended at three points. They have metal bodies, and are remarkably cheap.
In the larger 32-40 h.p. model the engine is vertical and has four separately cast cylinders. Otherwise she is like her smaller sisters, with mechanically operated valves, multiple disc clutch, integral engine and transmission case, pressure-fed lubrication, and Thermo-syphon cooling system. As a really good, though very cheap car, the Maxwell wants a lot of beating.
MORS. STAND 95.
An interesting novelty is to be found on Stand 95, where a Mors landaulette is fitted with what is practically a vanishing suite of furniture. There are four tables for serving lunch or tea as comfortably as in a Pullman dining car, also a couple of full-sized chair seats which could be changed into beds for invalids or for camping tours. These all disappear instantaneously when not required, leaving a large clear floor space in front of the inside main seat. When not in use the furniture folds up so compactly that practically no space is sacrificed, and we gather that these bodies — made by the Relyante Motor Works, Ltd. — can be fitted to any chassis that will take the ordinary side-entrance body.
REX. STAND 44.
The new light car of the Rex Co has a 9-10 h.p. V engine, with three speeds and reverse, all control on steering column and side entrance body.
METALLUROIQUE CARS. STAND 128.
The motorist who does not know that the Metallurgique car won the Liedekerke Cup in the summer, and in a record space of time, had better visit Stand 128, where he will see this make of car, and perhaps then understand the victory.
The car is a novel one in many respects, and the makers implicitly believe in offsetting the camshaft in relation to the cylinders. The drive is obtained by means of an internal expanding clutch, through a cardan drive to a live axle, and the car is both speedy and silent. A 60 h.p. chassis is bristling with points, and in addition to the desaxe crankshaft and camshaft, a new feature is the locking arrangement for the clutch. This absolutely prevents any slip of the clutch, and is actuated by means of a foot-pedal, which securely locks the driving portion to the driven portion by means of a dog clutch. Instantaneous disengagement takes place on the application of the brakes, or on depressing the clutch pedal. To facilitate the starting of the engine, a neat form of half compression is employed. This consists of a wedge or tapered finger under the exhaust valve, and is worked by means of a steel cable attached to a lever near the starting handle.
These cars have a very high reputation on the Continent, and Mr. Oscar Clipper intends to drive than to the front in England, and seems likely to get there in a very short while.
LONDON MOTOR GARAGE COMPANY, LTD. STAND 80.
The famous C.G.V. cars are shown here (London Motor Garage Co), and on the stand is a similar Charron car to the one which took the silver medal in the Town Carriage Competition, held in October under the auspices of the Automobile Club. This car also took a further silver medal for excellence in carriage work, and a glance at the other carriages on the stanch at once shows the reason why. In our opinion they should receive gold medals.
A new mode is the 14 h.p. four-cylinder car, specially built for town carriage work, and the transmission being by cardan drive to a live axle, it is particularly silent when running. The Charron cars are so well known, and hold such a reputation in France, that really nothing can be said here which is likely to increase this reputation.
A new departure in the chain-driven vehicles is the fitting of a chain case. This keeps the chains perfectly clean, and moreover adds further to the silence of the car when running. The cases are made in three pieces, the sections that cover the front chain sprockets being easily detached should one want to alter the gear ratio. A special eccentric device is fitted for adjusting the tension of the chains, and this can be effected without, removing any part of the chain cases. The four-speed gear-box (direct drive on fourth speed) has three-point suspension.
WHITE STEAM CARS. STAND 52.
Internal combustion motors are often discussed, and follow much the same lines, so that a description of one almost serves for the majority. With steam, however, it is different. First of all there are two cylinders, one a small high pressure one, three inches in diameter. The steam enters this cylinder from the generator in a superheated state. After driving the piston on its 4.5-inch stroke, it escapes into the low-pressure cylinder, which has a 6-inch bore. In this manner the full expansive force of the steam is utilized.
The steam then escapes into the radiator or condenser, where it is cooled to boiling water temperature. It is then pumped back to the water tank by means of a pump worked off an eccentric on the crankshaft. Splash lubrication is the method of oiling the engine. One of the features of the White is the steam generator, which consists of a series of helically coiled steel tubes placed one above the other. Contrary to usual practice, the water is pumped into the top coils and gradually forms into steam, travels down the many coils until it comes to the lowest set. Here the temperature is extremely high, and the steam becomes superheated.
The whole of the generator is enclosed in an asbestos-lined covering, which retains the heat. When the steam reaches the engine it has lost little of its heat, and the engine consequently works at a high thermal efficiency. The generator cannot possibly explode, and the amount of steam and water contained in it is not sufficient to do any damage in the remote possibility of a tube cracking.
The burner is most ingenious, and is automatically regulated so that the steam pressure is always maintained. The new 30 h.p. White chassis costs £675, and the delights of an absolutely silent vibrationless car have only to be tested to be appreciated.
