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1895 Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Visits to Works

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1895. Visits to Works.
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Note: This is a sub-section of 1895 Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Visits to Works (Excursions) in the Glasgow area

Details Saturday

On SATURDAY morning, 3rd August, the Edinburgh Corporation Electric Lighting Station was open to the visit of the Members under the guidance of Mr. E. W. Monkhouse, Resident Engineer.

Glasgow Waterworks

GLASGOW CORPORATION WATER WORKS, LOCH KATRINE.
Glasgow Waterworks

The act of parliament for the construction of the first Loch Katrine Water Works was obtained in 1855, and the works were completed and opened by Her Majesty on 14th October 1859. Loch Katrine is situated in Perthshire about 30 miles north of Glasgow, and is the principal of a chain of three lochs, lying in the same valley and forming the right branch of the river Teith; the other two are Loch Achray and Loch Vennachar, Plate 138.

Power was obtained to raise Loch Katrine 4 feet above the previous summer level, and to draw it down 3 feet below, thus giving a total available depth of 7 feet of water, and providing storage for 5,623 million gallons. For the purpose of providing compensation water to the riparian owners on the river Teith, power was also obtained to raise Loch Vennachar 5 feet 9 inches above its previous summer level and to draw it down 6 feet below; and also to raise Loch Drunkie 25 feet, a small loch lying to the south of Loch Vennachar. The quantity of water thus made available was sufficient to maintain a supply of 50 million gallons per day for Glasgow and 401 million gallons per day for compensation to the river Teith.

The point at which the aqueduct leaves Loch Katrine is about 5 miles above the outlet. It is 8 feet wide and 8 feet high throughout with a semi-circular top, and has a fall towards Glasgow of 10 inches per mile. It is 251 miles long, and discharges into the service reservoir at Mugdock near Milngavie, about 7 miles from Glasgow. There are three valleys on the line of the aqueduct, together about 3 miles long; and these are crossed by three parallel lines of cast-iron pipes. Considerable portions of the aqueduct are in tunnel; and where the rock was hard enough, lining was dispensed with. The rough surface of the rock cuttings however has a prejudicial effect upon the velocity of flow of the water.

At the Mugdock reservoir the water is first discharged into a basin, from which it passes over cast-iron gauge-plates 40 feet wide, brought to a thin edge, over which the depth of water passing is regularly recorded and the discharge computed. The reservoir is 317 feet above sea level; it has a water surface of 60 acres, a depth when full of 50 feet, and contains 548 million gallons, or about eleven days' supply to Glasgow at 50 million gallons per day. It thus admits of repairs being done upon the aqueduct, without interrupting the supply of water to the city. The water is drawn from the reservoir into a circular well cut out of the rock, 40 feet diameter and 63 feet deep, fitted with copper wire-cloth strainers, through which the water passes. Thence it is conveyed by two lines of 42-inch pipes laid in a tunnel 420 yards long, and then by four lines of 36-inch pipes to the city. These are together capable of discharging 50 million gallons per day. The works cost £1,330,000.

At the end of 1881 Glasgow had increased in population so greatly that it became apparent a larger supply of water than the aqueduct could convey from Loch Katrine would be required within a few years. Accordingly an act was obtained in 1882 for the construction of an additional service reservoir adjoining the Mugdock reservoir. In 1885 a further act was obtained which gave power to duplicate the aqueduct, to raise the level of the water in Loch Katrine 5 feet higher, and to convert Loch Arklet into a reservoir by raising its water level 25 feet. Loch Arklet adjoins Loch Ratline on the west, but drains into Loch Lomond and thence into the river Leven.

The new works were laid out with the view of an ultimate supply to the city of 100 million gallons per day; and in order to admit of repairs being made upon the aqueducts, the new one has been made large enough to convey 70 million gallons per day. It consists of a succession of tunnels, which for the greater part were driven from the ends without shafts, the drills being worked by compressed air, at a pressure of about 60 lbs. per square inch. It is 23i miles long to the service reservoir, or 11 miles shorter than the old aqueduct; and is 12 feet wide and 9 feet high where in rock and not lined, but only 10 feet wide where it is lined. The bottom is laid with concrete throughout, and it has a fall towards Glasgow of one foot in 5,500, or 111- inches per mile.

At several points along the line there are junctions between the old and the new aqueducts, where the flow of the water is regulated by means of stop-planks placed in recesses in the masonry; and at these places, access-chambers, ventilating shafts, overflow and discharge-valves are provided. The bridges, of which there are five, consist of an inner channel of concrete and outer walls of masonry, with an air space between to prevent the effects of variations of temperature upon the water channel. The pipes across the Endrick and Blane valleys will ultimately consist of four parallel lines, each 48 inches diameter. For the purpose of construction, the aqueduct was divided into seven sections, and the order in which these were executed was determined by the resistance which the water experienced in passing through the old aqueduct. The portions where there was the greatest resistance were first supplemented by corresponding portions of the new aqueduct.

The new Craigmaddie service reservoir, adjoining the Mugdock, will have a water surface of 86 acres, and will contain 700 million gallons of water, or a supply to the city for fourteen days at the rate of 50 million gallons per day. The two reservoirs together will contain sufficient water for twelve and a half days' supply at the rate of 100 million gallons per day. The inlet and outlet works are so arranged that either or both reservoirs may be used for the supply of the city. Considerable expense has been incurred in reaching a proper water-tight foundation for the puddle wall, the trench at one point having been carried to a depth of 193 feet below the original surface of the ground. It is expected that the whole of the works connected with the reservoir will be completed by next summer. The outlet works are similar to those of the Mugdock reservoir; there will ultimately be four lines of 36-inch pipes leading to the city, but two only are being laid down at present. The expenditure upon the new works up to 31st May 1895 has been £1,080,000.

The other works embraced in the act of 1885 include the raising of the level of the water in Loch Katrine 5 feet above its present top water-level, bringing its capacity up to 9,849 million gallons, which it is estimated will supply the city with 65 million gallons per day. The raising of the water-level in Loch Arklet 25 feet will add 10 million gallons per day to the supply. The first of these two works will be entered upon shortly. When additional water is wanted, it can be got from the adjoining valley of Loch Doine and Loch Voil, immediately north of the Teith valley.

The whole of the works are under the superintendence of Mr. James M. Gale, Engineer to the Water Commissioners.

Glasgow Hydraulic Power Supply

GLASGOW HYDRAULIC POWER SUPPLY, PUMPING STATION.
Glasgow Hydraulic Power Supply

These works are situated in the north-east part of the city, at the corner of High Street and Rotten Row, near the Cathedral. The ground occupied is triangular in shape, and has been divided into two, forming a low-level and a high-level yard, one being 16 feet higher than the other. Between them is a retaining wall, varying in thickness from 2 to 6 feet. The main flue from the boilers passes through and along the back of the wall to the chimney shaft at the south-west boundary of the station; the shaft is 150 feet in height from the bottom of the flue, 14.5 feet square at bottom, and 7.5 feet across the flats of the octagonal part at top. The main buildings are of the castellated Scottish baronial style of architecture, and comprise engine-house, accumulator towers, boiler-house, workshops, store, offices, and space for workmen's dwellings; these take up the greater part of the lower yard adjoining High Street. The coal store and water-storage tanks, for supplying the water to the main pumps and condensers, form the roof of the boiler-house, and are on the same level as the upper yard; the entrance to the coal store and upper yard is from Rotten Row. The upper yard will be used for the storage of pipes.

The buildings have been designed for containing six sets of pumping engines and eight boilers, only half of which have at present been put in. The engines are of the marine type, inverted, direct- acting, triple-expansion, surface-condensing, and steam-jacketed. The cylinders are 15, 22, and 36 inches diameter, with 2 feet stroke. The three main pumps on each engine are single-acting, with rams 4.5 inches diameter and 2 feet stroke, and are driven direct from the engine cross-heads. The fly-wheel weighs about two tons. The condenser has a cooling surface of 530 square feet; and the quantity of water required for condensing is about equal to the quantity discharged through the power mains. Each engine pumps 150,000 gallons of water in 10 hours against a pressure of 1,120 lbs. per square inch, with steam of 150 lbs. per square inch. The boilers are Lancashire, made of mild-steel plates, 30 feet long and 7 feet diameter, with two flues 2.75 feet diameter in each. They are fitted with Vicars' mechanical stokers, to which the fuel is conveyed from the coal store above by means of steel-tube shoots. A Watmun automatic water-circulator is connected to each boiler; and Green's economisers for feed-water are placed in the main flue.

The boilers were tested to 250 lbs. per square inch with hydraulic pressure, the working pressure being 150 lbs. per square inch. The stokers and economiser-scrapers are worked from shafting overhead, which can be driven either by a three-cylinder hydraulic-engine or by a small steam donkey-pump engine fixed in the boiler house. There is also provided a three-cylinder hydraulic engine to drive the machinery in the workshops, a 20-cwt. movable hydraulic crane on rails, for handling pipes in the upper yard, and a 20-cwt. direct-acting hydraulic lift from the lower to the upper yard. There are two accumulators, having cast-iron cylinders and rams 18 inches diameter and 23 feet stroke, with base plates 7 feet diameter and weight cases 14 feet outside diameter by 22 feet deep, suspended from the crossheads on the top of the rams by strong steel sling-bolts. The accumulators are loaded with iron-stone slag to give a pressure of 1,120 lbs. per square inch, the minimum pressure guaranteed being 1,000 lbs. per square inch.

As at present arranged, about ten miles of piping will be laid to supply the central part of the City between High Street on the east, Cranstonhill on the west, Sauchiehall Street on the north, and the north side of the river Clyde on the south. About six miles of pipes have already been laid and put under pressure. Although not complete, the works were formerly inaugurated by the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Members of the Town Council on 30th May 1895. A number of machines are already connected, and applications have been made for supply to others. The works were designed by Messrs. Ellington and Woodall, London, and carried out under the superintendence of Mr. James M. Gale, Engineer to the Water Commissioners. [See also page 353.]

Glasgow Sewage Works

SEWAGE PURIFICATION WORKS, DALMARNOCK.
Glasgow Sewage Works

These works, erected by the Police Commissioners, were opened on 2nd May 1894, and serve the eastern district of the city. The main sewer 7.5 feet diameter is brought down the centre of Swanston Street, and led into the entrance chamber, which is 17 feet long by 9 feet wide and 16 feet 1 inch deep, and is situated at the north-west corner of the precipitation tanks. On the east side, in front of three 4-feet penstocks, is a wrought-iron grid to catch heavy floating matter. The sewage is taken thence into the machinery building by three 4-feet by 4-feet invert channels, placed underneath the precipitation tanks and aerating beds, to the west side of the catchpits, where it has to pass through three 4-feet rotary screens of cast-steel, with bars K inch apart. It then flows into the 5-feet feed channels on the west side of the catchpits.

Lifting plates 4 feet by 6 inches are securely attached at intervals of 4 feet to the rotary screens for the purpose of taking up all floating matter, and depositing it into a wrought-iron trough placed in froid aka depth of 10i feet below the floor line. The rubbish here collected is passed into a square wrought-iron self-tipping bucket, which is daily emptied into the destructor furnace. The screens work at as angle of 45°, and make 14 revolutions a minute.

The sewage flows from the 5-feet channel into two catchpits, each 47 feet 10 inches long by 20 feet broad. Three V shaped troughs run along the bottom of each catchpit, the bottom of the trough being 28i feet below the floor line. A screw conveyor, making 41 revolutions a minute, pushes the solid matter forwards to the elevator trough, the bottom of which is 33i feet below floor line; and it is raised by the elevator buckets into a railway wagon on the floor level. The sewage free of heavy matter then flows from the catchpits into a 10-feet channel on the east side, leading to the pump well, which is 31 feet 1 inch below floor line.

The suction pipes from the centrifugal pumps are led down to within 15 inches of the bottom. The water is raised through these into a 3.5 feet cast-iron pipe placed against the south wall of the pump room, through which it flows into the mixing pit, where the chemicals are introduced. There are two 18-inch and two 15-inch pumps, with a total of 350 horse-power, capable of raising 11 million gallons per hour. Two 6-inch pulley-pumps on the east side of the pump room discharge the sewage water into lime-mixers over the sludge tank. This water is used for making milk of lime, and for dissolving the sulphate of alumina. The pulley pumps are driven from the main line of shafting, which is worked from the engine room, where there are two pairs of compound condensing engines, each 120 horse-power. The sewage water is used for the condensers; and these engines also drive a dynamo, which supplies all the lighting for the works. The mixing pit, 10 feet square by 8 feet deep, is divided down the middle by a tongue going down to within 31 feet of the bottom; and the sewage mixed with the chemicals has to pass under the tongue into an outlet channel, 8 feet wide by 31 feet deep, which leads to the feed channels of the precipitation tanks.

The sludge from the precipitation tanks is brought into the works by a 6.5 feet main channel, falling 3 inches in 100 feet from the tanks. In front of each section of these tanks is a channel for the sludge to run into a tank under the mixing rooms. This tank is 80 feet long, 46 feet wide, and 21 feet below the floor line at the west end and 23 feet at the east end. In the north-east corner is a low-pressure sludge-ram, capable of holding 1,800 gallons, through which the sludge is raised by compressed air into two mixers in the lime room. Here hot lime is added to facilitate the pressing.

In the low floor of the sludge-receiving room are four high-pressure rams, each holding 900 gallons. The sludge runs from the mixers by gravitation through a 6-inch cast-iron pipe into these rams, whence it is raised by compressed air at 100 lbs. pressure per square inch into the presses. When the air has blown the sludge from the high-pressure rams, it is transferred into the large low-pressure ram in the north-east corner of the sludge tank, thereby effecting a saving of 80 per cent. of compressed air, by raising sufficient sludge into the mixers for recharging the high-pressure rams again. The compressed air is supplied by two high-pressure engines to the north of the rams.

