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Note: This is a sub-section of 1882 Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Visits to Works (Excursions) to Leeds, Bradford and Hull areas
The afternoons of Tuesday, 15th August, and Wednesday, 16th August, were devoted to visiting various Works in the town and neighbourhood of Leeds, which had been kindly thrown open to the Members a large number of brakes being in readiness on both days (supplied free by the Local Committee) to facilitate visits to outlying places.
A list of the works so thrown open will be found below, p. 454. It is followed by short notices of most of the more important works, which are derived from information kindly supplied from the works themselves, and supplemented in some instances from a series of articles published in The Engineer during the months of July and August.
On Wednesday evening the Members and their friends were invited by the Local Committee to a Conversazione at the Philosophical Hall, which was very largely attended. The chair was taken in the lecture room at 8.30, by Mr. James Kitson, Jun., Chairman of the Executive Committee, and lectures were given in the course of the evening as follows:—
Amongst a large number of objects of interest, specially brought together for the occasion, may be mentioned Brush arc lamps, and Lane-Fox incandescent lamps, supplied by the Yorkshire Brush Electric Light and Power Company, and worked by a dynamo machine driven by Messrs. John Fowler and Co.'s Yorkshire compound engine; De Laval's centrifugal cream separator, contributed by Messrs. D. Hald and Co., and driven at 6,000 revolutions per minute through a dynamo machine by a Parsons high-speed engine lent by Messrs. Kitson and Co.; the original model of Blenkinsop's locomotive, contributed by Mr. Embleton (see Mr. Meysey-Thompson's Paper, ante, p. 268); model of 5,500 H.P. unarmoured cruiser, contributed by the President; model of the proposed bridge over the Forth, contributed by Messrs. Fowler and Baker; models of hydraulic coal hoist, and of train-boats as used upon the Aire and Calder navigation, contributed by Mr. W. H. Bartholomew, 31. Inst. C.E. (see President's address, ante, p. 263); observatory hive, with bees working under the electric light, contributed by Mr. William Daniel, M. Inst. M.E.; diagram of Joule's apparatus for determining the mechanical equivalent of heat, contributed by Mr. Henry Davey, M. Inst. M.E.; and examples of high-speed multiple drilling of long small holes, contributed by Mr. T. R. Harding.
On Thursday afternoon, 17th August, an Excursion was made to BRADFORD, by special train, provided free by the kindness of the Midland Railway Company. At Bradford the Exhibition of Textile Industries, opened by H.P.H. the Prince of Wales on 23rd June, was visited: here among many objects of interest were seen several textile machines of various kinds in actual operation, including the Wool-Combing machine described by Mr. F. M. T. Lange in this volume (ante, p. 214).
A visit was also paid to the engineering works of Messrs. Thwaites Bros., and to the mechanical departments of the Whetley Mills (Messrs. Daniel Illingworth and Sons), and the Manningham Silk Mills (Messrs. Lister and Co.). Notices of these works will be found below, p. 466-7.
In the evening the Annual Summer Dinner of the Institution was held in the Victoria Hall, the President in the chair; the number dining was over two hundred.
On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, at the conclusion of the General Meeting, the members were entertained at luncheon in the Victoria Hall, by invitation of the Local Committee.
In the afternoons of the same days there was an exhibition of Ploughing and Cultivation by Steam, arranged by the kindness of Messrs. John Fowler and Co.
Friday, 18th August, was occupied in an Excursion to HULL, which was attended by over 250 members. They travelled by special train, provided free by the kindness of the North Eastern Railway Company, and were set down close to the works of the new Alexandra Dock of the Hull and Barnsley Railway Company.
After partaking of refreshments, kindly provided by the contractors, Messrs. Lucas and Aird, they inspected the whole of the dock works, including the hydraulic engine-house and accumulator, already at work, and a "hydraulic navvy," or excavator worked by water-power, which had just been started.
They then visited the extensive works of Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, and from thence were conveyed in carriages, provided free by the kindness of the Hull Reception Committee, to the Assembly Rooms. Here they were entertained at luncheon by invitation of the Reception Committee, the Mayor of Hull occupying the chair.
In the afternoon a visit was paid to the West Docks, in a steamer provided by the kindness of the Hull Dock Company; here the works of the new extension were examined, and also the pumping station of the Hull Hydraulic Power Company.
Many of the members also visited other objects of interest in the town, which were kindly thrown open. A list of these will be found below, p. 468, together with notices of the works specially visited. The members returned to Leeds in the evening by special train.
WORKS AT LEEDS THROWN OPEN TO THE INSTITUTION.
MESSRS. JOSHUA BUCKTON & CO., WELL HOUSE FOUNDRY, MEADOW ROAD, LEEDS.
