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1885 Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Visits to Works

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1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.
1885. Visits to Works.

Note: This is a sub-section of 1885 Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Visits to Works (Excursions) in the Lincoln area

Stamp End Works

STAMP END WORKS.
Clayton and Shuttleworth

These works, belonging to Messrs. Clayton and Shuttleworth, were started as a general iron foundry in 1842 on a plot of swampy ground about 1½ acres in extent, situated between the river Witham and the Sincil drain, and bounded on the east by a cut from the Witham, terminating in a small dry dock adjoining the Sincil drain. When the manufacture of portable engines was commenced in 1845, new shops were erected, which were added to and enlarged year by year as the business increased; but up to 1853 the works were wholly confined to the site on the west side of the dry dock. About this time the dock was filled up; but the cut from the Witham was still left open, and for many years divided the works, which now began to grow up on the east side. This division of the works still continues; the whole of the engineering establishment is on the west side, while the shops, saw-mill, and timber yard connected with the thrashing-machine department are on the east of the cut, or rather of its former site, as the greater portion of it has been filled up and is now occupied by railway sidings; a short length, sufficient to admit and berth one barge from the Witham, has alone been retained. The commodious block of offices was built in 1860 on the newly acquired site, and was considerably enlarged in 1878.

Owing to the swampy nature of the ground on which the works are built, the foundations are of the most expensive character; it has been necessary to drive piles, not only for the buildings, but for each separate forge, furnace, engine, or boiler, and even for most of the heavy tools. With the exception of the end walls of the iron foundry, scarcely a brick in the present works, which cover about 20 acres of ground, occupies the same position that it did in 1851.

On entering the works at the north entrance, the first shop on the right hand is the turnery, fitting, and erecting shop, under one roof. The floor area of the turnery is about 150 X 110 feet, and that of the erecting shop about 250 x 90 feet. The erecting shop is furnished with overhead travelling cranes, and a specially-designed travelling jib-crane, running on a single rail throughout the whole length of the shop. All the shafting and machinery in the turnery, fitting, and erecting shops is driven by a diagonal high-pressure engine with single 20-inch cylinder, coupled direct to the main shafting. A duplicate engine is fixed alongside, which can be coupled up in a short time in the event of a break-down or of more power being required. Steam is supplied by three boilers, 22 feet long and 6 ½ feet diameter, fixed in an adjoining building. These boilers also supply steam to a vertical engine with single 14½ inch cylinder, driving the machinery in the smiths' and bolt-makers' shop, and also to the steam hammers; and are fed by an exhaust-steam injector.

In close contiguity to these shops are the shop store and general store, both of ample size and conveniently furnished for their several purposes.

The smiths' shop, 150 x 115 feet, contains some sixty forges, with tyre furnace, steam hammers, punching and shearing machines, in addition to a complete set of bolt and nut making machinery, and machinery for the production of the wrought-iron travelling wheels for portable engines. It is a lofty well-ventilated building; the shafting and machinery are driven by the vertical engine already mentioned. In a shed adjoining is an auxiliary boiler to take the place of any one of the three boilers in regular use which may be laid off for repairs or other causes.

Adjoining the smiths' shop is the iron foundry, with a floor area of about 13,000 square feet, fully equipped with hydraulic and hand-cranes and lifts; also a smaller foundry for the production of malleable castings, with a floor area available for moulding of about 3000 square feet, fitted up with the necessary stoves and annealing furnaces. The two cupolas for the large foundry are 50 feet high, and 7½ and 5½ feet diameter respectively. The blast is supplied by Ellis's and Baker's blowing machines.

The largest shop in the works is the boiler shop, 255 x 180 feet, giving an area of more than an acre. It is well furnished with all necessary machinery and appliances for the production of first-class work, and is driven by a single 20-inch vertical engine, coupled direct to the line of shafting. The greater part of the flanging of the boiler plates is done by one of Tweddell's hydraulic presses, for which the accumulator is worked by a separate pair of engines and pumps; the riveting machines are all worked by steam. Three tubular boilers, each 21½ feet long and 6½ feet diameter, supply steam for this shop.

The west boundary of the works is formed by the painters' and laggers' shop and two testing sheds; in the larger shed ten engines can be under steam at the same time; the smaller shed is used for experimental purposes. The other principal shops in the engineering department are the brass foundry, pattern shop, and stores and loading shed, all of ample size and fitted with the necessary appliances for rapid and efficient work.