WINTON. STAND 84.
America is nobly represented by the Winton Motor Carriage Co. Half-a-dozen Wintons are shown, including examples of the new model XIV, 25 h.p., and the model M, 35 h.p., two landaulettes (model K) and another model K with canopy.
The offset cylinders and camshafts of the older models will be re-inspected with interest, but the "plum" of the exhibit is the new model M, which also has its cylinders and camshaft offset, and a new design of gear-box, with four gears of the Steding spur wheel type, direct drive being on the fourth speed. The gears are controlled by side lever working in a gate quadrant.
The multiple disc clutch, completely enclosed in an extension of the gear-box, is another noticeable detail. By an ingenious "yoke" device, the one spring, placed centrally between the valve stems, on a vertical guide fixed in the cylinder casting, is made to operate each pair of valves for each cylinder.
WEIGEL CAR. STAND 84
The Weigel car is shown on Sayers' stand. As the exhibition authorities will not allow the bonnet to be lifted — it is in fact strapped and padlocked to the frame — it excites much curiosity. Mr. D. M. Weigel is very busy showing this latest car to connoisseurs at his works, 90, Goswell Road. The fact of the authorities chaining up the car has excited the utmost curiosity, and crowds gather round the mysterious bonnet.
VINOT. STAND 23.
Messrs. T. J. Harman and Co are to be complimented on their exhibit of the Vinot-Deguingand car. This is a shining example of the really good yet less well-known French car. A speciality lies in the Vinot clutch with its buffers, which prevent sudden or jerky engagement. It is a good, honest and comparatively low-priced machine that will commend itself to everybody competent to look beneath the varnish. The 35-50 h.p. six-cylinder is the latest of this popular type of vehicle.
SIDDELEYS. STAND 54.
The exhibit of the Wolseley Tool and Motor Co., Ltd., is one that attracts the all-British and cosmopolitan enthusiast alike. The former flocks to it in his hundreds because he knows that there he will find what is best and most worthily representative of this country's engineering pre-eminence, whilst the cosmopolitan "best car at any price, British or otherwise" buyer is attracted for the same reason. The Siddeleys shown, from the 10 h.p. side-entrance model to the 45 h.p. six-cylinder, are gems, and the most strenuous of horizontal-engine advocates will find no serious reason to deprecate the Company's whole-hearted conversion to "vertical" practice.
The six-cylinder model simply bristles with new points, the reason for the adoption of each of which is so apparent, so clear to even the moderately technical mind, that one can but feel he stands in the presence of some of the industry's most creditable production. Two points not to be ignored are the gate-change system, quite in a class by itself, of which a model is available for demonstration, and the contact-maker. This latter is most conveniently placed on the dash facing the driver, and is driven by bevel gearing and shaft off the half-speed shaft.
CADILLAC. STAND 79.
The five finished cars and two chassis staged make a very impressive exhibit, and show better than most cars because of their ample under-clearance. With such cars as the Cadillac, Ford, and Winton, the American manufacturer is very well represented, and by none more worthily than by the Cadillac. The new 30 h.p. car with vertical engines is finding a ready sale. It has already been described in detail by us.
BIANCHIS. STAND 85.
Straker and MacConnell are showing the Italian-made Bianchi cars. Two models are exhibited, the 16 h.p. and the 24 h.p. Both are alike except in the bore and stroke of their cylinders, the former being 105 x 130min. and the latter 125 x 150mm.
Pressed steel is used for the frame with semi-elliptic suspension. The engine is bolted direct to the frame and has its cylinders cast in pairs. Simms-Bosch low-tension magneto ignition is used, and the carburettor is of the float-feed spray type with automatic air inlet. Control is by ignition and throttle levers on the steering wheel and accelerator pedal. A multiple disc clutch is used, the gear-box being of the Mercedes type, in which no direct drive is provided, and the drive from gears to road-wheels is by side chains. Three brakes are provided, those on the rear wheels being internal expanding, a contracting hand brake being fitted to the differential shafting. A dredger lubricator, running at the varying speeds of the engine, is placed upon the dashboard.
ASTER. STANDS 64 and 245.
Both on their main hall and gallery stands, Messrs. Aster, Ltd., are holding big receptions. One would imagine that everybody had always known the Aster, but from some of the questions asked it is evident that a fair percentage of the visitors have not even seen the older types of Aster. The 1907 engine is better than ever, though its differences are rather in the direction of matters of detail, than striking departures. The Aster Engineering Co. has just completed large works at Sudbury, where all British Asters are built and repairs effected.
WHITLOCK-ASTER. STAND 77.