These works stand on 3.5 acres of ground, and employ about three hundred hands. Here are made self-acting engineers' tools, heavy shearing machines, rail-finishing machinery, and special machines, such as testing machines and scale-beam dividing engines. A noticeable feature in these tools is the adoption of frames and beds so constructed as to make the machines independent of their foundations, so that machines are tested before sending them out by simply connecting them by a strap to some of the works' shafting, by means of the small special engine attached to the machine itself.
Among the tools being made was a strong machine for paring the ends of steel rails accurately to length: also a very large planing machine, to plane 12 ft. 6 in. wide, and capable of carrying a casting weighing 30 tons. In the V bed of this machine a number of recesses are made at intervals and partly filled with oil; in each of these runs a pair of small wheels, which take up and distribute oil on the beds, as the travelling bed runs over them. The wear of the belt in heavy planing machines is overcome by placing a planed board under the strap, which is always more or less inclined, in such a position as to leave the strap perfectly free when tight, but to support it when at the time of the reversal it flaps about or tends to do so. The board is coated with a mixture of black-lead and tallow. This expedient has as reduced the breakage of straps that one machine has now been working for four years with a strap which had been rejected as not strong enough for it.
MESSRS. JOHN FOWLER & CO., STEAM PLOUGH AND LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, HUNSLET, LEEDS.
The principal manufactures are steam-ploughing engines, traction engines, semi-portable engines for mining and other purposes, and portable railways with plant complete. Most of the steam-ploughing and traction engines at present in course of manufacture are on the compound principle. The portable-railway plant consists of locomotives of various sizes, from 4-inch cylinders upwards, and trucks both for passengers and for goods of every class; and of the railway itself, with its crossings, sidings, curves, &c. The works cover an area:of above seven acres.
MESSRS. THOMAS GREEN & SON, SMITHFIELD IRON WORKS, NORTH STREET, LEEDS.
These works were established in 1835. Their specialities are numerous, embracing vertical engines and boilers combined, and Walker's three-cylinder engine and boiler for driving electric machines, &c., one of which was seen at work. They are also makers of Wilkinson's tramway engines, steam road-rollers, agricultural, horticultural, laundry, and domestic machinery; and are wire-workers, galvanisers, &c. They employ over 300 hands.
Messrs. GREENWOOD & BATLEY, ALBION WORKS, ARMLEY ROAD, LEEDS.
These works stand on sixteen acres of ground, and wore entered upon in 1864, the firm having removed from East Street. The drawing office is in a block of building to the left of the entrance gates. Close by is the pattern-making shop, with circular and band saws, wood-planing and saw-shaping machines, and wood-turning lathes.
The foundry contains two 15-ton steam cranes for lifting the ladles, and for handling the castings, all the motions being done by steam power. Outside the foundry the large castings are dressed by manual labour; but adjoining is a shop where smaller castings are dressed by rotary machinery. About two tons per hour are thus cleaned by the process of friction, pieces of wood being intermingled to prevent breakage.
In the planing shop, which comes next, were seen, amongst other work in band, dynamo and letterpress printing machinery. In the adjoining erecting shop, 222 ft. long by 75 ft. wide, was seen dynamo machinery in another stage; also several specimens of bullet-making and small-arms machinery. Bullets are made by these machines at the rate of 100 per minute. There were also machines for punching discs and for making metallic cartridges, a board-drop hammer for stamping small forgings, trimming machinery, bolt and nut forging machines, and Ryder's forging machines for forging parts of guns.
The smiths' shop contains three steam-hammers, one board-drop hammer, and other tools, including glaziers for polishing parts of textile machinery. The second erecting shop is 180 ft. long by 72 ft. wide, and contains band-saws for cutting iron cold, a large wheel-cutting machine, band-saw sharpening machines, slitting and milling machines, &c.
In one compartment upstairs are 120 workmen making smaller tools, such as for small-arms, screwing, sewing, and other machines. The tools here employed are similar to those below, but of lighter calibre. A gun-lock bedding machine, to snake the recess in the stock for the gun-lock, a butt-plate bedding machine applicable to the end of gun-stocks, and a profiling machine, were specially to be noticed; also machinery for cutting leather into slips for belting, banding machinery requisite for gun-stocks, an efficient machine for turning and slitting heads of joiners' screws, and other machines for cutting the threads. With the latter machinery, from three to five screws can be turned out per minute, of average sizes.
There were also machines for sewing with the waxed threads used by bootmakers; one size for sewing the uppers, and larger ones for sewing on the sole leather. These are also used for belting and harness work.