In the press room on the top floor are seven sludge-presses, each when charged holding 25 cwts. of pressed sludge-cake, which is dropped through shoots in the floor into railway wagons underneath. The sludge, street sweepings, and ashpit ashes are mixed together and sold for manure. On this floor is also a large cast-iron sludge-tank, into which crude sludge can be raised, for the purpose of mixing with very dry ashes without putting it through the presses.

In the boiler shed are six Lancashire boilers, 28 feet long by 7 feet diameter, working at a pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch. The fuel used is the coke from the filtration beds, when it has become too dirty for filtering any longer. At the north end of the shed is a Babcock and Wilcox economiser, through which the feed-water is pumped into the boilers at 200'; and north of the engine-room is a workshop for repairs.

In each section of the works, eastern and western, there are twelve precipitation tanks, each holding 81,000 gallons; they are worked on the intermittent system; and each can be charged in seven minute. Precipitation takes place iu forty-five minutes; then floating aims are lowered to draw off the clearer water, which passes across aerating beds. These tanks can be worked on the continuous system, which however has the disadvantage of allowing the sludge to accumulate, and the effluent can never be so clear; whereas by the intermittent plan, sludge cake can be formed within five hours after the sludge has left the main sewer.

The filtering beds are twenty downward coke filters, each 40 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 31 feet deep, through which the water passes and rises in a 3-feet open channel. It again passes down through forty sand filters, each 40 feet by 38 feet and 21 feet deep. When the sand becomes dirty on the top, it is washed and used over and over again. Finally the effluent water passes into the river Clyde. The works at present constructed can deal with ten million gallons of sewage a day, or about one-fifth of that from the entire city; and they can be extended to treat twice the quantity. The buildings, tanks, and filtering beds cover 19 acres, and 9 acres more remain available. The land cost £38,000, and the buildings, tanks, and machinery £67,000. The manager is Mr. Thomas Melvin. The number of men employed is fifty, of whom the majority are on eight-hour shifts, as the work has to go on continuously.

St. Rollox Works

CALEDONIAN RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, ST. ROLLOX.
St. Rollox Works

These works occupy about 23 acres, the buildings alone covering about 12 acres. They were entirely reconstructed about ten years ago, for building and repairing all descriptions of railway rolling stock, care being taken to minimise manual labour in every detail.

The crude metal and rough timber enter the works at opposite sides, and passing straight on through the various processes of modelling and finishing, meet in the erecting shops, to form locomotives, carriages, and wagons. The machinery and tools are all of the newest and most approved kind. In the foundry are number of moulding machines, one of which is capable of moulding 250 bushes for axle-boxes per day; they were constructed in the works, and are worked and cleaned by pressure of air supplied by Westinghouse pump.

The locomotive erecting shop is capable of holding 80 engines and 15 tenders, and is fitted with six 30-ton overhead cranes, driven by rope gearing. In the wheel shop are two 5-ton overhead travellers; and a cylinder borer, which bores the stuffing-boxes for piston-rod and valve-spindle at the same setting and time. The lathes are so arranged that they can be run at mean speed, cones being done away with; and each is fed by a small hydraulic crane. The tools are driven from the main shafting, resulting not only in great saving of time, but in keeping each tool at regular work all the year round. The slowest rate of cutting in wheel-turning is about 19 feet a minute. The shafting is of the roll kind, fitted with spherical bearings. Another feature is a frame slotter, which slots six engine- frames at once; it has a 34 feet bed with 4 feet space between uprights, 13 inches stroke, and four heads, and was made by Messrs. Smith, Beacock, and Tannett, Leeds.

In the turning, machine, and fitting shop the tools are adapted to the lighter nature of the work. Amongst them are bush-bossing machines, by which one man can turn out on an average 280 bushes a day; two American turret or capstan lathes containing half-a-dozen chucks for special operations; and brass-milling machines designed and built in the works. Link belting and rope gearing are used here.

The smithy and forge contain a hundred fires, blown by a Root's blower of the largest size, nineteen steam-hammers ranging from 15 cwts. to 3 tons, heavy shears cutting up to 6 inches square, and machines for nut, bolt, and rivet making. Hydraulic power is used all over the works at pressures of from 800 lbs. up to 1,000 tons per square inch. A machine for bending wagon-wheel spokes is of ingenious construction, and admirably adapted for the purpose.

The rolling stock comprises 713 engines, 1,830 carriages, and 53,480 wagons. The gross number of engines built, rebuilt, renewed, and repaired annually is over 900, carriages over 6,000, and wagons over 63,000. The locomotive superintendent is Mr. John F. M'Intosh.

Upwards of 2,500 men are employed in the works, and nearly an equal number in the running department.

Dubs and Co

DUBS AND CO., GLASGOW LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
Dubs and Co

These works, which were built by the late Mr. Henry Dubs in 1863, are situated in the south-eastern district of the city. They have a frontage of 1,300 feet to Aitkenhead Road, and a frontage of almost equal extent to the main line of the Caledonian Railway, with which they are connected by sidings. Even when first built they were of considerable magnitude, covering about 8i acres; and they were carefully designed by Mr. Dubs with a view to the extensions since made, which have increased their area to between 11 and 12 acres. When working under pressure they are capable of turning out nearly 200 locomotives a year.

The offices are of unusual magnitude, and full provision has been made for the clerical and draining-office staff. All the departments are lighted by electricity. The drawing-office is about 120 feet long by about 40 feet broad, and has separate desks or tables ranged on each side, while along the centre runs a broad counter fitted with drawers containing the original drawings of the engines and tenders which are in progress in the works. At the extreme end is a highly finished slide-valve motion metal-frame, where the valve-gear of all classes of engines is tried, the proper angle for eccentric-pulleys and the length of eccentric-rods and valve-rods &c. are ascertained, and the valves are accurately set. Above the drawing-office is the tracing department, where a number of young ladies are engaged in making tracings from the original drawings for use in the shops. There is also on this floor a well-equipped photographing room, where prints are taken off the drawings.

Immediately under the drawing-office on the ground floor is the locomotive store, where all the materials used are kept; forgings from the smithy, and iron and brass castings from the foundry are sent here, weighed by the store keeper, and put on shelves till wanted in the machine-shop; whence they are returned to the store, and kept until required in the erecting shop.

In the forge the largest steam-hammer is principally used for stamping wrought-iron wheel-cranks, balance weights, wrought-iron axle-boxes, &c.; and under the same hammer all coupling and connecting-rods and other heavy details are forged. There are a number of smaller hammers for lighter work; and a special hammer having its standards wide enough apart for bossing the largest sizes of wrought-iron wheels. The wheels are heated in a specially prepared fire to heat the centre only, while the washers to form the boss are heated in an adjoining furnace to a soft welding heat, and are then welded, one on each side, under the steam-hammer. In the smithy are the usual small hammers, a Ryder forging-machine, and two pairs of steam-strikers, where bolts, washers, nuts, and tube-ferrules are made.

In the boiler shop are two 10-ton travelling cranes, and two hydraulic jib-cranes for serving the stationary hydraulic riveting machines. The largest riveter has a gap of 12 feet, and is capable of riveting up an entire locomotive-boiler and fire-box. There is also a set of 10-foot vertical-rolls for bending the barrel plates of boilers; and immediately adjoining is a large boiler-shell drilling- machine, having six radial arms and drilling heads, three on each side, specially designed to drill all holes in position, thus doing away with the necessity of the holes being rimered when plates are drilled separately. A number of tacking holes are drilled while putting the boiler together, then temporary brackets with pivot ends are attached to each end, and the boiler is placed in bearings on a trolly and run under the machine, and all the holes in the upper half are drilled; the boiler is then turned half-way round, and the other half drilled, the whole boiler being thus drilled complete with only one shifting (Proceedings 1894, page 521). There is also a quadruple fire-box side-tapping machine, with which the four sides of a locomotive fire-box are tapped at one time, a copious supply of lubricant under pressure being supplied to keep the taps cool. There are also portable hydraulic-riveting machines, and a special machine for riveting fire-doors and fire-box foundation-rings. Attached to this department is a large hydraulic flanging press, for which the power is supplied' from an accumulator at a pressure of 1,500 lbs. per square inch.

In the foundry is a 15-ton travelling crane, and two 3-ton hydraulic jib-cranes; and two cupolas, each capable of melting 9 tons of metal per hour. There are also three large core-drying stoves. Outside is a 5-ton hydraulic crane, round which the moulding boxes are laid when not in use; when wanted they are lifted upon a trolly wagon by the crane, and run into the foundry.

In the erecting-shop are three 20-ton travelling cranes, worked by rope and friction gear, and running the whole length of the shop. In the next bay, which is used as a tender and boiler-mounting shop, there is a portable drilling machine for drilling the holes for studs, &c., for fixing the boiler mountings. A slide is fixed on the side of the boiler, to which is attached an arm with drilling-head worked by rope gear, whereby all the holes in the boiler can be drilled. Under the same roof is the machine shop, in which the first bay is wholly occupied by machines and lathes for dealing with the frame-plates and wheels.

The machines for planing, drilling, and slotting frames are all of Whitworth make, and the great bulk of the tools in this department are from the same firm. There is here a quartering machine, designed by the late Mr. Dabs, and made in the works; in this the holes in the crank bosses of the pair of wheels for receiving the crank-pins are bored to the exact throw of crank wanted, while the crank-pins when in the wheels can also be trued up in the machine, making them exactly at right angles to one another.

Adjoining are two large Whitworth lathes, and a facing lathe for boring tires dc., having a chuck 11 feet diameter; and a hydraulic wheel-press worked at a pressure of about 10 tons per inch of diameter of axle. In the next bay are three mills for boring and facing locomotive cylinders; special axle-lathes, having combined slide-rests for turning both ends of the axle at one time; a number of planing machines with Whitworth reversible tool-holders; and a lapping machine designed by the late Mr. Dabs, on which case-hardened slide-bars, wrought-iron case-hardened axle-boxes, and other flat parts are lapped up to a true surface. There are also heavy planing machines for planing cylinders, cast-iron foot-plates, and similar work.

In the next bay the machines and lathes are of a lighter kind, and are used for machining and turning valve-motion details, pins, &c. On one of the shaping machines a special head is fixed for circular shaping, also designed by the late Mr. Dubs, having a ball joint connecting-rod, whereby the fillets of the ends of coupling and connecting-rods can be shaped to the radius of the end of the rod. In the next bay is the grinding and polishing shop, where all parts of the valve-motion are polished on emery wheels after being case-hardened. Here also are the tables for marking off the work for the machines; and the brass finishing shop, in which are also machines for milling flats and edges of .coupling and connecting-rods; and a 30-ton Buckton testing machine.

In the yard is a 4-ton steam-crane, within the range of which is a gas furnace, where the tires are heated and expanded for shrinking upon the wheels. At work in the yard is a combined locomotive engine and crane, designed by the late Mr. Dubs and made in the works; large numbers have been made in various sizes, the heaviest for lifting and handling up to 7 tons. All the operations of slewing, hoisting, and working the engine are manipulated by the driver from the foot-plate. The number of men employed is at present over 1,700.

Neilson and Co

NEILSON AND CO., HYDE PARK LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, SPRINGBURN.
Neilson and Co

This firm was founded in 1837. The works were originally situated in Hyde Park Street, close to the harbour; and were removed in 1862 to their present situation in Springburn. At that time the partners were the late Mr. W. Montgomerie Neilson and Mr. Henry Dubs; and when at the end of 1863 the latter withdrew from the firm to establish works of his own, Mr. James Reid became a partner, and continued in the management till the retirement of Mr. Neilson in 1878. From that time till his death in 1894, Mr. Reid remained at the head of the business, being sole proprietor till 1st January 1893, when his four sons became his partners.

Since the removal to Springburn the business has steadily grown. In 1865 about 1,000 men were employed, and the output was 82 engines; the present establishment when fully equipped employs over 2,500 men, and turns out more than 200 main-line engines a year; it is thus the largest of the kind in Great Britain.

The new offices built in 1887, comprising the commercial and drawing departments, are the latest addition to the works, and are a model of convenience. The other various departments are arranged with a view to the regular sequence of work being followed throughout. The pattern shop leads to the brass and iron foundries and coppersmiths' shop, the template shop, and the boiler and tender shops, parallel to which are the smithy and forge. The boiler shop contains a hydraulic flanging press for locomotive plates, special machines for drilling boilers together and apart, hydraulic riveter, &c.

In another large block of buildings, opposite to the boiler shop and smithy, and parallel to one another, are the grinding, finishing, turning, machine, wheel and frame, and boiler-mounting shops, finishing with the erecting shop, the focus of the work from all the other departments. A spacious steaming shed serves to relieve the erecting shop after the engines have been put together, and enables work to be stored if there is any delay between completion and shipment. The packing and painting shops complete the works.

The locomotives made here are of all classes, and examples of them are to be found on almost all railways. The total output to the present time amounts to nearly 5,000 engines, which, if placed end to end, would extend over thirty miles.

Cowlairs Works

NORTH BRITISH RAILWAY WORKS, COWLAIRS.
Cowlairs Works

These works occupy about 25 acres, and are used for building and repairing railway plant. Entering from Keppochhill Road is the timber yard where there is a 10-ton steam travelling-crane, having a span of 20 yards, and a longitudinal travel of 72 yards. The wagons run beneath, so that loading and unloading can be done with the utmost facility. On one side of the yard is the wood-drying shed; and close by is the fire station, where two manual fire-engines and all necessary fire-extinguishing appliances are kept.