Mr. W. Hacker-Arnold, of the Whitlock Automobile Co., Ltd., picked out the Aster engine years ago, and has found nothing to beat it. He is showing a four-cylindered 12-14 h.p. landaulette, an 18-22 h.p. double landaulette, and an 18-22 h.p. side-entrance seven-seated touring car. We have already described the famous Aster engine. It is not too much to say that this company's landaulette was the first to approximate at all the present lines of landaulette design, and despite the ever-increased attention given to externals, the Whitlock cars still hold their high place.
ARGYLL CARS. STANDS 49 and .33.
The celebrated Alexandria productions are surrounded by a crowd of buyers anxious to obtain early delivery of Argylls at the new and surprisingly cheap rate. The firm have definitely abandoned the idea of manufacturing six-cylinder cars, and consequently their exhibits are confined to four-cylinder models.
A special feature is made of the 14-16 h.p. Argyll covered car, having its four-cylinder vertical engine under the driver's seat. It is short of wheel-base, and eminently suited to town driving, whilst that it is equally prepared for touring is clear from its recent run from the works at Alexandria to London. It has a limousine body, and is remarkably cheap at £375, having just been reduced by no less than £100.
The 26-30 h.p. Argyll has the well-known Aster engine fitted. The Govan patent three-speed gear-box is a feature. Drive is by live axle through a clutch of the metal-to-metal type.
On Stand 133, that of Argylls, London, Ltd., are to be seen cars similar to those shown on the parent firm's stand. The polished chassis bears evidence of most careful workmanship, and shows to advantage the well known merits of the Argyll design.
Another interesting exhibit is a back axle, having parts of the casing cut away to show the gear-working of the differential. Whilst speaking of Argylls, mention must not be omitted of the London firm's stand of oak in the Annexe, surmounted by an imposing clock tower.
Mr. Morgan Donne has lost none of his accustomed directness, when demonstrating the points of the famous Rochet-Schneider, of which his company are exhibiting two chassis also side-entrance, landaulette and limousine cars. The new chassis, of 16 h.p. and 30 h.p., give conclusive evidence of the fact that the 1907 types of this redoubtable car are no whit behind their peers of other makes, and incline one to predict a prosperous season for Messrs. Donne and Willans, Ltd.
TURNER-MIESSE. STAND 31.
The Turner-Miesse exhibit compels a great deal of attention, primarily by reason of the distinctive appearance of the cars comprised. On examination these prove to be a chassis, side-entrance car, and landaulette, each of 10 h.p., and a 16 h.p. limousine. The chassis affords much interest to those who condescend — in their petrolious exclusiveness — to examine it, and while less well known than other steam models, it is worthily representative of the lighter section of British steam-driven automobiles.
PILGRIMS. STAND 28.
One can but admire the firm who make a radical departure from general lines in externals, necessitated by their use of a horizontal engine. The Pilgrim's Way Motor Co., Ltd., show two finished cars, with two-seated and landaulette bodies, and a 20 h.p. Pilgrim engine. The engine is most liberally "sectioned," so that one can see the actual progress of the function of each and every part of this recent addition to the ranks of horizontal models, and the Pilgrim stand has been a centre of attraction throughout the show. And as every crowd of fifty visitors contains one possible buyer, good business has resulted. The Pilgrim has set out on her progress along the stages of public appreciation with the happiest of auguries, both her Town Carriage Competition and Olympia showings having been excellent in every respect.
VULCAN. STAND 38.
The four-cylinder car of from 10 to 14 h.p. is certainly the feature of the show, in point of numerical strength of representation, and few finer examples can be found than are exhibited by the Vulcan Motor Manufacturing and Engineering Company, Ltd.
They show also a neat little 10 h.p. two-cylinder side-entrance car at £250, but the strong line of the exhibit is the 12 h.p. four-cylindered Vulcan at £300.
Perhaps the Company place more importance on their 30 h.p. "six" (only £700, with a fine roomy side-entrance touring body). We had not time to go deeply into the big model, but the smaller types of 12-14 h.p. and 20 h.p. are better even than they were last year.
THE LANCASTER MOTOR GARAGE. STAND 138.
On the Lancaster Motor Garage stand is exhibited specimens of the Mass cars. These cars since their introduction by the above firm have earned a name for reliability. Various sizes of cars are sold; but only three of the larger models are shown on the stand, one being a 24 h.p. four-cylinder model, with side-entrance body, price £575; the other a 16-20 h.p., price £500, and a six chassis.
The design of the cars follows modern practice in having pressed steel frame, long springs, internal expanding brakes, etc. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and a leather-faced cone clutch connects the power to the gear-box, which provides three speeds forward and one reverse. The transmission is by cardan shaft to rear live axle. A specimen axle is shown on the stand to afford an opportunity of inspecting the material and workmanship.