The whole area of the works on the east side, with the exception of the main offices and engine stores, is devoted to the manufacture of thrashing machines, and to the storing and preparation of timber for them. The saw mill, which occupies a central position, is 150 feet long and 65 feet wide, thoroughly furnished with wood-working machines of every description, in addition to vertical and circular saws. The motive power consists of a pair of horizontal condensing engines with 17⅜ inch cylinders, and a single 12-inch cylinder horizontal engine for driving the log frame. Steam is supplied by two tubular boilers, each 21 feet long and 6 feet diameter, and one Lancashire boiler 24 feet long and 7¼ feet diameter. The turnery for the machine department measures about 140 x 120 feet; and in addition to the usual complement of lathes and shaping machines it contains many tools specially adapted for the work, the whole of the machinery being driven by a single 14½ inch vertical engine working direct on to the shafting, on the plan universally adopted throughout the works. The two boilers supplying steam to this engine are fed by an exhaust-steam injector. The principal machine-erecting shop, 320 x 70 feet, forms the boundary of the machine department on its west side. Another erecting shop, 300 x 40 feet, occupies a position on the north side of the timber yard, the whole forming a triangle which is bounded by shops for frame makers, painters, tinners &c., and drying sheds for timber.

To the south of the Sincil drain, on an irregularly shaped piece of land bounded by the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway, are situated the locomotive shed, gas works, machine store, stables, and a second large timber yard and saw mill for the stacking of round timber and its conversion into planks.

The whole of the works are most conveniently laid out for passing the raw material on from stage to stage of the manufacture, culminating in the finished engines and machines, with the least possible expenditure of time and labour. A branch line from the railway enters the works over a weighbridge into the loading shed, where by means of a hydraulic lift and overhead travelling crane the various manufactured articles are placed direct on the railway trucks. Passing through the loading shed the railway branches off into all parts of the works, conveying coal, iron, timber, or other materials to their respective destinations. Two small tank-locomotives are employed in shunting and marshalling the trains in and out. When in full work the number of hands employed, exclusive of a large staff of officials, is over 1700; a commodious mess-room, 95 x 20 feet, is provided for their use.

Besides their principal establishment at Lincoln, the firm have also works at Vienna, covering more than six acres, and employing over 600 hands; and also branch establishments in various parts of Germany, Austria, and the Danubian principalities.

Sheaf Iron Works

SHEAF IRON WORKS.
Ruston, Proctor and Co

The works of Messrs. Ruston Proctor and Co. were established in 1840, and cover 13 acres, employing some 1400 hands. They are divided into two portions, about half a mile apart, termed the iron works and the wood works. At the former are constructed engines and boilers, and at the other thrashing machines and straw elevators.

The iron works are on the Water Side, on the south bank of the river Witham running through the city, and are connected with the railways by a siding. In this department are constructed portable, vertical, traction, and fixed engines; condensing, non-condensing, and compound engines; portable and semi-fixed compound engines; steam navvies, corn mills, centrifugal pumps, &c. The machinery is driven by engines made in the works, indicating some 300 HP. There are three melting cupolas in the foundry, with suitable cranes. In the boiler shop are several hydraulic riveters and a hydraulic flanging machine, bending rolls, &c.; for manipulating heavy pieces there is a large travelling crane with a number of jib cranes; also a tower with requisite tackle, under which Cornish boilers are riveted up. In the smiths' shop are more than fifty hearths, steam hammers, faggoting furnaces for making up scrap iron, nut and bolt forging machines, &c. The fitting and erecting shops cover about two acres; along one side is the casting store, and along the other a stock of boilers. That part nearest the castings is occupied by the fitters; in the centre of the shop are placed the drilling, slotting, shaping, boring machines, and lathes; the other side is used for erecting. On the occasion of the visit of the Members, one of the steam navvies was exhibited in operation, performing its movements in the same way as in the work of excavation, as described in Mr. Ruston's paper (page 349), except that it was not actually excavating.

The thrashing-machine works are also on the river Witham, but higher up and near the Midland Railway station. Here is the necessary wood-working machinery, with other tools for finishing the ironwork required; also the stock of timber. The works are driven by engines of 200 HP. The new pattern thrashing machines here constructed have the driving motion of the shoes and shakers arranged without cranks. A lifting bridge is in course of construction across the river, to join the siding and complete the connection with the railway.

Globe Works

GLOBE WORKS.
Globe Works

These works were established by the late Mr. Robey in 1852, and now stand on an area of 13 acres, employing 1100 hands, mainly devoted to the manufacture of steam engines, pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical, and mill machinery. To facilitate the output of the work, the shops have lately undergone considerable extension and rearrangement, with a great addition of modern labour-saving tools. Railway sidings are in communication with the Great Northern, Great Eastern, Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire, and Midland Railways, from which the raw material is sent direct to the several departments. The principal shops and yard are lighted by electricity.