Across the yard is the foundry, where all iron castings are made for the locomotive department, and a large quantity of special castings for the permanent way. In the same building are the pattern shop and the brass foundry. The general store is a few yards distant, and the wheel-turning shop is close by. Alongside is the carriage and wagon fitting shop. Across the passage is the carriage wood-wheel making shop, where the wheels are finished and balanced. The forge and smithy are opposite. In this department are seventeen steam-hammers ranging from 5 tons to 5 cwts., seventy smiths' fires, and seven forgers' furnaces. Above the latter are placed horizontal boilers, and the waste heat and gases are utilised by being passed through them. A large hydraulic stamping press and a number of small hydraulic machines are also here.

On the way from the smithy to the principal machine-shop are the spring-smiths' and grinding shops. The machine-shop is fitted with all necessary appliances for machining the rough material before it is passed on to the fitting and erecting departments; the motive power for working the machinery is obtained from a double-acting horizontal engine. Adjoining is the boiler shop, which contains straightening and bending rolls, planing, punching, shearing, and drilling machines, hydraulic riveters, and a plate- flanging machine. In another part of this building the tender tanks are made. The running shod comes next, and in front of this are kept the accident crane, tool van, and snow ploughs.

The erecting shop is built in three bays with three lines of rails and two 30-ton overhead power travelling-cranes in each bay. Sixty engines and twelve tenders can be dealt with at once in this shop. Conveniently placed in the yard outside is the weighing shed, where all engines and tenders on leaving the erecting shop are weighed, and the weight on each wheel accurately recorded.

Adjoining the erecting shop is the brake-fitting shop. Separated from the erecting shop by a line of rails is the wagon shop, where wagons are built and repaired. Under the same roof is the saw mill, which is fitted with all kinds of modern wood-working machinery.

The carriage shop is one long shop divided, one part being used for building carriages, the other for repairing. The paint shop is close by, where engines and carriages are painted; paints are ground by machinery and prepared for use in the paint store, which is at the end of the shop. The cabinet shop comes next, in which all carriage internal fittings are finished. In the trimming shop upstairs all upholstery work is prepared for the carriages, and the necessary belting for the works. The tin and coppersmiths' shops are close to the principal machine-shop.

The offices are also in this part of the works close to the railway. and comprise the locomotive superintendent's, drawing, running. general, and works-manager's offices. Throughout the works narrow- gauge tramways are laid, over which trolleys convey material between the various departments.

The rolling stock consists of 701 engines, 2,755 coaching vehicles, and 51,666 wagons and trucks. The locomotive, carriage, and wagon superintendent is Mr. Matthew Holmes.

The number of men employed is 2,112.

Sharp, Stewart and Co

SHARP, STEWART, AND CO., ATLAS WORKS, SPRINGBURN.
Sharp, Stewart and Co

These works, situated close to the Barnhill station of the Glasgow City Union Railway, were originally built by the Clyde Locomotive Co. in 1884, and were occupied by them until their amalgamation with Messrs. Sharp, Stewart, and Co., who then removed their locomotive and machine-tool business from Manchester to Springburn. They have since been considerably extended.

The offices are situated near the eastern angle of the ground; and extending from them round the angle and along the north-east side come the pattern store, pattern and joiners' shops, brass foundry. iron foundry, forge and smithy. The iron foundry contains overhead rope travelling-crane and hydraulic cranes. Beyond the forge, in the northern angle, is a vacant piece of ground, available for future extension.

Leading from the smithy and foundry is a narrow-gauge tramway, passing through the stores, which stretch parallel with the smithy towards the centre of the ground; it is so arranged that the rough material can be brought into the drawing-in department, and thence into the main machinery building. Under the same roof as the drawing-in shop are the brass-finishing and grinding shops; and immediately adjoining these is the main building, consisting of six bays, and occupying the whole of the south-western portion of the works.

The first two bays are shorter than the others, and form, with the first of the long bays, the fitting shop and light-tool shop. The other three long bays form the heavy-tool shop, the boiler-mounting and frame-fitting shop, and the erecting shop. The total width of the six bays is 280 feet, and the average length of the long bays is about 400 feet. The narrow-gauge tramway traverses the different departments; and the larger bays are served by rope-driven overhead- cranes, of which there are two in the erecting shop, and by a travelling jib-crane. Hydraulic jib-cranes are also placed in other convenient positions throughout the works, especially in the erecting shop and cylinder-fitting shop.

At the other side of the yard, opposite the end of the erecting shop, is the paint and packing shop, occupying the southern angle; and in the middle of the south-eastern side is the boiler and tender shop, consisting of four bays, 150 feet long and together 160 feet wide. This shop is fitted up with the most approved modern machinery, including special drilling machines and hydraulic riveters. Each of the two principal bays contains an overhead rope travelling-crane, and various hydraulic cranes are placed in convenient positions. Parallel with the boiler shop, and lying towards the centre of the works, is the furnace and flanging shed, with the necessary plate-furnaces and a hydraulic flanging press. Parallel again with this are the main boiler-house, case-hardening furnaces, annealing furnace, and coppersmiths' shop.

The power throughout is supplied by special vertical wall-engines placed outside the buildings, one at the end of each bay containing machinery. The works are lighted throughout by gas, special lamps being employed in the erecting and boiler shops.

The machine-tool shop lies on the north-western side of the works, close to the stores and main machinery building. It consists of three bays, a large one in the middle with a small one on either side. The centre bay is served by a 25-ton overhead travelling-crane, and at one side is a 5-ton rope travelling jib-crane. The shop is arranged for dealing with all classes of work, up to the heaviest tools required in connection with marine and ordnance work.

The locomotive department is capable of turning out 150 engines a year. The number of men employed is about 1,800.

Alley and MacLellan

ALLEY AND MACLELLAN, SENTINEL WORKS, POLMADIE ROAD.
Alley and MacLellan

These works consist of a foundry, engineering shops, and shipbuilding yard. All the ships built here are erected in the yard, and are then taken to pieces for erection abroad. The special work produced comprises steering gears, high-speed engines for electric lighting, warping capstans, ash and coal hoists, marine engines up to 1,000 I.H.P., feed-water filtering apparatus, light-draught steamers and their machinery, valves for water works, and valves and fittings for steam boilers.

The number of men employed is from 600 to 800.

Barclay, Curle and Co

BARCLAY, CURLE, AND CO., SHIPBUILDING YARD AND ENGINEERING WORKS.
Barclay, Curle and Co

This firm of shipbuilders and engineers is the oldest established on the upper reaches of the Clyde, having been founded by Mr. R. Barclay at Finnieston in 1818.

With the extension of their business in 1855 they removed part of their works to the present ship-yard of Clydeholm at Whiteinch; and in 1874, owing to the Glasgow dock extension necessitating their removal from Stobcross, the Clydeholm yard was increased and the whole of the shipbuilding plant removed to the present works. These are commodious and complete in every respect for the efficient and speedy construction of vessels of all sizes and descriptions. They occupy an area of over 13 acres, with about 1,000 feet of river frontage; and comprise eight launching berths, capable of laying down vessels up to 550 feet long.

The buildings are all comparatively modern; the saw mill and joiners' shop with mould loft are perhaps the most commodious of the kind on the Clyde; while the smithy is 200 feet long, including finishing shop and all necessary appliances for heavy forging work. Besides work for the government, the firm have constructed a number of ocean passenger liners, cargo steamers, steam tugs, and steam yachts; and have long been noted for the beautiful models of their sailing ships, and for the success of the light-draught fast passenger paddle-steamers built by them. The latest vessel is the 404th, and the work at present in hand comprises several cargo steamers, one sailing vessel, and a largo steamer of 8,000 tons dead-weight, constructed for carrying frozen meat in cool chambers from New Zealand to this country.

Previous to 1857 the works were only for shipbuilding; but in that year the firm commenced to make engines, not only for ships built by themselves, but for those constructed by others. From 1857 to 1861 the engineering department was carried on in a portion of the building yard at Clydeholm; but in the latter year pressure of work caused new and much larger premises to be secured at Finnieston Quay, where many marine engines of all kinds and sizes were made. In 1894, owing to the construction of the Harbour Tunnel, a removal took place to the present sites, the engine works to 36 Finnieston Street, and the boiler works to 90 Kelvinhaugh Street.

Entering at Finnieston Street, on the right are the general store, counting house, and drawing offices. On the left is the erecting shop, 160 feet long by 60 feet wide, with a 40-ton overhead travelling-crane; the roof is high enough to allow for the erection of long-stroke vertical engines; on the south side is a gallery 15 feet wide, running all the length; this being furnished with vices and benches forms an excellent and well-lighted finishing shop.

Further on are the main and auxiliary smiths' shops, with air- furnace, steam-hammers, and other accessories. Right across the yard in front of the entrance are the large turning and machine shops, together forming a building 260 feet long, which has three spans in width, one 32, one 40, and one 25 feet wide. Each of these divisions is supplied with overhead travelling-cranes, so that every portion of floor space can be utilized. Both large and small machines of the most modern kind have been introduced, in order that engines of all sizes, for screw or paddle, pinnace or ironclad, may be economically constructed.

The boiler works are situated seven minutes' walk from the engine works. They have a street frontage of 180 feet and extend inwards 245 feet, with cast-iron pillars supporting the roofs in the interior. On entering, to the left are the offices, rolling, welding, and smiths' shops; also large plate-furnace and heavy riveting-machine shop, which is 46 feet wide and is fitted with overhead travelling-crane. Further on is the flanging shop, with all the necessary hydraulic appliances for flanging boiler-ends, furnace mouths, tube plates, and combustion-chamber plates.

To the right are two shops, each having a span of 46 feet, in which the boiler plates are planed, drilled, riveted, and erected. Hers also the machines are numerous and of the most modern kind, and capable of turning out a large number of boilers annually.

Behind the boiler works are the ship repairing works, which are entered from Kelvinhaugh Road. These premises are well arranged, having been recently built to meet the requirements of the repairing business. All kinds of ship work are done here, iron, smith's, carpentry, and joiner work; spars and masts, either of iron, steel, or wood, are constantly under construction; and owing to the works being situated close to the Govan graving docks, many vessels of all sizes and nationalities are docked and painted by the firm. In busy times about 2,000 men are employed in the shipbuilding and engineering departments together.

James Dunlop and Co

JAMES DUNLOP AND CO., CLYDE IRON WORKS, TOLLCROSS.
James Dunlop and Co

These are almost the oldest iron works in Scotland, and are famous in connection with the researches and discoveries of David Mushet and James Beaumont Neilson (Proceedings 1859, pages 98-108; 1860, pages 65-8). David Mushet joined the staff as accountant in 1791; and during the time he remained in that position he made a large number of experiments in assaying, roasting, and cementing iron ores, de-carbonising cast-iron for the production of steel and bar iron, and various other operations. He was the discoverer of the following processes: the preparation of steel from bar iron by a direct method, combining the iron with carbon; the beneficial effects of oxide of manganese on iron and steel; and the application of the hot-blast to anthracite coal in iron smelting. In 1799 he discovered titanium, upon which his son has founded the titanium process.

When J. B. Neilson first proposed the hot-blast in 1825, the idea was ridiculed by almost all the ironmasters in Scotland, none of whom could be induced to try it on their furnaces, until at length he persuaded Mr. Charles McIntosh of Crossbasket and Mr. Colin Dunlop of these works to allow a trial of his process to be made on one of their furnaces. After experimenting here for some years, the idea was matured into a definite and practical form, and its value for iron-making was at once admitted.

At present there are four blast-furnaces in operation here; the brands of pig-iron made are "Clyde," "Monkland," and "Clyde Hematite." The furnaces receive blast from a blowing engine, with two steam- cylinders 50 inches diameter, and two air-cylinders 100 inches diameter by 9 feet stroke, connected by massive walking beams. There is also an auxiliary blast-engine of smaller dimensions, kept in reserve. Instead of the waste gases from the blast-furnaces being used at once as gaseous fuel, they are passed through ammonia apparatus, in which sulphate of ammonia, oils, tar, and pitch are produced. The gases are drawn through by four Root's exhausters; and after being washed, cooled, and deprived of their tar and ammoniacal products, are then passed on for utilization as fuel. A portion of the gas is used for raising steam in the boilers supplying the engine in connection with the hoists, blowers, and exhausters; while another portion is used in regenerative hot-blast stoves. The workshops comprise joiners', engineers', and blacksmiths' shops, and a foundry in which castings are produced both for use in the works and also for outside supply.

The number of men employed is 300.

D. and W. Henderson and Co

DAVID AND WILLIAM HENDERSON AND CO., PARTICK AND FINNIESTON.
D. and W. Henderson and Co

The shipbuilding yard and engineering works are separated, the former being situated at Partick, and the latter higher up the river at Finnieston. The ship yard is one of the oldest on the river, and has in every way kept pace with the times. It was first occupied about 1840 by Messrs. Tod and McGregor, and from its slips were launched many of the finest vessels of their day, including the earlier steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental and Inman lines.

The present firm took possession in 1873, and the establishment has gone on increasing, until at present the shipbuilding yard covers an area of about 25 acres. In the model room is a large collection of models, ranging from the vessels just mentioned down to modern steamers and sailing ships, and including those of the many famous racing yachts here built, among which are the "Thistle," "Britannia," and "Valkyrie." Each of the various buildings in the yard is devoted to the work of a separate department, including the saw mill, carpenters', joiners', smiths', plumbers', painters', tinsmiths', and riggers' shops, and the iron-working sheds.

The yard is bounded on the east by the river Kelvin, where the vessels lie while they are being completed. At this part of the yard there is a hydraulic slip where vessels up to 1,000 tons are docked for painting and repairs. The main portion of this work is executed in the large graving dock situated in the middle of the yard, adjacent to all the principal departments. This dock is 500 feet long, and is capable of accommodating vessels of nearly 6,000 tons. Its proximity to the machines and other conveniences of a ship yard renders it very serviceable in the execution of extensive repairs.