In another part of the works is an office appropriated to drawings in connection with the manufacture of wool, silk, and china-grass machinery. Here also the small-arms machinery is brought to be tested, i.e. the tools and fixtures are carefully submitted to actual work. Another section of this room is filled with spinning and twisting or drawing and roving frames for silk manufacturers, and with screw-gill boxes for wool combers. In another division are small tools for making various parts of textile machinery.
Altogether 1000 workmen are employed.
MESSRS. HATHORN DAVEY & CO., SUN FOUNDRY, DEWSBURY ROAD, LEEDS. <br< These works were established by Messrs. Carrett Marshall and Co., about thirty years ago, for the manufacture of pumping and hydraulic machinery. For the last ten years they have been in the possession of the present firm, and have turned out a large number of powerful pumping and hydraulic engines, both for water supply and for mining purposes, many of them on Mr. Davey's compound differential system; and also mining machinery of all kinds. There were in hand several large pumping engines, and a centrifugal pump for raising 100 tons of water per minute, which is to be used for draining purposes. A small steam motor with flashing boiler was on view; also an engine-recorder for pumping engines, which registers on a sheet of paper from day to day a complete chart of the working of the engine, and shows the quantity of water pumped during every hour of each day.
HUNSLET ENGINE CO., HUNSLET ENGINE WORKS, JACK LANE, HUNSLET.
These works make a speciality of locomotive tank-engines for narrow-gauge and light railways, also for contractors, ironworks, collieries, &c. One of MacColl's variable-power riveting machines is in use here, the only one at present in Leeds. Some bogie tank- engines, 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, for South Africa, with cow-catcher, spark-arresting chimney, and other accessories common on colonial engines, were seen finished.
MESSRS. KITSON & CO., AIREDALE FOUNDRY, HUNSLET ROAD, LEEDS.
These works were started thirty-six years ago, and now employ 1,000 hands, and cover about seven acres. They are devoted mainly to the building of locomotive, stationary, and tramway engines, which, with a number of Parsons' high-speed engines, were seen in various stages of progress. Amongst the machine-tools in course of erection was a hydraulic riveting machine on Tweddell's system, for riveting up boiler shells vertically, having 12 ft. clear space between the riveting dies and the bottom of the jaws; it will give a squeeze of 40 tons with a water pressure of 1500 lbs. per sq. in. In another shop is a lathe to take in a 20-ft. wheel.
In the machine and fitting shops are a large number of machine-tools with revolving cutters, including disc-wheels with cutters let into them, so as to form circular saws, for cutting out crank forgings, shaping forked joints, and other purposes. The electric light is largely used in the works, notwithstanding its costliness as compared with the cheap gas of Leeds.
As a curiosity of old machinery may be noticed a punching and shearing machine by Joshua Buckton, made in 1848, which has stood the wear and tear of thirty-three years wonderfully well. The tramway engines made by the firm, with the valve-gear described in the Proceedings, 1880, p. 435, are now working successfully in Blackburn, Leeds, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and elsewhere.
MESSRS. SAMUEL LAWSON & SONS, HOPE FOUNDRY, MARGATE, LEEDS.
This foundry, established over seventy years since, covers an area of more than ten acres, and employs about 1800 hands. Formerly the firm were spinners, as well as machine makers; but for the last thirty years they have confined themselves exclusively to making all classes of machinery for preparing and spinning flax, hemp, and jute, and for the manufacture of twines. They make also special machinery for preparing and spinning Manilla and other hemps for rope yarns.
MESSRS. MANNING WARDLE & CO., BOYNE ENGINE WORKS, JACK LANE, HUNSLET.
Locomotive tank-engines form the speciality of these works, started in 1858; since which date a hundred various types of tank and other locomotive engines have been designed and constructed here for upwards of thirty different widths of gauge, and adapted where necessary for passing round sharp curves and ascending steep gradients. They are suitable for any climate, and for burning either coal or wood, as well as for all kinds of special duties. They are built to standard gauges and templates, to ensure interchangeable parts and correct duplicates. In course of construction are some steam tramway-engines, a number of which are already working satisfactorily.
MESSRS. SCRIVEN & CO. (late SCRIVEN & HOLDSWORTH), LEEDS OLD FOUNDRY, MARSH LANE, LEEDS.
These works were established in 1851 by the present owner, for he manufacture of machine-tools for iron-ship builders and engineers. They also make special machinery for boring and rifling the largest and heaviest class of modern ordnance, and had just supplied a second set of plant of the newest design for the Chinese government. Their new vertical plate-rolls bend the longest and heaviest plates for marine and other boilers to any radius or to a complete circle; the plates come out perfectly circular, without straight lengths at the ends. A double keel-plate bending machine bends at one operation both sides of the garboard stroke of a plate-keel ship, and will also bend the garboard stroke for bar-keel ships as well. A new side-light cutting machine was shown in operation, for cutting holes for side lights in ships after they have been plated, in order to get the holes into proper position; it may also be used for cutting manholes and mudholes in boilers, and for similar work.