In the foundry, which covers an acre of ground, the core stoves are heated by gas, and the lifting is mainly done by means of hydraulic cranes. To ensure good castings, the cupolas are fitted with receivers, and all small castings are dressed by a rotary machine. One of the main spans of the foundry is traversed by an overhead crane, which is connected by a line of rails whereby the castings are conveyed to the fitting shop. This shop is high, well ventilated, and lighted by electricity.

The boiler shop is the largest shop on the works, and covers an acre and a half. It is in communication with the main-yard line, where the plates are introduced, and stored in their order for various sized boilers. The hydraulic system is extensively employed for flanging, riveting, and lifting. The shop shafting is driven by three Robey engines, which are coupled direct on the shaft; they are supplied with steam by boilers of locomotive type, which receive their heat from the waste gases from the plate furnaces.

In the smiths' shop a fixed engine is coupled direct to the rolls, which roll a special iron for rivets. One end of the shop is devoted to large forgings and crank-bending for engines; while the other is given to small work, and bolts and nuts, which are here screwed and tapped.

The erecting, fitting, and machine shop, covering more than an acre of ground, has extensive galleries the full length for light tools. The main shafting is driven by two 30-HP. Robey fixed engines. Many of the tools here, as well as in other parts of the works, are of the firm's own make, being designed for their special class of manufacture. In one part of this shop are large engines in various stages of progress, fixed, portable, traction, vertical, and horizontal; also sugar machinery, mine pumps, large centrifugal pumps, and miscellaneous mining machinery. Some heavy tools are here fixed for dealing with the massive cast-iron frames and bed-plates of fixed engines. Another section of this shop is set apart for roller mills for flour-milling, dynamos, tea machines, and sawing machinery. The semi-portable winding engine with wrought-iron foundation, described in Mr. Richardson's paper (page 373) and referred to in page 390, was shown under steam on the visit of the Members; and the combined centrifugal and electrical governor with compensating arrangement attached, as described in Mr. Nevile's paper (page 385), was also seen.

The north side of the works is chiefly devoted to the manufacture of thrashing machines and agricultural machinery, and two shops to flour-mill dressing machinery.

Clarke's Crank and Forge Works

CLARKE'S CRANK AND FORGE WORKS.
Clarke's Works

These works were established in 1860, for the manufacture of bent cranks from straight bars, by Mr. Edward Clarke, who in 1872 introduced his hydraulic crank-bending machine which produces superior work to that obtained by the hand process. In 1876 the works were acquired by the present company, who have extended them considerably by the addition of a forge, with two steam hammers by Messrs. Nasmyth Wilson and Co. of Patricroft, and one by Messrs. John Musgrave and Sons of Bolton. A large hydraulic forging-press, by Messrs. Fielding and Platt of Gloucester, for shaping suspension-bridge links, is believed to be the only machine in this country that is specially adapted for this class of work. A high-speed rotary engine for electric lighting, by Messrs. Fielding and Platt, was seen at work on the visit of the Members. The works employ about a hundred men, and cover 2¼ acres; and are in immediate connection with the Great Northern and Great Eastern Railways.

Wellington Foundry

WELLINGTON FOUNDRY, AND NEW MACHINE-WORKS.
Wellington Foundry

The manufacture of portable and other steam engines, boilers, thrashing machines, agricultural and general machinery, was commenced by the late Mr. William Foster in 1856, on the premises of his large steam flour-mill, now known as the Wellington Foundry, Waterside North. Engineering gradually superseded the milling, and absorbed the whole of the premises. On his death in 1876 the present company was formed for carrying on the business.

The old works being found inadequate to the growing trade, five acres of land were acquired in 1883 on the Derby Grounds, where an extensive range of shops for the manufacture of thrashing machines &c. has been erected, together with a saw mill, wood-drying sheds &c., which are now in full operation. An extensive foundry and blacksmiths' shop are approaching completion, but at present are only making castings and forgings for the machine department; they are sufficiently large however to supply also the engine department, which is intended to be removed to the new premises as soon as possible. The new buildings have been specially designed for the purposes for which they are intended, and are light, airy, and comfortable for the men. They are furnished with an almost entirely new plant of tools, and with appliances for saving labour and material, by eminent makers. About two hundred hands are employed.