The engineering works at Finnieston are extensive and convenient, being situated on the river side and immediately adjacent to the Clyde Trustees' 130-ton crane for shipping heavy machinery. Besides the engineering, smiths', pattern, and boiler shops, they contain an iron and brass foundry, and finishing shops, copper and plumber shops, and a forge. The advantage of having all these departments under one control is great in connection with the extensive repairing work here executed.

The number of men employed in the shipbuilding yard and the engineering works together is 3,200.

New Howe Machine Co

NEW HOWE MACHINE CO., BRIDGETON.
New Howe Machine Co

The buildings, which were originally erected by the Howe Sewing-Machine Co., cover an area of 6,500 square feet. The main building is five storeys high, and is equipped with machinery for the manufacture of cycles. On the ground floor are the tool shop, and press room with nine power-presses for punching and pressing from the sheet, the smithy with one 10-cwt. drop-hammer, seven at 3 cwts., and one 30-cwt. steam-hammer, and the various trimming machines for making drop forgings; this class of work is also done for other trades.

On the ground floor is also the foundry, where castings are made in steel, cast-iron, cast-malleable, brass, and aluminium. Here also are the case-hardening, brazing, and enamelling shops. The power for the machine shops is derived from a pair of horizontal Corliss engines, having 24-inch cylinders and 4 feet stroke, and supplied with steam at 70 lbs. pressure per square inch from three Lancashire boilers. The plating shop is also on the ground floor, with plating vats for copper and nickel.

On the first and second floors are the frame and wheel builders, tire department, ornamenting room, and the buffing department for preparing the various parts for polishing and nickel plating.

The third and fourth floors are utilised as machining shops, where the component parts are turned, bored, and milled, each part being done in jigs or fixtures to ensure perfect interchangeability. Chain and tooth wheels are cut by automatic milling-machines. On these floors are also monitors for making screws, studs, balls, &c., turret lathes for the manufacture of the larger parts from the bar, and machinery for turning out the chains.

The stores for all finished and partly finished parts are on the third floor, whence they can conveniently be despatched quickly to every portion of the factory. The works are capable of tensing out 500 cycles a week, besides castings, forgings, and pressed work for all trades.

Neilson and Co

HYDE PARK FOUNDRY CO., FINNIESTON STREET.
Neilson and Co

This foundry was built more than fifty years ago, and is chiefly engaged in the manufacture of iron castings for marine engines up to the heaviest class. Here have been cast the cylinders and other heavy castings for the engines of many of the most celebrated steamers and war-ships. Among the latest are those for the engines of the "Terrible," "Jupiter," and "Mars," building at Clydebank and Birkenhead; and the low-pressure cylinders, 35 tons each, for the Queenborough and Flushing mail steamers building at the Fairfield Co.'s yard.

The works cover over two acres, and when fully occupied employ about 400 men. The ground and buildings belong to the trustees of the late Mr. W. Montgomerie Neilson, who was senior partner of the firm until his death in 1889.

The sole partner is now Mr. Alexander Wilson, and associated with him in the management are Mr. Thomas C. Campbell and Mr. Thomas Downie.

A. and J. Inglis

A. AND J. INGLIS, POINT HOUSE SHIP-YARD.
A. and J. Inglis

The engine works, known as Whitehall Foundry, situated between Warroch Street and Whitehall Street and having entrances in both, were established in 1847; the original workshop about 40 feet square is still in use. The principal machine-shop and fitting shop were added in 1869.

About twenty years ago the boiler work was removed to Point House, where commodious new shops were erected; this was the first step towards the removal of the whole works to the neighbourhood of the ship-yard. The latter was opened in 1862, and since then has bees extended, and most of the workshops have been rebuilt. It is well equipped with modern shipyard tools, and though small in extent is capable of turning out considerable tonnage.

In 1867 a powerful slip-dock was added; and a large repairing business is carried on in the dock and at the wharves. The river Kelvin having been dredged at its mouth serves to berth large vessels. The yard has also railway communication with the North British and Caledonian lines.

The number of men employed is about 2,000 in busy times.

Mavor and Coulson

MAVOR, AND COULSON, ELECTRIC WORKS, BRIDGETON CROSS.
Mavor and Coulson

These works are entirely occupied in the production of dynamos, motors, and other electric apparatus for lighting and transmission of power. A special feature is the manufacture of appliances for concentric wiring, in which the whole of the conductors, switches, and other parts of the apparatus are throughout enclosed in a continuous metallic envelope. Another feature is the application of electricity to mining work. Special machinery has been designed, including a mining motor entirely enclosed in a steel shell, which affords perfect protection from gas, water, or falls from the roof of the mine, while, owing to the adoption of the Sayers plan, which allows of the lightest possible field-magnets being used, the whole is not heavier than open machines of the ordinary kind.

About 100 men are employed, and owing to the increase of business new works are about to be built.

McDowall Steven and Co

McDOWALL, STEVEN, AND CO., MILTON IRON WORKS.
McDowall Steven and Co

These works were established in 1834 by Mr. John McDowall, who took into partnership in 1852 his nephew, Sir. Thomas Steven, and a few years later two other nephews. They occupy more than nine acres, which are almost covered with buildings, including stores, forges, moulding shops, furnaces, ovens, grinding and finishing shops. A large business is done in sanitary, architectural, and general constructional iron-work such as kitchen-ranges, of which alone the production in 1887 exceeded 10,000; rain-water pipes and connections, hot-water pipes, stable fittings, balcony railings, verandahs, and numerous other kinds of cast-iron work.

Nearly 100 tons of metal are melted daily; and the number of men employed is about 1,000.

A large amount of work is supplied to the War, India, and Prisons departments, the Admiralty, and other public bodies, and to many of the principal railways.

McOnie Harvey and Co

McONIE, HARVEY, AND CO., SCOTLAND STREET ENGINE WORKS.
McOnie Harvey and Co

These works are situated on the north and south sides of Scotland Street. The business was started by the late Sir William McOnie and his brother Mr. Peter McOnie in 1839 for the manufacture of sugar machinery; and in 1888 they were joined by Mr. Robert Harvey.

The works on the north side of the street comprise erecting, machine, pattern, smiths', joiners' shops, brass foundry, and brass-finishing shop; also the offices and drawing office. There are four travelling-cranes driven by power from the main engine; two are in the erecting shop and two in the machine shop.

On the south side is an additional and larger erecting shop, containing a powerful strain travelling-crane to lift 30 tons, also a large lathe, and planing and boring machines; the heavy sugar mills are erected here. At right angles to the erecting shop is the boiler shop, fitted with the necessary planing, boring, and flanging machinery, and with hydraulic power for cranes and riveting machines. The special machinery made in these works is for the production of sugar from the cane, and for sugar refining.

The number of men employed is about 300.

Mechan and Sons

MECHAN AND SONS, NEPTUNE WORKS, CRANSTONHILL.
Mechan and Sons

These works are occupied chiefly in the construction of riveted steel pipes for water mains, sewerage, gas, and irrigation, water tanks, and general structural ironwork of a lighter kind. Hydraulic presses for stamping, forging, and flanging, play an important part in the operations.

The largest horizontal milling-machine in Scotland is in use here; and the Haythorn water-tube boiler, constructed in the works, can be seen under steam.

The number of men employed is 600.

Muir and Houston

MUIR AND HOUSTON, HARBOUR ENGINE WORKS, KINNING PARK.
Muir and Houston

These works were established in 1874, and at that time employed about 100 men; since then the number has increased to 350. The special work here produced consists of marine screw-engines of the smaller sizes from 20 to 300 nominal horse-power, and marine boilers up to the largest sizes.

Napier Brothers

NAPIER BROTHERS, WINDLASS ENGINE WORKS.
Napier Brothers

This firm occupies the premises in Hyde Park Street which were formerly the Hyde Park locomotive works of Messrs. Neilson and Co., who removed in 1862 to larger works at Springburn. The buildings were then modified for the manufacture of windlasses, capstans, and steering gear; and the numerous inventions developed under the mechanical skill of the late Messrs. Robert and John D. Napier have brought the works into the front rank for the production of this class of gear.

The conduct of the business for some years past has been in the hands of Mr. T. M. Grant as managing director, and Mr. Alexander Kelly who was partner with Messrs. Napier in the old firm. Having fitted the 3-inch cable gear on board the "Campania" and "Lucania," which is the largest of its kind in the world, they have now in hand the windlass and capstan gear for the "Powerful" and "Terrible" and nine other ships of the royal navy, besides work for the mercantile marine. Special machinery is used for cutting the teeth of large worm-wheels, spur and bevel wheels; and all the gears produced here are made with machine- cut wheels. Friction clutches, cat governors, silent winches, and travelling cranes also form part of the special work turned out. The number of men employed is 200.

Penman and Co

PENMAN AND CO., CALEDONIAN IRON WORKS.
Penman and Co

This firm commenced business about twenty-five years ago at works in Dalmarnock Road, which are now a branch establishment. The works visited are in Strathclyde Street, and were built in 1889, covering three acres of ground, and adjoining the Caledonian Railway, with which there is connection by a siding.

Of the various sheds the principal one is 420 feet long and 120 feet wide, and is built in three bays. In the centre bay is a 35-ton travelling crane made by Messrs. Henry Wren and Co., Manchester. In the south bay are three 4-ton Tangye travelling cranes. Here the material goes through the preliminary stages in boiler construction. The machinery comprises two powerful hydraulic riveting machines for the shell plates; another riveting machine of special design for the flues; three boiler-shell drilling machines, one of which is so arranged that five holes in the butt-straps can be drilled at the same time; two turning machines for boring out the flue-holes, and turning up the outer edges of end plates and angle rings; a powerful set of bending rolls; a plate-edge planing machine capable of taking in plates 30 feet long by 6.5 feet wide; two smaller machines for planing flue-plates and butt-straps; a corner-thinning machine; two powerful jib verticals; shearing machine, etc. Adjoining the south bay are the machine shop and smithy, in which there are a flue-flanging machine, flue-drilling and turning machines, steam- hammers, etc. Electric lighting is adopted throughout these works, which are fitted with every appliance for turning out boilers of the highest class. When fully employed the average output is four Lancashire boilers per week.

The number of hands is about 300.

David Rowan and Son

DAVID ROWAN AND SON, MARINE ENGINE AND BOILER WORKS.
David Rowan and Son

These works, which are situated in Elliot Street on the north side of the Clyde, were established by Mr. David Rowan in 1865. The trade carried on is the manufacture of marine engines and boilers of all types and sizes, together with the auxiliary machinery usual on board ship. The engine works proper consist of two bays running north and south. That on the west is the erecting shop, which is lighted from the roof and sides, and in it are placed the boring, drilling, tapping, and studding machines. The machine shop for heavy work occupies the ground floor of the east bay; and the first floor of the same wing serves as the machine shop for light work and the finishing shop, while the uppermost floor forms the pattern shop. Further east, and separated from the engine shop by the yard, is the smiths' shop, fitted with a forging furnace, eleven smiths', fires, and several steam-hammers.

On the southern boundary of the works is the boiler shop, which consists of two bays running east and west. In one of these are placed the smiths' fires, flanging hammers, etc.; and all the internal parts of the boilers are here put together. In the other and outer bay, the work of rolling and drilling the shell-plates, and of riveting and finishing the boilers is carried out.

The number of men employed is about 400.

Hugh Smith and Co

HUGH SMITH AND CO., FOSSIL ENGINE WORKS.
Hugh Smith and Co

These works were established in 1875.

The main shops extend to a length of about 230 feet by about 120 feet in width, and occupy the ground floor, being lighted from above. The travelling crane in the central building travels the entire length of the shop, covering an area of about 230 feet length by 40 feet width. The side shops, which are largely utilized for the lighter machine-tools, are also efficiently supplied with hydraulic and other cranes.

The main engineering shops are fire-proof; and standing apart from these are the pattern store and offices, which are separate buildings. The work carried on is the manufacture of machine-tools for boilermakers, shipbuilders, bridge-builders, and iron works generally.

A number of special machine-tools are made for flanging, bending, riveting plates, &c., in connection with shipbuilding and marine engineering; and hydraulic pumping-engines, accumulators, hydraulic machine-tools, and cranes, &e., are manufactured.

The number of men employed is about 150.

Steven and Struthers

STEVEN AND STRUTHERS, ANDERSTON BRASS FOUNDRY.
Steven and Struthers

These works, situated in Elliot Street, were established thirty-five years ago, and have been enlarged from time to time, until now they are capable of turning out 65 tons of brass castings per month, and single castings up to 20 tons, especially castings in phosphor-bronze for propellers, largo engine-castings, stems, steruposts, &c., for government cruisers. The machine-tools are specially adapted to the manufacture of all kinds of gun-metal fittings for engineers and boilermakers. Syrens, fog-signalling machinery, lanterns, revolving apparatus, and machinery for light-houses are also specialities of this firm.

The number of men employed is about 160.

Duncan Stewart and Co

D. STEWART AND CO., LONDON ROAD IRON WORKS, BRIDGETON.
Duncan Stewart and Co

These works were founded in 1864 by the present chairman of the company, and are situated at the east end of Glasgow. They were at first employed chiefly in the manufacture of machinery for calico dyeing, printing, and bleaching; but soon the making of sugar machinery was begun, which now constitutes a large part of the output. In addition to these are made engines and boilers of all kinds and sizes for land use. The manufacture of electric lighting machinery has also recently been taken up. Within the last three years the works have been greatly enlarged and re-arranged, and now cover an extensive area.

Upwards of 700 men are employed in the various departments, which comprise erecting, machine, and boiler shops, coppersmiths', brass-founders', iron-founders', and sheet-iron workers' shops.