One has got so accustomed to speaking of "those excellent little Mass cars" that it is somewhat of a shock to find a 30 h.p., six-cylinder on the stand of the Lancaster Motor Garage. She is excellent, in all truth, but hardly to be called little. Our old friends, the 8 h.p., two-cylinder, and the 14 h.p., 16-20 h.p., and 24 h.p., four cylinders, are well known. They are all shaft-driven, and all stamped from end to end as undoubtedly cheap carriages — the best France can produce at anything like the price.
SPEEDWELLS. STAND 4..
The six-cylinder double landaulette shown by the New Speedwell Motor Co., Ltd., is very interesting to the visitor within the gates, but perhaps as interesting a car is the smart little leather-hooded, two seater (with dickey) at £290. She has a two-cylinder, 10 h.p. engine, and is a very natty little carriage altogether. Although her painting is more suited to her described service as a park victoria, the same model with its leather hood and glass wind shield, will do a doctor's work excellently.
Two items of especial merit in the new Speedwells are the patented silencer (in which the exhaust is cooled in an unusual number of tubes before it gets anywhere near its final ‘scape hole) and the rear springs. The rear dumb-irons take the form of semi-elliptic springs, the ends being turned round at right angles, forming a loop for the double coupling connected with the side springs.
HUNTLEY WALKER, LTD. STAND 97.
There are also two 24 h.p. Minervas with similar bodies. The six-cylinders naturally attract the lion's share of attention, although a considerable mead of staring falls to the lot of the big tray of trophies Mr. Huntley Walker has hung at his belt in his many and various speed contests. Altogether a notable stand this, worthy the attention it gets every hour of every day.
THE REXER STEAM CAR.
The Rexer Steam Car, of American origin, is shown outside Olympia. It follows the accepted lines as far as external appearances, having the engine under the bonnet. It has a four-cylinder single-acting engine with mushroom valves, and is rated at 60 h.p., the bore and stroke being 70 x 85mm. The working pressure is 800. Paraffin is the fuel used. There are two burners, one being smaller than the other, the smaller one being for slow running.
SAYERS. STAND 153.
Apart from the interest attaching to the new Weigel car, shown fitted with a Sayerico motor body, the other examples of this firm's workmanship exhibited are triumphs in the art of coach-building. Messrs. Sayers have succeeded in combining French gracefulness with sound British construction, and any of the bodies attributed to the firm will bear the most careful inspection.
GAMAGES. STAND 212.
Messrs. A. W. Gamage, Ltd.; what shall one say of their exhibit? To take out the note book to crystallize an impression of real usefulness, excellent manufacture and low price, is to hurriedly drop book and pencil to handle some new thing. The stand is crammed full of things. We should defeat our own end by selecting any special article for mention. Our aim is to direct attention to it, and in describing a jack we may merely bore the reader for whom life holds nothing but an acetylene headlight. But whatever you want, there it is. "If you don't see what you want," just spend an hour or two trying to ask the briskly courteous showmen for something they haven't got. Notable Accessories
MESSRS. PULLMAN, LTD. STAND 239.
A new detachable non-skid leather band is shown on the Pullman this stand, and the great experience in the treatment of leather goods which his firm has had for about a century, is of the greatest assistance to them when designing and making a non-skid band. The new one is certainly all right, and a test of several months' duration has proved the excellence of the design. Special leather for clutch use is also made and treated by this firm, and leather so treated makes slipping altogether out of the question. Various other leather goods, as well as chamois cleaning leathers, Kaspine lubricant for gear-boxes, live axles, etc., are among the many useful and necessary articles on this stand. It is remarkable for the pair of giant non-skids which decorate it.
SALSBURY AND SON, LTD.
One of the oldest firms in the lamp manufacturing business may safely claim to have some experience in turning out a first-class well-made article at a reasonable price. This is what Messrs. Salsbury do, and every kind of motor lamp, either acetylene or paraffin is to be seen here. The Triumph petrol gauge is another innovation, and a most useful article it is. Other necessary and useful accessories there are in hundreds, and this stand must he visited and well studied.
DUNLOP TYRES. STAND 236.
The Dunlop tyre exhibit is not confined solely to the Dunlop stand in the gallery. A walk through the building is in a way a small Dunlop exhibit, there being no less than eighty stands with cars shod with this famous make of tyre. This, we believe, is a record, and one which the Company should be proud of. A new non-skid, with the studs absolutely moulded into the tread, is the latest product of this Company, and this, combined with first-rate material in the tyre, make it one of the best made in England. Mr. F. Baisley, the genial manager, was beaming when the one-thousandth Dunlop tyre was counted on the various stands.
CONTINENTALS AT OLYMPIA.