Waterside Works

WATER SIDE WORKS.
Water Side Works

These works, established in 1845 by the late Mr. Richard Duckering as an iron and brass foundry, have continued to grow steadily, and now embrace also the business of a general engineer and millwright. The number of hands employed exceeds eighty; and the works cover a tolerable area, with ample space remaining for further development.

City Iron and Wire Works

CITY IRON AND WIRE WORKS.
City Iron and Wire Works

At the above works Messrs. Penney and Co. carry on the business of machinists, iron founders, and wire workers, employing about 120 workmen and boys. The chief speciality of manufacture is their adjustable corn-screens, which since their introduction have been almost exclusively used by all the leading thrashing-machine makers in this country, Messrs Clayton and Shuttleworth having continued to use them from the first. The meshes of these screens, being capable of very accurate adjustment, may be set to treat all sorts and conditions of grain and seeds. They are constantly being employed for such purposes as the following:- the cleaning of wheat, barley, oats, rye, and similar grain; the sorting of coffee and cocoa berries; the sifting of tea; the screening of peas, beans, maize, &c.; the grading of wheat into two or more regular sizes for the purposes of roller-milling. Upwards of 27,000 have been made up to the present time, and the manufacture proceeds at the rate of about 40 to 50 per week. The shop in which these screens are made has only recently been built. It is 200 feet by 40 feet, and forms two lofty workshops, one above the other. The light screen-work is carried on in the upper storey; the lathes, drilling and slotting machines, &c., are fixed below. There is also a good foundry and joinery.

Britannia Iron and Wire Works

BRITANNIA IRON AND WIRE WORKS.
Britannia Iron and Wire Works

At these works Messrs. W. Rainforth and Sons employ between seventy and eighty hands, principally in the manufacture of corn screens both rotary and flat, and agricultural implements generally. The plant consists of two engines, together with lathes, slotting machines, drills, steam hammer, and other tools usually employed in the manufacture of agricultural machinery and wire work.

Bracebridge Gas Works

BRACEBRIDGE GAS WORKS.
Lincoln Gaslight and Coke Co

These works, belonging to the Lincoln Gaslight and Coke Co., are situated about a mile and a half south of the city. They have recently been re-modelled at a cost of about £30,000, and are replete with every modern improvement. The works are equal to the production of one million cubic feet of purified gas per day. The shunting and coal hoisting, as well as the raising of purifier covers, are done by hydraulic power. A new gasholder of half a million cubic feet capacity is now in course of construction by Messrs. W. R. Renshaw and Co., of Kidsgrove. The works are under the management of Mr. John Carter.

Lincoln Water Works

LINCOLN WATER WORKS.
Lincoln Waterworks

About 1½ miles west of the city is the waterworks impounding reservoir of 23 acres area, which forms an ornamental lake in the grounds of Hartsholme Hall. About a mile east of the reservoir are the filter beds and pumping machinery. There are three engines, one of which is the first compound engine that was made on Sims' plan, having the high and low pressure cylinders continuous with each other. A 25-inch cylinder is fixed on the top of a 50-inch cylinder, and the two pistons are on one piston-rod, the space between them being at all times open to the condenser. The length of stroke is 8 feet, and the 12-inch plunger-pump has a stroke of 7 feet. This engine was made in 1836 by Messrs. Harvey, Hayle Foundry, Cornwall.

The next engine is a 36-inch single-cylinder double-acting with 8 feet stroke, made in 1862 by Messrs. Williams, Perran Foundry, Cornwall, and working a compound pump with 9-inch plunger and 12¾-inch piston. This was the first pump in which the bucket was replaced by the piston. It had been at work here for some years before a model was exhibited to the Royal Scottish Society at Edinburgh, at which time the arrangement was there thought to be novel. To this pump a relief or break clack was first applied in 1863, by cutting out one-third of the area of the clack, and covering the aperture so made with a supplementary clack hinged upon the main clack at the edge opposite to the main hinge.

The third engine is a 58-inch single-acting cylinder of 9½ feet stroke, with an 18-inch plunger-pump of 8 feet stroke. It was started in March last, having been made by Messrs. Harvey, Hayle Foundry.

On the Cross o' Cliff hill, 1¼ mile south of the pumping station and near the county asylum, is an open service reservoir holding 1,500,000 gallons. On the opposite hill, 2 miles north of the pumping station and near the cathedral, is another open service reservoir holding 800,000 gallons; also a 6-HP. gas engine for pumping over a stand-pipe to supply the upper part of the houses situated on the top of the hill. The whole of the works are under the management of Mr. Henry Teague.

Sewage Pumping Station

SEWAGE PUMPING STATION.