John Ure and Sons

JOHN URE AND SON, REGENT FLOUR MILLS, SANDYFORD.
John Ure and Sons These mills have been working for about five and a half years, and have a capacity of fully 100 tons a day. The motive power is supplied by a compound tandem engine with cylinders 22 inches and 40 inches diameter and 5 feet stroke, running at 45 revolutions per minute, with a flywheel 225 feet diameter grooved for nineteen ropes and weighing about 36 tons; it is assisted by two turbines 39 inches and 45 inches diameter, with a 9-feet fall. These are coupled together in such a way that, when all the machinery is in motion, the full water-power available is taken from the two turbines, and the engine takes up the rest of the load. When the mill proper or the engine has to be stopped for any reason, the turbines are available for driving the dynamos and the receiving and delivering machinery.

The entire premises are lit by electricity, and are protected by automatic sprinklers, with the exception of the wheat and flour stores and the engine and turbine houses, which are fire-proof.

The mechanical arrangements are such that the wheat is not touched by hand from the time it is emptied out of the sacks from the lorries into hoppers in the courtyard, until it finds its way into other sacks ready to be weighed and sewed up as flour or offal in the flour store.

Notwithstanding the quantity turned out per day, the number of hands employed throughout the entire mills is only seventeen on each shift, exclusive of the few required for receiving wheat, delivering flour, and cleaning sacks, &c.

G. and J. Weir

GEORGE AND JAMES WEIR, HOLM FOUNDRY, CATHCART.
G. and J. Weir These works are situated on the river Cart at Cathcart, and were erected about nine years ago by the present proprietors. They comprise an iron foundry, brass foundry, pattern, machine, fitting, and erecting shops; also smithy and boiler shops, and adjuncts. They are devoted to the manufacture of feed-water heaters, feed pumps, evaporators, bilge pumps, and other marine auxiliary gear found in the leading mail and passenger steamships.

The iron foundry contains two cupolas on the Herbertz principle, in which the blast is supplied by a steam jet. The machine shops are equipped with the most modern machine-tools, many of them specially designed; among these may be noted boring machines with facing slides on the spindles, and dividing tables. There are also a variety of facing and screw-cutting lathes by different makers, a side planer, five boring and tapping machines; while in the gallery of the machine shop are to be found some good examples of brass-finishers' turret-lathes, and several lathes for making studs from the bar. In the boiler shop is a special flanging machine for the round plates which form the ends of the evaporators.

The works give employment to about 370 men, and are served throughout by travelling cranes and by a narrow-gauge shop-railway.

A new building to include general and drawing offices is now in course of erection, the present premises being found too small for the growing requirements.

James White and Co

JAMES WHITE, INSTRUMENT FACTORY, CAMBRIDGE STREET.
James White and Co This firm are manufacturers of optical, nautical, electrical, telegraphic, and surveying instruments, and give employment at present to over 200 operatives; the premises were enlarged some three years ago, when machinery of the latest improved kind was put in.

Among the special work here turned out may be mentioned the Kelvin standard balances, well known to electrical engineers for their high accuracy and constancy; the inspectional instruments used on the switchboards of central or other electric-lighting stations; the recording instruments; and electric-supply meters.

The Kelvin laboratory, which was added to the works on their extension, is fitted with all the instruments and appliances necessary for carrying on the standardizing department of the business. The Kelvin siphon recorders for submarine telegraphy are indispensable to the thorough equipment of cable stations; and the Kelvin navigational instruments, namely the mariner's compass and the sounding machine, have long been regarded as essential to the outfit of every ship, both in the naval and in the mercantile marine of the world. Here also are manufactured the Barr and Stroud range-finders.

The manufacture of surveying instruments is a branch of long standing, in which, besides the home trade, a considerable business is done with the colonies.

Anderson and Lyall

ANDERSON AND LYALL, CLYDESIDE ENGINE AND BOILER WORKS, WHITEFIELD, GOVAN.
Anderson and Lyall

These works, situated near the public graving dock at Govan, were erected in 1879, and cover three sides of a square, occupying with the intervening yard space an area of about two acres. The various sheds and buildings are designed upon the best modern principles, and are equipped with mechanical appliances of the most effective kind. The works are engaged principally in the construction of the larger sizes of marine boilers, and in repairing marine, land, and locomotive engines and boilers. Steam yachts, launches, barges, &c., are also built up to 100 feet in length.

The number of men employed is about 200.

Lindsay Burnet and Co

LINDSAY BURNET AND CO., MOORE PARK BOILER WORKS, GOVAN.
Lindsay Burnet and Co

These works were established in 1883 by the late Mr. Lindsay Burnet, for the production of high-class boiler-work. They are fitted with special tools of modern description, suitable for the manufacture of multi-tubular boilers of all kinds, for use on land and on steamers, yachts, and launches; and also for the construction of feed-heaters and evaporators. There is a railway siding into the works from the Glasgow and Paisley Joint lines, with branches running into the shops.

In 1887 Mr. Sinclair Couper became a partner in the firm, and now carries on the business since the death of Mr. Burnet early this year.

The number of men employed is 140.

Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co

FAIRFIELD SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING CO., GOVAN.
Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co

The commencement of this firm dates from 1834, when Mr. C. Randolph and Mr. R. S. Cunliff under the name of Randolph and Co. began business as millwrights, in works situated at Tradeston, then on the outskirts of Glasgow. This small concern has gradually developed into its present magnitude. The pay roll for the first year amounted to about £1,000, and is now about £400,000; the amount of business done thou was equal to £2,663, and now the work completed is valued at about a million and a half sterling; the number of men now employed is about 5,000. Three years after the commencement Mr. John Elliot joined the firm, which was then called Randolph, Elliot and Co.; but in 1841 he retired.

In 1852 Mr. John Elder became a partner, the style being changed to Randolph, Elder and Co., and the construction of marine engines was then commenced. Two years later boiler-making was added, and in 1860 shipbuilding followed, less attention being given to millwrights' work.

The first vessel constructed here was the Macgregor Laird, of 966 tons and 200 built for the African Royal Mail Co. The first four years' operations in shipbuilding were carried on in the yard now occupied by Messrs. Mackie and Thomson, Govan; but, owing to the increasing demands for space, the ground at Fairfield was acquired and laid oust in 1864. The first vessels built at Fairfield were four blockade runners for Messrs. A. Collie and Co., of London. Mr. Elder's great idea was to add to the efficiency of the marine engine by reducing friction of the parts, increasing the power, and at the same time decreasing the consumption of fuel. He applied the compound principle of expanding the steam in two cylinders.

In 1868 Messrs. Randolph and Cunliff retired from the firm, leaving Mr. Elder solo proprietor. On his death in 1869 the firm was reconstructed, and in 1878 Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Pearce became sole proprietor. From that time a great advance was made; boiler pressures had increased from 60 lbs: to 90 lbs. per square inch, coal consumption was reduced by nearly 30 per cent., and speed materially increased. The transatlantic service has always been regarded as indicating the progress made in shipbuilding, and in this contest the Fairfield Works have taken a prominent part. From the building of the Guion liner "Arizona" in 1879, they have never for any length of time held any other than the first place in speed across the Atlantic. The other vessels built here for the same line were the "Alaska," and "Oregon," the latter making the outward run in 6 days 10 hours 9 minutes. Their latest vessels built for the Cunard line, the "Campania" and "Lucania," have now reduced the out ward run to 5 days 7 hours 23 minutes and 5 days 8 hours 38 minutes homeward.

In 1885 Mr. Richard Barnwell became a partner with the late Sir William Pearce, and when the firm was transformed into a private company in 1886 he was appointed managing director; this position he continues to hold in the public company which was formed in 1889.

In addition to the Atlantic steamers built here, seventeen have been constructed for the North German Lloyd Co., of Bremen, and recently the twin-screw steamer "Normannia" for the Hamburg-American line. For the Orient line a number of splendid vessels have been built, including the "Orient," "Austral" and "Ormuz"; and most of those belonging to Sir Donald Currie's South African line, including the "Tantallon Castle," and the "Arundel Castle."

Several notable paddle-steamers have been constructed for the Isle of Man service from Liverpool, for the Channel service from Dover to Calais, including the "Calais-Douvres," for the Newhaven and Dieppe, the Ardrossan and Belfast, and the Queenborough and Flushing routes.

At present there arc three paddle-boats in course of construction for the night service of this last route, which will be considerably accelerated. Several yachts have been built here, notably the "Livadia" for the Emperor Nicholas of Russia from designs by Admiral Popoff; and three for the late Sir William Pearce, each named "Lady Torfrida." The total number of vessels constructed from 1870 to the end of 1894 was 237, their gross tonnage in the twenty-five years being over half a million.

Amongst the work now in construction here are the hulls and machinery of two second-class wood-sheathed protected cruisers " Venus " and "Diana" for the royal navy, each 5,600 tons displacement and 9,600 I.H.P.; also hulls and machinery of three torpedo-boat destroyers, "Handy," "Hart," and "Hunter," the speed of which is to be 27 knots; hulls and machinery of three fast paddle-steamers for the night service of the Queenborough and Flushing route, two screw-steamers for the China trade of the Scottish Oriental Steamship Co., a large mail steamer for the Australian service, and extensive overhaul to two steamers.

The new offices extend along the Govan and Renfrew Road, 335 feet westward from the main entrance to the yard, and are in the Italian style. The drawing offices are on the first floor, that of the shipbuilding department having a large model-room at its east end. On the second floor is a large space with glass roof fitted up for photographic purposes. At the east end of the buildings, adjoining the yard entrance, are the gate-house and weighing office, and the general entrance for clerks, whose offices are at the back of the building.

The most attractive room is the model-room, containing a number of interesting relics and many artistically finished models of the most notable vessels. Amongst the former are models of one or two frigates, the old Irish packets, and the turret ship " Hydra," built in 1871. The increase in size of ocean-going vessels is conspicuous in the models, which are nearly all made to inch scale, and have formed attractive features at various exhibitions, securing awards of merit, notably the Grand Prix of the Paris Exposition in 1889.

The works cover 50 acres, and comprise ship-yard, boiler works, engine works, and tidal basin. The shipbuilding department is under the management of Mr. Edmund Sharer; and, entering from the Govan Road, among the first places to attract attention are the large sheds in front of the slips, where all the principal work in connection with ship construction is done, excepting that carried on in the angle-iron smithy.

The brass-finishing and founding shops and smithy are on the east boundary of the road; here castings are made up to 15 tons, including propellers of manganese bronze. In this foundry there are seven pit fires and two reverberatory furnaces of 10 and 5 tons capacity. Amongst the tools are the usual bending and levelling rolls, some of large size; a large power bending- machine for plates of fiat keels, large angles, crease work, &c., bunching and shearing presses, small rolls for mast making, plate- edge planing machines, and a machine for cutting elliptical holes. The engine that drives the shop is placed at one end, and here is also a Brush machine for supplying the eighteen 2,000 candle-power lamps used in lighting this shop and the ships in progress.

In the machine-shed is a set of plate-bending rolls, constructed entirely of steel, the end frames and gearing being of cast steel and the rolls of forged steel, each drawn down from a single ingot; there are also four large lever double-punching and shearing machines, capable of punching 1.5-inch holes through 1.5-inch steel plates, and having a gap of 42 inches, as that plates up to 7 feet broad may have every hole punched in them. At present there are two planing machines, and a third is shortly to be added, each capable of taking plates up to 36 feet long.

A large hydraulic keel-plate bending machine has been supplied by Messrs. Hugh Smith and Co., Glasgow; all the working parts are of steel, and the weight, without engine, pumps, &c., is about 150 tons. The furnaces for bending the frames and plates, which are all of the Gorman kind, have been remodelled, and are now fired by gas-producing furnaces with most satisfactory results.

The engine works have a separate organisation from the yard, and are under the management of Mr. Andrew Laing. Recent improvements have been carried out by the extension and strengthening of the present wharf at the wet clock, and by the erection of a set of 130-ton sheerlegs in place of the former 80-ton sheers. A new boiler shop has been built, and large additions have been made to the machinery.

The main building, which is about 300 feet square, is divided into four bays, with two-storey galleries for small tools between each. The bay to the extreme west forms the erecting shop for machinery; in the two adjoining bays the numerous parts for marine engines are produced; and the remaining bay is used for boiler work.

Running parallel with the engine works at a distance of about 68 feet is a smithy, 300 feet long by 100 feet wide, having forty fires and eight steam-hammers, besides other tools of the usual kind. The intervening space provides additional room for boiler work. The new building is much higher than the old structure, so as to provide sufficient headroom for lifting the largest boiler above any other by means of the overhead crane. At a height of 43 feet 9 inches from the ground are longitudinal girders carried on columns, with rails for the 100-ton travelling crane.

Against the north gable of the boiler shop is a new flanging shed, containing Tweddell's hydraulic flanger supplied by Messrs. Fielding and Platt. This can work a flange 4 feet by 5 feet on a plate 1.5 inch thick, with 800 lbs. water pressure per square inch. The new machines in the engine works are so arranged that work entering from the flanging shed at the north end will pass in order to each successive machine, leaving the shop at the south end as a complete boiler, and passing thence on rails to the fitting-out basin.

In this department is a horizontal flange-drilling and countersinking machine, supplied by Messrs. Campbell and Hunter, which drills and countersinks the rivet holes of flanged plates at one setting, and can drill holes in furnace mouths from 2 feet 9 inches upwards. A 140-ton hydraulic riveter made here is used for shell-riveting, with a. special 40-ton crane erected overhead, by which the plates are suspended with the axis of the boiler vertical. The vertical plate-bending rolls, by Messrs. Thomas Shanks and Co., Johnstone, are capable of bending cold steel plates 1.5 inch thick and 12.5 feet wide. Another special machine in the new shop is one for drilling rivet- holes inside furnace-mouths, by Messrs. G. and A. Harvey, Govan.