In proof of the increasing popularity of Continental tyres, it is of interest to note that at the Olympia Show over 33.3 per cent. of all the tyres fitted are of this make, being nearly twice as many as last year. The cars upon the following stands are all shod with Continentals: Argyll, Bell, Belsize, Bentall, Brown, Burgess, Burlington, Cannstatt Auto. Co., Climax, Daimler, Dean and Burden, de Dietrich, Delaunay-Belleville, Dennis, Donne and Willans, Eclipse, Electromobile, Farman, Gutmann, Hollingdrake, Horley, Horsfall and Bickham, Hutton, Itala, Jackson, Jarrott and Letts, Lacre, Legros and Knowles, Lindsay, Maudslay, Metallurgique, Mors, Motor Supply Co., Arrol-Johnston, Speedwell, Penman, Pellant, Premier, Standard, Straker and MacConnell, Straker-Squire, Turner, Victoria Carriage Co., and Vulcan.
PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE CO., LTD. STAND 2I9.
Prices Patent Candle Co have a good exhibit tucked away in a bad corner. They show all their brands of lubricating oil and some new gear greases, especially intended for use on heavy vehicles. They also introduce " Manulav," a new motorists' soap.
COLLIER TYRES. STAND 230.
The lucky motorist who can afford to have the best of everything, irrespective of price, will always stickle for Collier tyres, a circumstance that will be quickly understood by glancing at the manufactures of the Collier Co., on Stand 230, for the veriest tyro will appreciate the value of such liberal use of good rubber. Vastly increased sales have resulted from the Collier's fine showing in recent tyre trials, when they won three gold medals, and none will say their success is undeserved.
VACUUM OIL CO. STAND 180.
The motorist who cannot select a lubricant for any part of any car from among those shown by the Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd., on Stand 189 in the Gallery should sell his car. Here are to be found oils and greases of every conceivable grade, each having an individuality that fits it for some especial service. The lubricants exhibited have only two properties in common; that they are all and each of the very highest obtainable quality, and that their prices are uniformly moderate; but as almost every motorist has some time or other suffered from bad oils, there is no need for emphasis on our part of the importance of efficient lubrication — which is most easily to be assured by the use of a scientifically perfect lubricant.
THE DOOLITTLE REMOVABLE RIM.
A most interesting exhibit: on the Arrol-Johnston stand is the Doolittle removable rim, the invention of Dr. Doolittle, president of the Toronto Automobile Club. This rim, for which the Company have secured the manufacturing rights in the United Kingdom, entirely eliminates tyre-changing. The damaged tyre can be removed, cover and all, and a spare one fully inflated can be put on in thirty seconds.
BOWDEN. STAND 251.
The name of Bowden is of universal renown in connection with their wonderful wire control. On their stand is to be seen a bewildering array of mechanical effects in working operation. The exhibit, which is most comprehensive, includes motor-car controls, valve-lifting levers, gas throttles, carburettor agitators, petrol strainers, band brakes, auxiliary air inlet, and what Bowdens claim as the novelty of the show — the Bowden distance recorder. For those tired of endless and cumbersome rods, levers and joints, this firm's many well-tried productions should prove a boon.
STERN-SONNEBORN. STAND 171.
The Stern-Sonneborn Oil Co give conclusive evidence that the garage attendant who said, "Oil's oil, and that's all abaht it!" didn't know everything. A young man on their stand has real mastery of the chemistry of oils, and though he does not fire off a long rhodomontade about hydrocarbons and flash points, points of ignition and sp.g.'s, he convinces one that the Stern-Sonneborn Company put intelligence into their cans with their lubricants, and a motorist who relies on their products need have neither fears of "gumming " nor running hot.
Striking Mechanical Novelties at Olympia.
The Lloyds cross-roller gear on Stand 5, a four-speed gear of novel design, consisting of a disc carrying four concentric rows of conical rollers running on pins fixed to the disc, and two pinions with corresponding shaped rollers in place of teeth, one for the forward speeds, and the other for reverse. The change speed control is novel, the lever being placed into its gear notch first, and when the clutch pedal is depressed, the gear automatically engages without shock or jar.
The Adams-Hewitt (Stand 44) eight-cylinder V engine. Built at the Adams works at Bedford. Cylinders set at an angle of 90 deg., two connecting rods to each crank, and mechanically operated valves.
The Cadillac three-speed epicyclic gear, a well-made and unbreakable change-speed gear, with spur gear wheels always in mesh, the two lower gear, being brought into action by contracting a band around the outer periphery of the gear drums, and the top speed by a face clutch, giving direct drive.
The Lanchester engine in section, Stand 20, showing the horizontal valves; the Lanchester special valve spring, and the quick detachable fitting. Also the Lanchester worm gear driven axle and epicyclic gearing.
The Argyll engine in section, showing the working parts.
The worm drive on the N.E.C. car, also the Dennis worm drive rear axle having worm pinion at driving wheel to rear axle, instead of the usual bevel gear. Thornycroft valve caps, without packing, a ground joint ensuring a perfect gas tight fit.
Separate brass water jackets to cylinders on the Germain car, Stand 85.