In the valley about half a mile east of the city are a pair of compound engines, made by Messrs. Hathorn Davey and Co., Leeds, for pumping the sewage on to the corporation farm. The high-pressure cylinders are 15 inches diameter, and the low-pressure 30 inches diameter, the length of stroke being 5 feet. The plunger pumps are 20 inches diameter with 5 feet stroke. These works are under the management of Mr. Henry Teague.

Spittlegate Iron Works, Grantham

SPITTLEGATE IRON WORKS, GRANTHAM.
Spittlegate Iron Works

These works, established in 1815 by Mr. Richard Hornsby, now cover some 16 acres adjoining the main line of the Great Northern Railway, from which sidings are carried into every part for convenience of receiving material at the point where it is to be used, and of loading finished goods under cover in the forwarding department. The works employ on an average about 1450 hands, including officials and clerks.

About two-thirds of their area are devoted to various engineering departments, and the large shops recently erected are completely fitted with all modern appliances. The boiler shop is 212 x 100 feet, and contains a 15-ton overhead travelling crane, complete hydraulic plant, hydraulic flanging press, and full equipment of planing, drilling, punching, shearing, screwing, bending, tapping, and boiler-plate cutting machines. The engine erecting shop is 282½ x 50 feet, and has a similar overhead crane, in addition to fourteen swing jib-cranes. These two shops are lit by the Brush system of electric lighting. The turneries throughout the works cover an area of 3,390 square yards, and contain upwards of two hundred lathes of various kinds, milling, drilling, planing, shaping, slotting machines, &c. The prominent manufactures are various kinds of steam engines, namely portable, semi-portable, road locomotives, tramway or rail locomotives, horizontal stationary, vertical, compound stationary, compound portable, and horizontal winding engines; Lancashire, Cornish, vertical, locomotive, multitubular, and other boilers; saw benches.

The remaining one-third of the works is employed in the manufacture of specialities in agricultural machinery, including the sheaf-binding harvester which succeeded in winning the first prize in the trials of the Royal Agricultural Society at Shrewsbury last year; also grass mowers, reapers, ploughs, thrashing machinery, turnip cutters, root pulpers, and specialities for home use as well as for the different colonies and other countries.

Newark Boiler Works

NEWARK BOILER WORKS, NEWARK.
Newark Boiler Works

These works, built in 1884 by Messrs. Thomas Abbott and Co., stand on 3½ acres of land, of which about 1 acre is covered in. The object aimed at has been to erect the most suitable works at a moderate cost for doing high-class light boiler-work. The main building, 200 feet long by 130 feet wide, is so arranged that the boiler plates are delivered by rail into the platers' bands, and all operations necessary to make a complete boiler follow on consecutively — flanging, punching, planing edges, welding, drilling, hydraulic and hand riveting, testing, and loading for despatch — without any retrograde movement. This enables a maximum of work to be done with a minimum of labour; and thus with only a hundred hands a very large amount of work is produced. All the principal machines, namely plate-rolls, punching, shearing, riveting machines, and blower for smiths' fires, are driven by separate engines, all of which take steam from the same boiler: so that any part of the work which may be behindhand can be kept going overtime without running the main shafting.

The foundry department is at present carried on in another part of the town.

Trent Iron Works

TRENT IRON WORKS, NEWARK.

Trent Iron Works

These works, belonging to Messrs. W. N. Nicholson and Son, have on one side the Midland Railway station, with sidings into the works; and on the other the Trent navigation, giving direct communication to the midland manufacturing and coal districts, and to the ports of Hull, Goole, and Grimsby. Two departments of manufacture are carried on. The general engineering part is devoted to vertical, portable, and fixed steam engines, with a rather extensive boiler department; and to bone mills, rice shellers, and other heavy and light machinery for home, foreign, and colonial use. The implement shops are devoted to the manufacture of a great variety of agricultural machines; and are arranged to take up the consecutive work of each season as it comes round:- harrows, cultivators, clod-crushers, rollers, and field implements in the spring; horse rakes and hay-makers in the summer; grinding mills and barn machinery in the autumn; and root-cutters and other food-preparing machines in the winter.