The engine shop contains along with other numerous tools a planing machine, which will admit 8 feet square under the cross-slide, and will take a cut 20 feet long. Each of the bays is served by a travelling crane, two of which are rope-driven and were made by Messrs. Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell and Co.; the others were made on the works, and are driven by separate engines through steel wire-rope. There is a large treble-geared face-lathe, made in the works, which will turn 22 feet in diameter.

Next to this is a large machine, also made in the works, for surfacing heavy work, and consisting of a large annular chuck 161 feet diameter, carrying sixty cutters near the outer edge; it is worked by spur gearing, and the chuck can be traversed 21 feet. In this part are also a large screw-cutting lathe 41i feet in length, a large slotting machine, and a large shaft-lathe. A novel tool for planing piston-rings and pistons is also used, which was designed by the late Mr. Randolph. In this shop are six galleries in two tiers, where the smaller machine-tools are placed; and on one of the top galleries brass finishing is done.

Mackie and Thomson

MESSRS. MACKIE AND THOMSON, GOVAN SHIPBUILDING YARD.
Mackie and Thomson

This yard is known as the Old Yard, having been the site where the firms of Messrs. Robert Napier and Sons, and Messrs. Randolph and Elder, now the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., successively began business. Among the early vessels built here by Messrs. Napier was the "Simoon," the first iron vessel built for the Royal navy. Only a few months ago a disastrous fire destroyed the original buildings which had been occupied by these firms.

At the yard entrance are the offices and general store, and inside the yard on the right-hand side is a long range of buildings, in which are the plate and angle furnaces, frame shed, smiths' and engineers' shops, rivet store, saw mill, joiners' and pattern shops, moulding loft, riggers' store, and foreman's offices; while at the head of the yard are the shops containing the iron-working machinery.

The frame shed is 147 feet long by 50 feet broad, and is fitted with all the necessary appliances and machinery. The smiths' shop measures 117 feet long by 38 feet broad, and contains three steam- hammers and seventeen smiths' fires, being well adapted for turning out work expeditiously. In this building, but separated from the smiths' shop by an iron partition, is the engineers' shop, in which are placed the main engines that drive all the machinery in this part of the works, as well as the turning lathes, and the drilling and screw-cutting machines.

The next building, measuring 140 feet by 331- feet, has just been rebuilt after the fire, and is three storeys in height; on the ground floor is the saw mill and wood-working machinery, while above are the joiners' and pattern-makers' shops, which are fitted with the best machinery, including circular and band saws, edge and surface- planing machines, moulding machines and large turning lathes. On the third storey is the moulding loft, extending the full length and breadth of the building. In the building containing the iron- working machinery are plate rolls, planing, drilling, shearing, and punching machines. On the west side of the yard are situated the spar sheds and timber racks.

The yard being situated on the south side of the Clyde, opposite the mouth of the river Kelvin, affords launching room for large vessels; and the railway station being opposite the main entrance, the cartage of materials is reduced to a minimum. The yard has been twice enlarged since the present firm entered on its occupancy, and now extends to about six acres; and it has frontage to the river for six building slips. For some considerable time before the last enlargement the yard was busy with the construction of steam trawlers for the North Sea fishery, and had generally thirteen of those vessels on the stocks at one time; they were built three on end, and generally all three were launched on the same tide.

The firm commenced business here in November 1888, and have built a hundred vessels, in addition to doing large and heavy repairs. The public graving docks being so near afford every facility for getting the latter class of work done cheaply and expeditiously.

The number of men employed is about 600.

Ross and Duncan

ROSS AND DUNCAN, WHITEFIELD WORKS, GOVAN.
Ross and Duncan

This firm began business in 1876 in the Anderston district of Glasgow, and removed to their present premises twelve years ago. They are engaged principally in the construction of engines and boilers of the marine type for steamships and for land purposes, up to 1,500 indicated horse-power. The works cover an area of 11 acres. The principal line of workshops runs along one side of the yard for a length of 310 feet, and detached pattern and other shops are on the other side.

The main erecting shops are among the loftiest on the Clyde, being 60 feet in height to the ridge-pole of the roof. The principal heavy tools are of modern make. Of three overhead travelling cranes the largest, made by Messrs. James Taylor and Co., Birkenhead, is capable of lifting 30 tons; it is driven by square shafting connected with the shop gearing. The hydraulic riveter was made by Messrs. Robert Harvey and Co., and is worked in connection with an accumulator, giving the advantages of combined blow and squeeze. Some of the best and most recent machine-tools were made by Messrs. J. Lang and Sons, Johnstone; and some special devices for saving labour and improving the quality of work have been designed by Mr. Robert Rankin, one of the partners.

Steam for the shop engine is supplied by a double-furnace return-tube marine boiler, which has proved highly satisfactory for steady working and economy. The supply of air is heated by the waste heat of the uptake, and is admitted to the furnaces as required, with a regulating arrangement under easy control of the fireman. In the management of the works some advance towards co-operative working has been made.

The number of men employed is 250 when fairly busy.

Alexander Stephen and Sons

ALEXANDER STEPHEN AND SONS, LINTHOUSE, GOVAN.
Alexander Stephen and Sons

The old estate of Linthouse comprising 32 acres was acquired in 1870 by this firm, whose previous premises were at Kelvinhaugh; and it is devoted to their shipbuilding yard, engine and boiler shops, &c., and a range of dwelling-houses for workmen. A large overhead crane traverses the ship berths for the purpose of putting engines and boilers &c. into the vessels while still on the stocks. This forms a conspicuous feature from a distance.

The frontage to the river is sufficient for eleven slips. The old mansion of the estate has been retained and converted into offices. The shipbuilding shed is 500 feet long by 200 feet wide; adjoining it on one side are a forgo and smithy, and on the other a three-storey building containing the boat and spar shed, joiners' shop, and moulding loft. Further back from the river is the boiler shop; and beyond this is the engine shop. These buildings each measure 220 feet long by 210 feet wide, and are connected by railway with the shipbuilding berths under the large crane. The works are well equipped with most efficient machines and tools. The output is large, and embraces all sorts and sizes of steamers and sailing ships.

The number of men employed is about 2,000.

William Baird and Co

WILLIAM BAIRD AND CO., GARTSHERRIE IRON WORKS, COATBRIDGE.
William Baird and Co

These works were established in 1830, and have from time to time been extended with all modern improvements, for the manufacture of ordinary and hematite pig-iron. They also comprise apparatus for recovering the by-products from the blast-furnace gases.

The number of men employed is 500.

Singer Manufacturing Co

SINGER MANUFACTURING CO., SEWING-MACHINE WORKS, KILBOWIE.
Singer Manufacturing Co

This company first established works in Love Loan, Glasgow, in 1867.

The principal parts of the machines were supplied at that time from the head factory at Elizabethport, New Jersey, and were put together and tested in Love Loan for the European demand.

Two years later, premises were taken in James Street, Bridgeton, of sufficient capacity to turn out 600 machines a week; but in two years' time these proved too small, and continual additions had to be made; part of the work had also to be done in Govan Street, and part at Bonnybridge, 18 miles from Glasgow. A weekly average of 5,150 machines having then been reached, it was decided to erect a factory at Kilbowie, 9 miles below Glasgow, large enough to contain all the scattered departments, and to allow of manufacturing 10,000 machines per week.

A freehold property of 46 acres was purchased at Kilbowie-by-Clydebank, and the present factory erected. This production has already been reached, and extensive additions have had to be made to the works. The Forth and Clyde Canal runs past on one side, and the North British Railway on the other, giving excellent facilities for receiving and shipping, which will soon be increased by the completion of the Lanarkshire and Dunbartonshire Railway through Clydebank. Within the factory grounds are four miles of railway, connecting the various departments with the main line and the canal, and two shunting engines are constantly employed.

Power is furnished by a number of engines, giving collectively about 2,000 horse-power, for which the steam is generated by a number of Babcock and Wilcox tubular boilers, having a total capacity of about 2,350 horse-power. The use of automatic stokers in connection with the boilers has reduced the smoke to a minimum. Hydraulic power is also largely used for hoists, moulding machines, and various other manufacturing operations.

The main structure is fire-proof, and consists of two parallel buildings 75 feet apart and 800 feet long; these are connected by three wings 50 feet wide, and are three storeys in height, except for about 400 feet in the centre, where they are four storeys high. From the centre of this pile rises a large clock tower in the Scottish baronial style, 50 feet square and 200 feet high, forming the most prominent artificial landmark in the Clyde valley. Near the top is placed an enormous clock, the dial of which is 25 feet 8 inches diameter, or 3 feet larger than that of Big Ben at Westminster.

About 6,000 people are employed, of whom about 4,000 come daily from Glasgow by the North British Railway. These are all engaged in the manufacture of sewing machines, of which there are about fifty different classes, subdivided into about 300 varieties, for meeting the special requirements of different trades and manufactures, and weighing from a few pounds to several tons each. The various classes of machines are suitable for sewing any sort of materials, from fabrics as fine and soft as gossamer to heavy sails or large factory belts ten feet wide.

Near the entrance to the works is a brick building containing a well-appointed ambulance; and adjoining it is housed a steam fire-engine by Messrs. Shand, Mason, and Co., which is manned by a drilled company of the work-people. The water supply is taken from Loch Cochno high up on the Kilpatrick Hills, which provides a strong pressure. Within the works is a large cooking establishment with dining room for the work-people.

Besides these works and the home establishment at Elizabethport, there are other factories at South Bend in Indiana, Cairo in Illinois Montreal, Hamburg, and Floridsdorf in Austria.

J. and G. Thomson

JAMES AND GEORGE THOMSON, SHIPBUILDING YARD AND ENGINEERING WORKS, CLYDEBANK
J. and G. Thomson

The Clydebank Shipbuilding Yard is situated on the north bank of the Clyde, about six miles below Glasgow. The yard is in the form of an irregular quadrilateral, Plate 139, having a total area, including fitting-out basin, of about 50 acres, comprising a shipbuilding and a marine engineering department, with equipment adequate for the largest class of work in vessels and machinery. The yard is situated close to the terminus of the Clydebank branch of the North British Railway; and a siding is led into the yard, with branches extending to different parts, one branch being led alongside the building berth of H.M.S. "Jupiter" at present under construction, so that the heavy armour-plates may be lifted directly on board the vessel.

The main entrance is at the north-east corner of the yard, from which a broad roadway leads down the centre of the ship-yard. Immediately after entering, on the right-hand side is a block of substantial buildings forming two sides of a square, in which are situated in the basement the counting house, model hall, and the engine-works drawing-office, and on the first floor, a directors' boardroom, ship-yard drawing-office, and the tracing department. The second floor is entirely devoted to the photographic department, in which a large amount of work is done.

Immediately in front of the offices is a large square space devoted to the storage of plates and angles, and other steel shipbuilding material. The plates are stowed on edge in iron racks, so that they can easily be identified by their marks without handling. The plates are lifted into their positions by means of four steam 5-ton travelling cranes; and when required they are lifted by the same means upon trucks running on the portable narrow-gauge railway, of which there is a complete system throughout the yard.

Passing along the main roadway, on the left-hand side is the frame-bending shed, in which are three angle-iron furnaces, each about 61 feet long, with ample space around them for setting and bevelling frames, and for the strive boards which are used for giving the required shape to the frames. In this shed is the usual equipment of punches and shears for dealing with the frames, as well as a hydraulic machine for cutting channels and angle-bars, and a machine for straightening and planing angle-bars. Adjacent to the angle-iron furnaces are four Lancashire boilers, 28 feet long and 7.5 feet diameter, supplying steam at a pressure of 120 lbs. They are fitted with Proctor's mechanical stokers, the coal being raised by an elevator and distributed by means of a screw worm. The main engine for driving the ship-yard machinery is a horizontal compound engine by Robey and Co., having cylinders 18.25 and 30 inches diameter with 40 inches stroke, and indicating about 300 H.P. The power from the engine is distributed by means of twelve 5.5 inch cotton ropes working on a grooved fly-wheel and actuating two main lines of shafting. There is also a complete hydraulic installation for supplying pressure to a large hydraulic plate-flanging machine, to two large man-hole punches, and to hydraulic riveters, cranes, capstans, &c.

The iron-workers' shed is about 350 feet long by 150 feet broad, and is constructed in three bays with two lines of main shafting. In this shed are twenty-seven shearing and punching machines of various sizes, some of them exceptionally powerful and capable of dealing with plates 1.5 inch thick, suitable for the protective decks. of the largest sear vessels.

Among other machines is a powerful hydraulic machine by Hugh Smith and Co. for flanging keel-plates, garboard plates, bulkhead plates, &c.; it is capable of flanging plates 1:1 inch thick when cold. There is also a large set of plate rolls by Shanks and Co., of Johnstone, capable of dealing with plates 35 feet long and 1 inch thick. The top roll is a solid steel forging, weighing 45 tons. Adjacent are punches, shears, and planes to deal with large plates. There are also in this shed a number of circular saws, a baud saw, and several radial drilling and countersinking machines.

The ship-yard department also comprises a large engineers' shop for dealing with all the work in connection with water-tight doors, pumping, ventilation, steering gears, and other engineers' work 'independent of the main propelling engines for the vessels. In this engineering department alone about 500 men are employed at the present time.

There is also a large forge and smithy containing about a hundred fires. The joiners' shop is 200 feet long by 150 feet wide. It is on one floor, and contains a number of modern wood-working machines by both British and American makers. This shop also contains a cabinet-making and polishing department. There is a large saw-mill, rigging loft, electrical department, plumbers' shop, and boat-building shop, moulding loft, and pattern shop. There are a large munbor of launching berths, four of which are available for the construction of the largest vessels, while the situation of the yard opposite the river Cart allows ample space for launching vessels of the largest size.