Isotta-Fraschini racing car, with overhead valve motion.
The Delahaye change-speed lever and quadrant. The quadrant is of the ordinary notched type, the notches being cut underneath. The lever itself pivots over laterally, and can slide along both sides of the quadrant. The inside position gives first and second reverse speeds, and the outside third and fourth.
The Bentall change-speed gear mechanism. The change-speed lever works between two guides or a two-sided quadrant. The two sides are cut with ratchet faces, and are kept firm against the sides of the change-speed lever by springs. To change gear the lever (which is quite plain) is pressed laterally and forward against one side of the quadrant, which moves outwards and allows the lever to move forward into the next catch. To bring the change-speed lever backwards it is pressed laterally against the other side of the quadrant, which allows it to move backwards.
The Chenard-Walcker braking system. Two independent foot brakes, and a brake on each rear wheel, actuated by side hand lever. One foot brake is brought into action by withdrawing the clutch. The clutch is formed with a male portion outside, and when it is drawn back it engages with a female coned strap surrounding it. The other foot brake is placed at the rear end of the cardan shaft. All are metal-to-metal. The oil from the crank-case of the motor of the Chenard-Walcker car can be "switched" on to the gear-box by a simple operation on the dashboard.
The Delahaye clutch. This is a leather-faced cone type of clutch, the special feature being the method of securing the leather to the metal drum. The metal drum has hollows formed across its face, into which the leather is drawn by means of T-shaped clamps. The cross-bar of the T, when tightly drawn down by a nut on the end of the vertical shank, which passes through the leather and the clutch drum, rests well below the level of the face of the leather. The two ends of the leather are secured by a larger clamp, drawing the leather down in this case into a square hollow in the drum, the clamp having a flat metal head.
The Vauxhall variable inlet valve lift, actuated by metal wedges, which can be moved along between the valve tappets and the valve stems, is noteworthy.
The suspension of the de Dion gear-box. This combined gear-box and differential is suspended at three points, and has rubber washers interposed at each point of contact with the chassis frame.
The tyre pump fitted to the Sunbeam cars. This is a small gear-driven air pump, placed behind the gear-box, a flexible tube connecting it up to the tyre valves. The pump can be swung out of engagement when not in use.
De Dion electrical fittings, which are particularly well made and disposed.
The Minerva foot brake. Worked by two face-cams, placed, on a transverse shaft. Most makers are fitting the magnetos on their cars with some sort of quick detachment device. The most common practice is to hold it down by a metal strap round the magnets, which can he released by undoing a thumb-screw. The Sunbeam Company strap it down by a chain.
The Crossley expanding clutch. The clutch resembles somewhat an internal expanding metal-to-metal brake. Two cast-iron faced steel shoes are expanded under the action of a cone, and rollers connected to the foot pedal. This makes a wonderfully delicate, yet good gripping clutch.
The de Dietrich expanding clutch. This has a similar action to the Crossley, but the expanding clutch drum is made all in one, and acts practically as its own spring. It is made of cast iron, with a small diameter, but wide friction face. This clutch has vindicated its worth in several of the big races, notably the Ardennes and the Vanderbilt.
The Mors clutch. The friction drive is secured by contracting a metal band around a portion of the engine fly-wheel. It acts like a contracting band brake. The depression of the foot control pedal releases the band instead of drawing it tight, on to its work.
The Alldays carburettor. This is of the double-jet type, one jet for each cylinder. Each mixing chamber has it own automatic air valve placed at the extreme top, and practically level with the tops of the cylinders. One float-chamber controls the petrol feed.
The Adams-Hewitt change-speed mechanism. A most ingenious arrangement of foot pedals, which, in conjunction with the epicyclic gear, enables the side gear change lever to be dispensed with. Moreover, when changing from one gear to another, the gear that is already in use is automatically released. It is unquestionably the easiest car extant to drive.
Improvements and refinements 
Following up the article in out last issue, we have made exhaustive study of the principal models shown at Olympia, and find that many of these embody one or other of the many refinements mentioned.
Our attention has been called by many readers to the fact that several first-class 1907 cars do not contain the features set down therein by us.
One of these points is the honeycomb radiator, which we stated was being replaced by the gilled tube variety. It must not, however, be taken for granted that the honeycomb type, first introduced by the Mercedes, is either bad or inefficient. If properly made, and when provided with proper strainers for the water, it is excellent. If cheaply made it is execrable, because it springs leaks owing to vibration, especially where it is joined to the tank. Rubber buffers are often placed between it and the frame to absorb shocks.
In addition to the tendency to fit a half-compression cam to facilitate starting, the Fiat have introduced an excellent self-starter, which consists of a small air compressor pump worked off the engine, which charges an air cylinder communicating by pipes with the cylinders. The force of the air is sufficient to drive the piston down and start up the engine.