Britannia Iron Works, Gainsborough

BRITANNIA IRON WORKS, GAINSBOROUGH.
Britannia Iron Works

These works, belonging to Messrs. Marshall Sons and Co., were established on a very small scale in 1848. At the present time they occupy a total area of over 16 acres, of which 11½ acres are covered with substantial buildings, many of them two storeys high, constructed mostly of bricks made on the spot. The nominal power required to drive the machine-tools is 400 HP., the indicated power being probably 1200 HP.; steam is supplied by boilers of 490 aggregate nominal HP. The total length of main-line shafting in the shops is 5610 feet; and there are over 35,000 feet of belting. From 1800 to 1900 mechanics are employed, besides foremen and office staff. The works are situated on the west side of the main line of the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway; and an approach road leading to the railway station divides them into two parts, known as the north and south sides, which are connected by a tunnel under the road. As the station is situated on ground about 28 feet higher than the works, this facilitates the delivery of raw material brought in by the line. Finished articles are put directly on the trucks in the packing department, which is in immediate communication with the railway sidings. Although the works have been built up piece by piece as extensions have been required, the shops are so planned that the work shall as far as possible be always moving forwards in the successive stages of its progress, seldom going over the same ground twice.

The north side comprises offices, engineering department, iron foundry, and boiler shop, all arranged with a view to economising labour to the fullest extent possible. When extensive alterations now in progress are completed, the later labour-saving devices introduced will enable this aim to be even yet more fully realised.

The south side, covering a larger area than the north, consists of the smithy, the wood-working departments, and the shops devoted to the ironwork in connection with thrashing, corn-grinding, tea and coffee preparing, and other machinery. The greater part of the buildings on the south side are of bricks made on the spot in Foster's kiln, the output being about 60,000 bricks per week when working one press only.

The engine erecting and general tool shop is a building of three bays, covering a total area of 57,644 square feet; the centre span is 56 feet, and the two others 38 feet each, with galleries all round for lighter tools. Power is supplied by three 18-HP. wall engines, for which steam is furnished by two 40-HP. Lancashire boilers. There are considerably over 200 machine-tools, of which a large proportion are of special make to suit the particular work required. The shop is lighted both by Crompton's electric light and by gas, and is heated by steam in hollow columns. On the ground floor and also connected with the gallery are two smiths' shops for making and grinding the tools pertaining to the many special labour-saving machines used. Adjoining are the engine stores, where the finished parts of engines are kept on two floors, the heavy parts ou the lower floor and the lighter details on the upper. The paint shop, adjoining the principal testing shed, has a floor space capable of accommodating 24 engines at a time.

The foundry, including the fettling shop at the north end, has at present an area of 20,420 square feet. In the east bay there are two 20-ton jib-cranes; also smaller hand-cranes, a 10-ton overhead traveller, the usual sand-mixing machinery, and two 48-inch Lloyd fans. Extensions in progress will when completed increase the foundry area to 59,700 square feet. The clay excavated for these extensions is being made up into bricks on the premises.

The boiler shop, entirely remodelled within the last few years, covers an area of 70,820 square feet, and is built entirely of brick, and divided into seven bays, each for a separate branch of work. At one corner is the entrance for railway trucks, which are brought direct into the boiler-plate stores, where the plates are unloaded by means of two 2-ton travelling jib-cranes, and are deposited in rows according to size and quality. At the other end of the same bay is a multiple punch, which will take in and punch boiler plates up to 12 feet long and 4 feet wide, and will punch 27 holes at a time, with any pitch and with an accuracy of 1-5,000th of an inch. The next bay contains large punching and shearing presses and other general tools, and a special 4-spindle drill for firebox frames; also a large plate- furnace, a 4-ton overhead travelling crane, and a number of 1-ton jib- cranes attached to columns and walls. The heat of the plate-furnace is utilised for a 40-HP. Lancashire boiler made entirely of steel; and the application of waste gases for steam generation is generally carried out throughout the works. The next bay contains another large plate-heating furnace, in connection with a 100-ton hydraulic flanging press, which is the first Piedboeuf flanging press erected in England for commercial purposes. The next bay is for machine-riveting, and contains four steam and three hydraulic riveting machines with the necessary rivet furnaces; also a special boiler-shell drilling machine. The roof of this bay is higher than of the rest, so as to cover a riveting tower for riveting up large Cornish and Lancashire boilers on end; the tower is provided with two 15-ton steam lifts, so that loads up to 30 tons can be conveniently handled. The hand-riveting bay comes next, in which there are several special tools, including a man-hole milling machine, and a 3-spindle horizontal drill for drilling through boiler shells and flanges of tube-plates when in position. At one end of this bay is a watertight gallery, made entirely of iron, where all boilers of the locomotive and vertical type are tested by hydraulic pressure before leaving.