The fitting-out basin is 700 feet by 300 feet, and has a depth of 24 feet at low water, so that the largest war vessels may remain afloat during construction. On the east side are sheer legs capable of lifting 120 tons, as well as two light electrical cranes; and on the west side is a 20-ton travelling jib-crane.

The Engine Works are situated on the west side of the yard, and are entered from the main entrance, as well as from a separate gateway further west. The west entrance leads into a large yard, part of which is employed as a light plate and angle-bar store; and the first building passed on the left side is the pattern shop, a long building extending across to the main entrance. It is lighted by skylights running the whole length of the roof, and by a double row of windows in the walls. The larger patterns are made on the ground floor, and the lighter work is carried on in a large gallery which extends completely round the shop. The shop is equipped with lathes, planing, and stripping machines, circular and band saws, and other special tools, and is lighted by electric light.

The drawing office is on the basement of the next building in order, and above it are the tracing offices; while further on are entrances to the counting-house, and offices in connection with the engine works.

The boiler shop is situated on the right hand of the yard, and consists of three bays, two of which serve as erecting shops and are each provided with three overhead travelling cranes; the third bay is occupied by various kinds of furnaces and hydraulic flanging tools, smiths' fires, and the machine-tools necessary for the equipment of a modern boiler shop. In the east wall are numerous large doorways, for conveying plates into the shop from the store yard; they are provided with suspended doors, counterbalanced so as to be easily opened and shut.

The chief exits are at the south end, where the yard railway enters each of the two erecting bays, and connects them directly with the sheer legs at the fitting-out basin. The heavier machine-tools are therefore placed at the north end, so as to reduce the transport of materials to a minimum, and to secure their continuous progress towards the point at which they will leave in a finished condition. The wagons conveying the heavy plates enter the shop at the north end; and immediately alongside the rails, which extend across the bays, are placed a couple of plate-edge planing machines, the larger capable of accommodating a plate 38 feet long. Here is also placed a vertical machine for cutting ovals or circles for manholes and their doors. Further on is situated the engine house.

A tandem compound engine is employed to drive all the machinery of this department, except those special tools which have independent engines attached to them. A set of compound surface-condensing pumping engines, with cylinders 12 and 201 inches diameter and 18 inches stroke, is also situated alongside, with steam accumulator, which supplies all the hydraulic tools in this and the other departments of the engine works through a system of hydraulic pipes, distinct from the system laid throughout the shipbuilding department.

Beyond the engine house is the large plate-furnace 20 feet long by 10 feet wide, with its table in front. Over the table swings a radial steam-hammer, having both hand and hydraulic traversing gear for directing the blow of the hammer. The furnace is served by a hydraulic radial crane and a couple of warping drums.

In the third or westernmost bay is one of Tweddell's large double-power flanging machines with horizontal bottom cylinder, served by a 6-ton hydraulic crane of 20 feet radius. Another Tweddell machine of smaller size with special furnaces follows alongside; and further south is situated a large tube-staving press, designed and constructed in the establishment. The method of staving and enlarging the ends of tubes and of solid stay-bars by hydraulic pressure has been employed in these works for a number of years, and has been successfully applied to stave and enlarge the ends of the screwed tubes which form the elements of the Belleville boiler. A couple of air furnaces serve this press.

Nearly opposite are a couple of multiple boring and drilling machines, with traversing tables 8 feet long and 61 feet wide; and near these in the centre bay is a powerful set of vertical cold-plate rolls, which can bend plates 12 feet wide; they are triple geared, and are driven by an independent pair of vertical reversible engines. Alongside is a set of horizontal plate-rolls; and opposite are several punching and shearing machines, between the first and second bays.

Returning to the third hay and continuing southward, there will be found a number of radial drilling and tapping machines, and a set of two large horizontal boring and tapping machines. The latter are capable of traversing a surface 16 feet long by 12 feet high, and have steel spindles 31 inches diameter; they are employed to tap the front and back tube-plates of tubular boilers, but are at present boring and screwing the holes in the lower side of the steam collectors of the Belleville boilers. In this bay are also situated a number of smiths' fires with special appliances for dealing with angle-bar work. Towards the south end is the screwing department, which is quite distinct from a similar one connected with the engine shops; and as all boiler tubes are received in straight lengths, without being swelled, staved or screwed, a large amount of work has to be done here. The machines employed include a duplex tube-screwing machine for screwing simultaneously both ends of a tube up to 41 inches diameter, a screwing and turning machine, and several double-geared self-acting open-spindle capstan-rest chasing lathes.

The machinery for drilling and riveting the shells of boilers is to be found towards the south end of the centre bay, and comprises two sets of boiler-shell drilling machines. One set is provided with four working heads, each carried by a radial arm arranged to travel on the bed of the machine, and provided with reversing motion for screwing and tapping. The other machine has three independent heads, movable horizontally and vertically by rack and pinion, whose drilling spindles can work over a boiler 21 feet long and of the largest diameter.

At the south wall is placed a powerful hydraulic riveting machine by Messrs. Brown Brothers; the frame of the machine is formed of forged steel slabs, the hydraulic cylinders are of cast steel, and the gap is 8. feet.

On the other side of the bay are two smaller hydraulic riveters, having an independent accumulator, which is supplied by a duplicate set of double-ram hydraulic pumps driven off the main shafting. Portable riveters are employed for much of the lighter classes of work, and are moved by hydraulic lifts attached. The buildings are lit by electric light, as well as by a large lucigen apparatus; and the narrow-gauge railway runs throughout the bays.

Leaving the boiler shop by a southern exit, the smithy lies to the west; it is a long building extending between the boiler and machine shops. It accommodates twenty-four smiths' hearths arranged on either side, which together with those in the boiler shop are supplied with air-blast by a large duplex blower, placed at the north end of the building.

At this end are also situated the larger steam-hammers with their reverberatory furnaces opposite, and served by hydraulic radial cranes. Four double sets of steam-strikers, a hot saw, and a number of steam-hammers of various sizes ranged up the centre of the shop, make up the larger tools in this department.

Continuous with the smithy is the brass foundry, where all the brass work required by the shipbuilding and engineering departments is cast. There are ten crucible furnaces, two air furnaces each capable of melting 6 tons of brass at a time, three drying stoves, loam mill, grinders, band saw, and the various necessary store-rooms. The foundry is served by a 10-ton overhead travelling-crane, besides other hydraulic and hand cranes.

The machine and erecting shops may be entered direct from the south end of the smithy, and consist of four main bays. The first is 35 feet wide, the other three are each 50 feet wide, and provide a height of 40 feet from the floor-level to the underside of the crane girders; they are employed respectively as receiving shed, large machine-shop, erecting shop, and small machine-shop. The engine-shop store is situated at the north of these buildings, and is entered by various doors from each of the larger bays.

The receiving shed has a standard-gauge railway laid along the entire length, with turntable and cross rails at the north end; and is traversed by a 6-tou locomotive jib-crane, which removes materials from the railway wagons brought in by the yard locomotive, and deposits them in positions convenient for the overhead travelling crams of the machine shops to remove them.

The large machine-tool shop is the next in order. The dressed and ground tools supplied to the machine attendants form a separate department; and the machines specially set apart for preparing them include two universal milling machines, a shaping machine, milling-cutter grinders, Morse-drill grinders, emery grinders, and a number of ordinary grindstones. All the milling cutters, twist-drills, and other small tools used throughout the works, are made and re-ground in this shop, and are distributed ready for use. In this shop will be noticed two vertical milling machines, one having a bed with longitudinal, transverse, and circular motions, while the other has a treble-geared milling spindle, and is capable of working over a surface 10 feet long by 4 feet 7 inches wide and 8 inches deep.

Opposite is a powerful treble-geared lathe, designed to deal with the heaviest class of connecting-rods and thrust shafts; it is 20 feet between the centres, and has two saddles with independent screw-motion.

Alongside are two other powerful treble-geared lathes, mounted on one bed, so that two pieces of shafting, together 33 feet in length, can be driven by each head; if the centre heads are removed, the bed will admit between the centres a shaft 76.5 feet long to be turned. A set of four slotting machines is placed about the centre of the bay; and on the north side of the cross rails are three combined planing and slotting machines. One can deal with an area 21 feet by 17.5 feet high; another can slot and plane over a surface 20.5 feet long by 14 feet high; and the third can take in pieces 12 feet long and of an equal height.

At the north end of the bay is situated a set of four universal boring, drilling, and tapping machines. Two can work over a continuous surface of about 35 feet by 10.5 feet; they have steel spindles 5 inches diameter with 42 inches travel, and have bored cylinders up to 48 inches diameter, also drilling, tapping, and studding their flanges at a single setting. The other two machines have spindles 3, inches diameter, and can traverse a surface 15 feet long by 10 feet high. Opposite are two large treble-geared shafting lathes, whose beds are continuous; in these seas machined the large traversing screw for the 130-ton sheer legs made for the dock, which when finished measured over 76 feet in length, the diameter over the threads being 9.5 inches.

At the north end of this and of the centre bay or erecting shop are placed the three engines which supply the motive power. They are tandem compound; one, having cylinders 13 and 19i inches diameter by 30 inches stroke, drives all the machines in the large machine-tool shop; another of equal size drives the tools in the small machine-tool shop, which forms the fourth bay; and the third, which is slightly smaller, drives the whole of the overhead travelling-cranes. Steam is supplied by three single-ended return-tube boilers, of the dry-back kind, situated immediately outside the buildings at the north-west corner. They are 14.5 feet mean diameter by 9 feet 3.5 inches long, each having three furnaces 3 feet 9 inches diameter, and a working pressure of 120 lbs. per square inch.

The erecting shop is served by two 40-ton overhead travelling-cranes, which run the whole length of the bay upon built wrought- iron girders supported on cast-iron columns; and a number of hydraulic radial cranes and hoists of varying power, up to 5 tons, are placed in advantageous positions.

The largest machine-tool in the shop is placed at the north end of the erecting bay. It consists of a boring and planing machine combined. There are two massive standards with a cross-slide, of the same general kind as in an ordinary planing machine, 18 feet apart, and capable of taking articles 13 feet high under the cross-slide. For planing, the work is stationary, and the cross-slide is caused to move, the limit of travel being 12 feet; and two tool-boxes traverse the slide. The columns are joined at the top by a cross-beam; the latter carries the bearing in which the journal of the vertical boring-bar turns, when the machine is being used for boring. The boring bar is driven from a separate counter-shaft. The table will also revolve for turning any circular work, the tool-box being held on the saddle of the cross-slide. In this machine, cylinders of the largest size can be bored, faced on ends, turned on outside, and have the port faces planed at one setting; cylinders up to 113 inches diameter have been so treated. Near this machine are placed two 8-inch spindle vertical boring mills; they are powerful machines, and can take in work 8 feet wide between the standards and 6.5 feet high, and their spindles have a travel of 4 feet. In this bay are also four sets of boring, tapping, and studding machines, which have also a milling arrangement fitted. The drilling spindles are 3 inches diameter, and have a feed of 3 feet, and can operate over a continuous surface 40 feet long by 10i feet high.

In the last or fourth bay is a varied assortment of all the numerous classes of smaller machine-tools, including various screw- cutting lathes and a complete set of seven lathes ranging from 6 to 12 inches centres.

About the centre of this bay are placed a number of drilling and tapping machines; and further southward is a multiple drilling machine, arranged to drill at one time ten holes 1.25 inch diameter by 1 inch deep per minute through steel plates 11.5 feet wide by 15 feet long, or through drums 4 feet diameter by 10 feet long. The machine is specially designed to drill the drums of water-tube boilers, such as those of the "Normand" kind, which have recently been fitted here into the torpedo-boat destroyers "Rocket," "Shark," and "Surly."

The southern end of this bay is exclusively devoted to the manufacture of parts of water-tube boilers; and at the present time various parts are being made in connection with the Belleville boilers which are being fitted on board HMS. "Terrible." Amongst the machinery laid down for this purpose is a band-saw for sawing tubes and coupling pieces, which admits 2.5 feet deep and 4 feet between the saw and frame, and is also employed for salving out the jaws of piston and connecting-rods, &c. There is also a three-spindle machine, specially designed to finish the end boxes, into which the tubes of Belleville boilers are screwed; a couple of milling machines; several surfacing lathes; a double-geared screwing and facing machine; as well as an assortment of hand tools and gauges.

On an upper floor in the same bay are situated the brass-finishing and iron-finishing shops, which also accommodate a large variety of all classes of iron- working and brass-working machine-tools. A service of hydraulic radial cranes and hoists removes materials from one level to the other; and in connection therewith a system of overhead travellers has been arranged throughout the entire flat.

The number of men employed in all departments of the works when in full operation is upwards of 5,000.

William Simons and Co

WILLIAM SIMONS AND CO., LONDON WORKS, RENFREW
William Simons and Co

These works are situated on the river Clyde about six miles below Glasgow. The firm was established in 1810, and the works at the present time occupy nearly fifteen acres, comprising engine-shops, foundry, boiler shed, smithy, and the various other departments required in a complete engineering and shipbuilding works. The river frontage is about 900 feet.

Besides vessels for the mercantile marine, the particular work turned out consists of dredging vessels and ferry steamers of all kinds, of which there are always a number to be seen in the course of construction. Of the latter kind of craft, the elevating-deck ferry-steamer "Finniesten," which now so successfully bridges the Clyde at the busiest part of Glasgow Harbour, may be specially noted as having been designed and constructed here. Amongst the most recent vessels completed is the 1,300-ton stern-well hopper-dredger "Percy Sanderson," constructed for the European Commission of the Danube; it is fitted with a chain of dredging buckets and an independent sand-dredging pump. Three powerful stern-well hopper-dredgers have recently been delivered at Portsmouth Dockyard; and two bow-well hopper-dredgers have been constructed for the Russian Government. One of the latter is fitted with a special disintegrating apparatus for dealing with hard material, so that this can be easily discharged ashore through piping by means of a current of seater from a centrifugal pump, or through the dredger's own shoots, or overboard into barges alongside.