No fewer than thirty-six six-cylinder engines are shown, as compared with the six of last year. Among the notable ones are the Darracq, Clement, Brooke, Beaufort, Star, and Scout. By the way, the whole output of six-cylinder Brookes has been bought by a syndicate numbering Mr. S. F. Edge amongst its members.
Another feature which is gaining ground is the interchangeability of valves. Nothing is more annoying than to find when one has broken an exhaust valve that the only spare one is an inlet, which will not fit. Broken valves, however, are not so frequent an occurrence as in the old days. The introduction of a spring buffer between the valve and the camshaft does away with much vibration, which crystallizes the metal of the valve and makes it brittle.
ALL VALVES ON ONE SIDE.
Although many makers are bringing the exhaust valves to one side of the engine, there are several notable exceptions. These makes claim greater accessibility, and it stands to reason that one can more accessibly dispose four valves than eight, or, in the case of six cylinders, six than twelve. A "valves-on-opposite-sides" engine looks more symmetrical than the other kind. An advantage of the latter is the elimination of pockets, which have a tendency to waste the force of the explosion.
Several makers have increased the size of their oil tank, and a notable feature in well designed cars is that each important bearing has a separate oil duct. This ensures each friction surface getting its proper amount of oil. If a single duct feeds more than one point, and one becomes partially clogged up, the oil simply runs the easiest way. It is most important to have thoroughly efficient filtering material for the lubricating oil, as the small drip feeds and oil ducts easily become choked. Forced lubrication was introduced by the Delahaye-Belleville, splendid examples of which are shown on Stands 91 and 102.
While some makers are fitting metal-to-metal clutches, others are reverting to the leather-faced cone, giving for the reason that a metal-to-metal clutch requires a more expert driver to manage it. The Daimler, Darracq, Dennis, and many excellent cars still retain the leather clutch, and if it is properly designed nothing is better. The writer has used a leather cone clutch for more than two years on a car, and it never gave any trouble and never slipped. Disc clutches are becoming popular, although the Hele-Shaw clutch has caused a deal of trouble, mainly due to lack of instructions as to its manipulation. A Hele-Shaw clutch, however, enabled a six-cylinder Napier to undertake a long-distance trial, using the top gear only. The expanding metal clutches on the Crossley (Stands 18 and 22), Metallurgique (Stand 128), and Climax (Stand 66), are excellent.
The gate-quadrant change-speed control is strongly on the increase. The Deasy (Stand 92) has an excellent change-speed mechanism, has as also the British on Stand 137.
Several makers have adopted a wider track, i.e., greater distance between each pair of wheels. The Humber is an example (Stand 159).
The Delaunay-Belleville (Stands 91 and 102) has an increased cylinder bore with no change in the gear ratio. This enables the car to be run up stiffer gradients on the top gear — always a good point on a direct top gear car.
Nickel steel is exceedingly tough, and is used by many first-class makers for the pressed steel frame. It enables the same strength to be obtained from a thinner sheet of steel. Not everybody knows that a pressed steel frame is made by hydraulically pressing the sheet into shape. Some of the smaller makers heat the sheet and hammer it into shape by hand, but it is not so uniform in temper if so made.
Many American and some British cars have epicyclic or planetary gearing, in which the whole "jack in the box" and its drum revolve on the top gear. The objection hitherto raised against this type is that the bands encircling the drum are apt to slip. The modern epicyclic gear brake, however, is properly proportioned. It is an exceedingly simple form of gearing, and is most suitable for town work.
CHAIN OR LIVE AXLE.
Several makers — Napier (Stand 43), Star (119), Austin (103) — give clients the option of either chain or live-axle drive. With regard to the latter type, which formerly lacked the slight flexibility due to the chain, this has been regained by the attachment of a spring drive to take up the shocks. The Rapid (Stand 32) and Metallurgique (128) are examples. The Climax also has adjustable universal joints in the propeller shaft, and the Deasy has ball bearings to these parts—both excellent features. The Iris universal joint (Stand 58) is notably good.
There is a decided increase in horizontal engines. the new Pilgrim car (Stand 28) being the latest, The Adams-Hewitt (Stand 44), the N.E.C. (37), and the American Cadillac (79) and Maxwell (56) are other examples. Much has been written and more said against this form of engine, but as a matter of fact it is quite as good as the vertical, and saves much space owing to its usual position under the front seats. Providing the engine is accessible, as in modern design, it is excellent.
In the eight-cylinder Rolls-Royce shown last year and the "Adams Eight" (Stand 44), the cylinders are placed at an angle of 90 degrees, which is neither vertical nor horizontal, and yet they work admirably. Horizontal engines got a bad name owing to their inaccessibility in the old Benz, Delahayes, etc.