In the general smithy are 73 fires, nine steam-hammers, and two drop-hammers, besides a large number of foot olivers, punching and shearing presses, and nut-forging, drilling, and stamping machines. Blast is supplied by two 48-inch Lloyd fans. The machinery is driven by a 12-HP. horizontal engine and two 14-HP. vertical engines. Two 40-HP. Lancashire boilers supply steam for the engines and steam-hammers. Balling furnaces are about to be put down for making special forgings of remade iron. A building at the end of the smiths' shop is being fitted up for the eight electric-light engines and four dynamo machines. The engines are vertical, 14 HP. each, made in the works, a duplicate being provided to each machine; and steam is supplied by two Lancashire boilers in an adjoining house.

The fitting and machine-tool shop is arranged for preparing the general ironwork for the thrashing-machine department, and also includes mill work, saw benches, tea and coffee machinery, steam capstans, shafting, pulleys, &c. The machinery is driven by two 35-HP. horizontal engines made in the works, supplied with steam by three 50-HP. underfired multitubular boilers. There are 67 lathes, and about as many other machine-tools of various kinds, all of modern make. In the gallery are milling machines, lathes, emery wheels, &c.

The thrashing-machine framing and elevator department contains 42 double and 19 single benches, with the necessary tools and appliances. Above it is the thrashing-machine erecting shop, 313 feet long and 63 feet wide, containing 25 double and 32 single benches, with hoists and runners, circular saws, drilling machines, and all other necessary tools. These shops are in connection with the machine stores, which contain a floor area of 14,229 square feet. The saw mill is about 130 feet square, divided into four bays, and completely equipped with wood-working machinery of all kinds.

Ashcroft Saw and Planing Mills, Gainsborough

ASHCROFT SAW AND PLANING MILLS, GAINSBOROUGH.
Ashcroft Saw and Planing Mills

These works, built about three years ago by Messrs. H. Newsum and Co., are laid out upon the most modern and improved plan, and are furnished with special machinery for the preparation of English and foreign timber. They enjoy special facilities for carrying on this particular business, being situated upon the banks of the navigable river Trent, and connected with the Great Northern and Great Eastern Railways by sidings, laid throughout the yard and timber sheds; a steam locomotive crane is used for loading timber. The saw mill is 250 feet long by 60 feet wide, and is fitted up with all modern wood-preparing machinery and labour-saving appliances.

G N R Works, Doncaster

GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, DONCASTER.
G N R Works, Doncaster

The shops of the locomotive department of the Great Northern Railway at Doncaster were started in 1852, and have from time to time been increased, until at present 2500 men are employed within the gates. Gas is made in the works for supplying both the works themselves and the adjoining station platforms, &c. The whole extent of ground covered by roof amounts to 16 acres; and the areas of the principal shops are as given below:—


Square Yards.
Smithy and Forge 2,460
Locomotive Fitting Shops, Erecting and Tender Shop 12,795
Iron and Brass Foundry with Pattern Shop 2,305
Carriage and Wagon-building Shops, Sheds, &c. 27,906
Boiler Shop 3,333
Timber Drying Shop 3,333
Stores 4,104
Grease Works 561
Offices 534


The smithy is a shop of L shape in plan, containing a large number of fires and nine steam-hammers, under which a great many forgings are made in dies. There are also Ryder swaging machines for making bolts, with Horsfall's nut and bolt machines. Coupling chains are welded in dies under the steam-hammer, the butt ends of the links being overlapped without scarfing, and forced together in the dies in welding. The side-frames of locomotives are here welded up. Adjoining is a tyre shed, where the tyres are put on the wheels, and where also are made the steam-hammers for use in the works. An adjacent spring shop contains smiths' fires, furnaces, and steam-hammer; a machine for forging, punching, nibbing, and pointing the spring plates at one heat; and a steam testing-machine that will test up to 10 tons. In the forge are five steam-hammers, from 2 tons upwards, one of which is used for wheel bossing.

The fitting shop contains the usual heavy tools for turning wheels, planing frame-plates, boring cylinders, turning crank-axles, and for other heavy work. At one end are the hydraulic presses for pressing wheels on their axles. An upper floor carries the lighter tools. In the engine erecting shop a steam traversing platform works all down the centre, for carrying the engines to and from the pits, which are ranged in a row down each side. Over each row of pits runs a 3-ton travelling crane; in addition to which there is over one row a 50-ton travelling crane. For adjusting the bearing springs to distribute the required load upon each wheel, a large weighing machine is employed, having eight tables, whereby each wheel of an eight-wheeled locomotive can be weighed individually. Adjoining is the tender erecting shop.