There is to be seen under construction, and well advanced, a 1,200-ton sand-pump hopper- dredger for the Natal Government, fitted with two 33-inch sand-dredging pumps. Alongside of this is a powerful barge-loading dredger for the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, which is nearly ready for delivery, having buckets of about 23 cubic feet capacity each. Two other equally powerful barge-loading dredgers are on hand for Portsmouth and Devonport Dockyards. Steel is principally employed in the construction of the dredging machinery and buckets. Ripping claws or picks of special form are provided on several of the bucket dredgers, for cutting up hard material.

It is the custom to launch these vessels in a complete state, having their machinery on board and ready for the steam trials. It will be observed that the vessels now on the stocks possess numerous items of equipment for efficiency and comfort, which compare favourably with first-class passenger steamers: including electric light for night working, steam-steering gear, feed-water heaters, filters, and boiler-circulators. An interesting collection of models of the special work turned out is to be seen in the model room.

The number of men employed is about 1,300.

A. F. Craig and Co

A. F. CRAIG AND CO., CALEDONIA ENGINE WORKS, PAISLEY
A. F. Craig and Co

These works occupy over four acres, and are situated on both sides of Macdowall Street, at the north end of the town. They comprise foundry, engine, machine, and smiths' shops, and steel works for the manufacture of steel spiral blades, on the south side of the street; and boiler shop on the north side.

The foundry is well equipped for turning out all kinds of castings up to 25 tons. The principal shop is fitted with a 20-ton power travelling-crane, and the other parts of the building are supplied with steam cranes of various sizes. The cupolas are capable of melting 40 tons a day, for which the material is lifted to the platform on cradles by a steam crane. The various yards are also supplied with steam cranes, for handling castings after leaving the foundry.

The heavy machine and fitting shops occupy the ground floor of the main block of buildings, wherein there is a 15-ton power travelling-crane driven by endless rope, by which the heaviest machines are served. The remainder of the heavy machinery is in the west end of the block. The second and third floors are furnished with lighter machinery for the manufacture of special machines, such as carpet looms, clipping and cropping machines. The latter are made with two, three, or four spirals, to cut all widths of cloth up to 13 feet, and are designed for clipping and cropping all classes of textile fabrics. The spiral blades for these machines are entirely made on the premises by special machinery, by which they are rolled, file-cut, concaved and twisted, tempered, and ground ready for putting into the machine. The whole of the works on the south side of the street are connected by a narrow-gauge railway, on which runs a locomotive, to facilitate the transport of work from one department to another.

The boiler shop on the north side is fitted for a general class of work, including land and marine steam-boilers, oil boilers, tanks, roofs, &c.

The number of men employed is over 400.

Fleming and Ferguson

FLEMING AND FERGUSON, PHOENIX SHIP-YARD AND ENGINE WORKS, PAISLEY
Fleming and Ferguson

These works are situated on the banks of the river Cart, immediately adjoining the new harbour. They were founded in 1877, and at the present time cover an area of about nine acres.

In the Ship-yard are six berths, on that this number of vessels can be under construction at the same time. As the yard is situated on a bend of the river, vessels up to 400 feet in length can be built and launched, the depth of water in the river at spring tides being 18 feet.

The ship-yard is fully equipped with all necessary appliances, consisting of plate and angle furnaces, plate-bending rolls, punching, shearing, and planing machines, steam-hammers, &c.; also complete water service for working hydraulic riveters. The yard is also equipped with spar shed, saw pit, moulding loft, drawing-board sheds, frame-setting shed, smithy, and joiners' shop with circular saws, turning lathes, planing, moulding, mortising, and other wood-working machines. The river frontage is 420 yards, two-thirds of which was piled after the river had been deepened, and a wharf was also constructed at the same time.

On the wharf are erected powerful sheerlegs 120 feet in height, capable of lifting and placing on board vessels any weight up to 90 tons, thus enabling vessels up to 4,000 tons to be engined, rigged, and completed by the builders at their own yard.

The Engine Works consist of smithy, boiler shed, such engine shop. The smithy is fitted with all appliances for carrying on the work of that department. The boiler shed is equipped with the most modern tools; the heavy lifting and transferring are done by is 50-ton travelling-crane and a 40-ton swing-crane over the riveting machine, both being power-driven; and for the expeditious manipulation of lighter material a number of hydraulic cranes have been fitted throughout this department. The riveting of boiler shells is done by a large and powerful hydraulic riveter, having 101 feet gap, which enables large boilers to be made and riveted with only a single plate in the shell. The riveter is constructed to work at a pressure of 150 tons per square inch, and is adjustable to suit the power required. The hydraulic flanging machines, in addition to ordinary flanging work, stamp furnace-fronts, man-hole doors, and ends for water-tube boilers, each of which operations is performed at one stroke.

In the engine shop are two overhead power-driven travelling- cranes capable of lifting 50 tons each; a large wall planing-machine, constructed to plane 18 feet vertically and having 12 feet horizontal travel; special lathes constructed by Messrs. Lang and Son of Johnstone, Messrs. Smith and Coventry of Manchester, and Messrs. Campbell and Hunter of Leeds. There is also a full supply of drilling, planing, and slotting machines, besides numerous other tools for special work. The tools in this shop are of the most modern and powerful description, including those necessary for turning out engines up to 10,000 horse-power.

Power for engine shop, boiler shed, and smithy, is supplied by one of the firm's "Clyde" water-tube boilers, constructed for a working pressure of 200 lbs., which gives steam to one of their quadruple engines driving the works. Commodious new offices have recently been erected, including a model room, in which are shown about a hundred interesting models of steamers, steam yachts, hopper dredgers, barge-loading dredgers, hopper barges, &e. This number of men employed is about 600.

Fullerton, Hodgart and Barclay

FULLERTON, HODGART, AND BARCLAY, VULCAN WORKS, PAISLEY
Fullerton, Hodgart and Barclay

These works are situated in Renfrew Road, Paisley, close to the Abercorn station of the Glasgow and South Western Railway. Founded in 1838 by Messrs. Craig and Donald, the firm later became Craig and Fullerton, and finally assumed its present designation.

The work produced comprises triple-expansion, compound, and single-cylinder engines, condensing and high- pressure, of all descriptions and for all powers. For upwards of thirty years a speciality has been made of hydraulic machinery; and a large set of hydraulic engines, accumulator, and portable cranes has just been completed for the Clyde Trust at Cessnock Dock, Govan. The foundry, which is kept as a separate department, is capable of turning out the largest castings, and has a considerable trade in supplying the foremost marine engineers on the Clyde. Both works are well equipped with hydraulic power, and the cranes are no placed as to make the whole floor space available.

The number of persons employed is about 500.

John Lang and Sons

JOHN LANG AND SONS, LATHE AND TOOL WORKS, JOHNSTONE
John Lang and Sons

These works were erected in 1874, and since then have been steadily growing, so that additional ground has had to be acquired, on which are being erected show rooms for stocking larger tools than can be accommodated in the present buildings. Lathes of all kinds from 6 to 20 inches centres constitute the special work here produced, and large numbers of these and of machine-tools are always in stock and in progress. The machine shop is well equipped with tools of the latest invention.

These works were the first in the country to adopt machine-cut teeth in all gear wheels used in the manufacture of lathes and machine-tools; and the plan has been further extended to cutting the teeth in all racks by machinery. A notable feature in the lathes is what is known as Lang's handle feed-motion, which enables the workman to change the rate of sliding or surfacing feed by the simple movement of a handle within easy reach. It is applied to all lathes which are self- acting by shaft, and to all screw-cutting lathes which have self-acting motion independent of the screw. Specially sensitive levels and measuring machines are used for adjusting the tools in the works, and spindles can be turned truly round with accuracy to one ten-thousandth of an inch. The gear-cutting department has about twenty machines in constant operation, cutting teeth in spur, bevel, worm, and spiral gears, and in racks. These machines have been manufactured in the works, and most of them are entirely automatic in their action. The latest addition to this department is a machine for cutting the teeth in bevel wheels theoretically correct.

The number of men employed is about 200.

John McDowall and Sons

JOHN M'DOWALL AND SONS, WALKINSHAW FOUNDRY, JOHNSTONE.
John McDowall and Sons

This business was established in 1823 in another part of the town, and removed to the present premises in Walkinshaw Street in 1846. The works occupy about two acres, and employ over 150 men.

The main buildings extend about 300 feet by 200 feet, some of them being two and three storeys high. For some years a portion of the premises was occupied as a foundry; but owing to the pressure of work for the government dockyards about the time of the Crimean war, and to the general development of saw-mill and wood-working machinery, the foundry was converted into an erecting shop, and the castings were procured from other foundries in the town.

In the pattern shop, which is 100 feet long by 40 feet wide, are a number of machines for facilitating the output of work and for show; and in connection with this department are four pattern-stores. The smithy, 150 feet long by 36 feet wide, has six hearths, steam- hammer, and cranes; one end of this building is arranged for stock castings for the lighter portions of the machines. On the ground floor of the turning and planing shop are the usual turning lathes, planing machines, horizontal boring and milling machines, the latter being arranged with large tables for carrying the whole frame-work of machines under construction, thus allowing the various operations to be carried out as for as possible at one setting. Round this shop runs a gallery for turning and planing lighter work; and a continuation of it is occupied as an erecting shop for light machinery.

There are two erecting shops, one fitted with power travelling-crane, and the other with two stationary cranes, while two suitable derrick cranes are provided for the yards.

The work turned out consists of every kind of wood-working machinery for the conversion of the tree or log into various scantlings, and comprises vertical saw-frames for logs and trees up to 5 feet round or square, circular-saw rack-benches for saws up to 78 inches diameter, horizontal and vertical band-sawing machines, and horizontal reciprocating saw-frames for logs; in addition to these there is an endless variety of machines for sawing, planing, moulding, mortising, tenoning, boring, turning, nailing, dove-tailing, &c., for saw mills, shipbuilding yards, railway carriage and wagon factories, joiners, carpenters, engineers, pattern makers, cabinet makers, packing-case makers, wheelwrights, match manufacturers, &c.; the pattern stores contain many hundred varieties. High-class steam engines of the high-pressure, condensing and compound type, with the necessary shafting, gearing, &c., have all along formed a portion of the manufactures, snore especially in connection with driving saw-mill and other wood-working machinery. These have given the most economical results; coal has been dispensed with entirely in many cases where the compound engines have been adopted, the steam being generated by the refuse from the planing machines. To keep down the cost of production, and ensure quick delivery, a large number of machines are made to stock, thus giving an opportunity of inspecting them beforehand.

David J. Dunlop and Co

DAVID J. DUNLOP AND CO., INCH WORKS, PORT GLASGOW
David J. Dunlop and Co

These works were established in 1871, and are well adapted for the requirements of shipbuilding and engineering. They occupy a large space on each side of the Greenock and Port Glasgow road; the shipbuilding yard and engineering shops lie between the road and the river, and the boiler works and smiths' shops between the road and the Caledonian Railway. The works are in direct communication with the railway, and are in the immediate neighbourhood of three graving docks.

Special accommodation is provided for repairing ships, engines, and boilers. Amongst other appliances is a 70-ton derrick-crane, which has the advantage over sheer-legs of enabling a length of about 100 feet of the engine and boiler space in a ship to be under the command of the crane without un-mooring the ship, thereby enabling a steamer to receive all her machinery without being shifted.

The special work produced here includes the combined steam and pneumatic governors for marine engines, which have been applied to several ships of the royal navy, to the Cunard steamers "Campania" and "Lucania" of 30,000 horse-power, to the twin-screw steam-yacht for the Emperor of Russia, to vessels of all sizes in foreign navies, and to the leading steamships afloat. The governor was described at the last Meeting of this Institution in Glasgow (Proceedings 1879, page 406).

The number of men employed is from 1,500 to 1,700.

Russell and Co

RUSSELL AND CO., KINGSTON SHIPBUILDING YARD, PORT GLASGOW
Russell and Co

This yard, of which Mr. W. T. Lithgow is now the sole proprietor, is situated about a mile from Port Glasgow station, and is close to the Bogston station of the Caledonian Railway from Glasgow to Greenock. It has been recently enlarged, and now covers about nineteen acres. There are at present nine berths, occupied by six sailing ships and three steamers in various stages of construction; the recent addition will give room for six more berths.

The Kingston Saw Mill, long occupied by Messrs. Thomas Lamb and Sons, forms part of the same premises, and is worked in connection with the shipbuilding business. The yard is well arranged for economical work, and the model room contains a great number of models of the most recent types of sailing ships.

The number of men employed is about 1,350.

Scott and Co

SCOTT AND CO., SHIP-YARD AND ENGINE WORKS, GREENOCK.
Scott and Co

These shipbuilding works were started in the year 1710, by the great great grandfather of the present senior partner Mr. John Scott, C.B., and have been carried on from that date by the descendants of the founder. The combined area of the works is about thirty acres; as the business has gradually expanded, the establishments are not all adjoining, but are divided into four, comprising three shipbuilding yards and the engine works.

The Cartsdyke or east yard is the oldest of the three, though not the site of the original works, which were in another part of the town. This yard contains the drawing offices and counting house, and from here all the ship-yard details are carried on. Here are six building berths, with all the necessary frame-turning, smith, joiner, carpenter, and other sheds, including a complete hydraulic plant for dealing with the heaviest class of work. The yard is served by a private siding from the Caledonian Railway. On the other side of the street are the saw mills and wood stores.

Further west towards the town is the middle yard, in which are four building berths. This yard is also fitted with all the requisite machinery for dealing with work rapidly and cheaply. Here also is a slip, on which can be hauled up vessels of 300 tons for overhaul and repair.


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