On Stand 101, the Standard Co. show a four-cylinder air-cooled motor. This is the first air-cooled motor we have seen fitted to an English car. Americans have made a study of this type, and we predict the eventual entire suppression of water-cooling. The simplification and lessening of weight are factors important enough to cause British designers to study the air-cooled motor. It is interesting to remind our readers that a six-cylinder air-cooled Frayer-Miller car of 120 h.p. ran in the Vanderbilt trials. That it was "eliminated" is not necessarily clue to air-cooling, as many water-cooled cars were in the same boat. The air-cooled Standard sells at £195.
Cylinders are cast singly by many first-class makers others cast them in pairs. In the six-cylinder Rolls-Royce they are cast in three, while in the Deasy (Stand 92) the four cylinders are cast in one unit. The objection to the last method is that any trouble with one cylinder necessitates the dismounting of all. In the Deasy this has been over-come by making it possible to withdraw the piston and connecting rod from the bottom and through the side of the crankcase. The trouble about the single cylinder when mounted in six is that it takes up so much room. An objection has been raised to the casting of multi-cylinders in one unit, because of the difficulty of securing good castings, and the expense caused by faulty ones. This, however, has been solved by not producing faulty castings. The unit system allows of a larger water-cooling jacket in the same space.
We mentioned last week that the proper place to have all the brakes is on the rear wheels. The Deasy, National (not shown), Maxwell and Climax are among those so fitted. The Rochet-Schneider (Stand 100) has two brakes on the differential. The brake drum on the Deasy is made large, helping to strengthen the back wheels.
Several makers are putting universal joints between the clutch and the gear-box. This enables the former to be removed without disturbing the latter, it also allowing for any movement or whipping of the frame and helps the clutch to centre itself in the fly-wheel cone.
TILTING STEERING WHEELS -ADJUSTABLE PEDALS.
In certain cars it is possible to adjust the angle of the steering pillar to suit individual requirements, while in the Deasy provision is made for altering the adjustment of the foot pedals. This is a great point, because it enables a six-foot man to comfortably drive the car belonging to one who is four-foot-six. The pedals of all cars should be so constructed.
Generally speaking, valve tappets and valve spindles require little adjustment, as the small amount of wear or "riveting," due to the constant hammering, does not appreciably widen the space between them, because the grinding of the seating valve head compensates for any wear. Some makers fit adjustable tappets, which are very useful if one has a short-spindled valve. These tappets also help by close adjustment to diminish noise. A wide gap between spindle and tappet tends to make the engine noisy.
OFFSET CRANKSHAFT. The Mors engine was the first to adopt the offset (desaxe) crankshaft. This practice has been followed by Minerva (Stand 35), Winton (84), Metallurgique (128) and Brasier. Its effect is to diminish the angular thrust of the connecting rod, and to make for smoother running of the engine.
SINGLE COIL DISTRIBUTOR.
Most modern ignition systems are worked by means of a single coil and a distributor. The older plan was to have a bobbin and its trembler for each cylinder. This meant individual adjustment of the "buzzer," and the great difficulty has been to so adjust them that they produce a uniform spark in the cylinders. With a single trembler one adjustment gives an even spark to each cylinder, and much vibration is eliminated, because each spark is synchronized, and is of equal intensity. If the spark in one cylinder takes place earlier than another and is perhaps hotter, a more powerful explosion is caused in that cylinder. If the explosions are of unequal strength the engine runs unevenly. The distributor may be likened to a multi-armed finger post, which progressively points the spark into each cylinder at the precise moment.
A careful survey of the points enumerated above will give the reader an idea on which lines development is running. There are, of course, many other points on which we might enlarge, but our space is limited. We shall review in detail the most interesting of the Olympia exhibits when we have better opportunities of studying them away from the glare and the glitter of the electric-lighted hall.
AS OTHERS SEE US.
A French engineer of great repute, patentee of some thirty popularly adopted automobile notions, expressed himself as well pleased with Olympia. He said the most strikingly ingenious thing in the exhibition was the Straker-Squire hollow camshaft; the cheapest thing, the 15 h.p. finished Enfield; the car with the greatest novelties, the Deasy; the car with the soundest improvements, the Siddeley; and the car with time best finish, the Napier.
Our friend was astonished at the intelligence of the interest manifested by visitors of every social grade, but deplored the absence of motor mechanics in anything approaching the number he had anticipated. He said that from the closing hour of the factories the French shows are crowded with mechanics, who simply perch on the chassis and remain there until they have thoroughly mastered the functions of every part. No exhibitor would dare, said he, to keep the lid on his gears, disconnect his change-speed lever, side brake, or steering. They come to see, and have their money's worth.
As a final word our visitor noticed the dissimilarity of our and the showmen's accents, and said (on the difference being explained in the more noticeable cases) that the English of the northern counties was eminently easier to understand than was the alternately clipped and drawled dialect of the London and southern Englishman.
The illustrations referred to above are included in the specific company entries.