In the foundry, which has two cupolas and the usual cranes and other appliances, the castings include a number of cast-iron chimneys of ⅝ inch thickness, which are found to last much longer than the ordinary boiler-plate chimneys used on locomotives.

The carriage and wagon-building shops, of which the latter covers two acres and the former nearly as much, contain a large number of wood-working machines of all kinds; repairs of carriages and wagons are also executed. Between these shops is the timber drying shed.

The boiler shop is in two bays, with a travelling crane in each. At one end are the accumulator and pumps for hydraulic riveting. One of the stationary hydraulic riveters has a hydraulic crane attached to it. A portable hydraulic riveter is used for the foundation rings of fire-boxes and for girder work.

The stores include one in which is kept a standard pattern of every part made.

Grimsby Docks

GRIMSBY DOCKS.
Grimsby Docks

The Grimsby Docks comprise the Royal Dock, Union Dock, Alexandra Dock, Old Fish Dock, and New Fish Dock. The engineer is Mr. George Cartwright.

The Royal Dock is 2,300 feet long and 500 feet wide, and has an area of 25 acres. It is entered from a tidal basin of 14 acres, through two entrance locks, the larger of which is 300 feet long and 70 feet wide with 26 feet depth of water on the sill at high water of ordinary spring tides. At the time of its completion in 1852 this lock would accommodate the largest steamships of the royal navy. The smaller lock is 200 feet long and 45 feet wide. Each lock has two pairs of pen gates and one pair of flood gates, all made of English oak and greenheart, and worked by hydraulic power. The dock walls are built on arches of 27 feet 4 inches span; the arches are formed of four half-brick rings, and are supported on masonry piers 6 feet thick, which are built on piled foundations.

Attached to the Royal Dock is a graving dock 400 feet long, 350 feet on the blocks, and 87 feet wide at the top. The entrance is 70 feet wide, and the depth of water on the sill is 20 feet. The dock is emptied to low-water level by a culvert, and the remaining water is pumped out.

The quays, and the adjoining transit sheds and warehouses, are provided with eighteen hydraulic cranes of from 1 to 5 tons power, and five hydraulic hoists, as well as numerous hand cranes, the largest of which is capable of lifting 20 tons. The hydraulic power for working the lock gates and cranes is derived from the tower between the two entrance locks. The total height of the tower from the quay to the top of the lantern is 300 feet; to the bottom of the water tank the height is 214 feet, and the depth of water in the tank when full is 8 feet. The water is pumped into the tank by a pair of engines of 250 horse-power. The tower is built upon a solid block of masonry, which rests upon piled foundations. On the west side of the dock, sheers to lift 70 tons have recently been erected, the hydraulic power being furnished by an accumulator of 17 inches diameter and 17 feet lift, which is worked by a steam pumping engine of 40 horse-power.

The Union Dock, completed in 1879, forms a connection between the Royal and Alexandra Docks. It is 96 feet wide, and has an area of 1¼ acres. The dock walls vary in thickness from 20 feet to 26 feet, and rest upon piles. The lock is 45 feet wide, and the depth of water on the sill is 21 feet. The gates, the swing bridge over the lock, and the capstans on the lock side are worked by hydraulic power from the accumulator above mentioned.

The Alexandra Dock is an enlargement and extension of an old dock, which was originally formed early in the present century by the holding up of the waters of an inland stream called the river Freshney. It is 48 acres in extent, and 21 feet deep. In addition to the entrance from the Union Dock it communicates with the Humber by means of a lock 145 feet long and 35 feet wide, with a depth of 18 feet on the sill at high water. The dock is principally used for the import of timber, sleepers, and pit props.

The two Fish Docks have a total area of 23 acres, and are entered by two locks having a width of 20 and 30 feet respectively. The fish market alongside these docks is 1950 feet long, and varies in width from 37 feet to 80 feet. In addition to this there are two stages for the accommodation of the fishing trade, having a total area of 9,236 square yards; and a further extension is now in course of construction, which will give an additional area of 3,360 square yards.

A graving dock which will hold ten smacks at a time is entered from the outer or Old Fish Dock. Its length is 400 feet, width 50 feet, width of entrance 30 feet, and depth of water on sill 18½ feet.

There are two coal drops in the Alexandra Dock, and two in the Royal Dock, each of which is capable of loading two ships simultaneously at the rate of 100 tons each per hour.

The docks and their entrances are dredged by means of five powerful steam dredgers, and one Priestman's crane and bucket. Two of the dredgers are hopper-dredgers, capable of carrying respectively 300 and 500 tons, and are fitted with screw propellers.


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