MESSRS. SMITH BEACOCK & TANNETT, VICTORIA FOUNDRY, WATER LANE, LEEDS.
These works formerly belonged to Matthew Murray, the maker of the original Blenkinsop locomotive (ante p. 268); and when the present firm took the place forty-five years ago, there were still remaining all the rails and the engine pit which Matthew Murray used in his engine building.
The operation has recently been satisfactorily accomplished of throwing several of the original smaller shops into one large workshop, measuring 248 ft. by 146 ft., by taking down some of the old outside walls, and putting iron pillars and girders in their place. Here are made special tools of the largest kinds, particularly for marine-engine work; also Barrow's screwing machine for general screwing operations. There are about forty cranes, including five travellers worked by power. The large jib cranes in the foundry are worked by straps, and will lift 20 tons each.
In one part of the works is a 30 horsepower beam-engine, sixty years old, of Matthew Murray's make, which drives half the tools in the shops. A 50-ton travelling crane was under construction; also a lathe for ordnance, 75 ft. by 9 ft., and weighing SO tons.
MESSRS. TANNETT WALKER & CO., GOODMAN STREET WORKS, HUNSLET, LEEDS.
These works have been in existence twenty years, and stand upon ten acres. All the heavy machinery used in the manufacture of iron and steel is made here, such as Bessemer and Siemens plant; rolling-mill machinery; large and small steam-hammers; machines for shearing, punching, &c.; hydraulic machinery, such as pumping engines, accumulators, tanks, cranes, hoists, capstans, and swing-bridges; and all dock and warehouse machinery.
Over one of the large erecting shops is a rope travelling-crane fitted with worm gear and pitch pulleys, and driven by a separate engine. In the works is hydraulic machinery for hauling heavy weights. Very large castings can be made; and there is a deep pit in which hydraulic cylinders and rams up to 30 tons weight and 50 feet in length can be cast. A 30-ton steam jib-crane commands this pit, which is kept in constant operation for large hydraulic cylinders and rams, required in the Bessemer and Siemens processes; all of these are made from the best selected cold-blast and hematite iron, and are cast with a large rising head. A large pair of compound rail-mill reversing engines was just completed, with two high-pressure cylinders of 34 inches diameter, and two low-pressure of 60 inches diameter, all 5 feet stroke.
A large pair of compound Bessemer blowing engines with surface-condensers was also just completed; both high and low-pressure cylinders were fitted with expansion-valves. Twelve hydraulic four-cylinder capstan engines were making here for H.M. Dockyard at Chatham, each capable of exerting a pull of 16 tons at the rate of 30 feet per minute, and 8 and 4 tons at higher speeds, working at a pressure of 700 lbs. per sq. in.
There were also several machines for a Bessemer steel works, a complete arrangement for tipping large converters by hydraulic power, and hydraulic machinery for the Cheshire Lines goods warehouses, and for the Great Northern Railway premises in London, &c. A number of ingot cranes on Mr. Walker's balance principle (Proceedings 1881, P. 633) were making for the Bessemer and Siemens processes, or fur foundries.
MESSRS. JOSEPH WHITHAM & SON, PERSEVERANCE IRON WORKS, KIRKSTALL ROAD, LEEDS.
This firm are makers of steam engines of all descriptions, with compound cylinders and automatic cut-off expansion gear, or on the Corliss principle; also deep-lift pumps, plant for blast-furnaces, steam-boilers of all kinds, and wrought-iron girders and tanks.
Oil-mill machinery, both for the old and new processes, is produced here: the first hydraulic oil-presses ever used having been made by this firm. Iron is also made by Whitham's Puddling Machine; and there is a forge and mill for ship and boiler plates, angles, &c.
FARNLEY IRON WORKS, FARNLEY.
These works, which have been in existence about forty years, were founded by four brothers, one of whom, Mr. William Armitage of Ainderby Hall near Northallerton, still survives. The whole of their produce is from the minerals raised on the estate. The ironstone, with the Black-Bed coal (see Mr. Meysey-Thompson's paper, ante, p. 275-6), occurs at various depths, and is raised from five pits; the ore contains about 30 to 33 per cent. of metallic iron. The coal used for smelting is not the Black-Bed seam worked with the ironstone, but the Better-lied seam, which occurs about 40 yards below the stone, and is all made into coke for smelting. The ironstone is calcined, and cold blast is used for the blast-furnaces.
As only the highest quality of best Yorkshire iron is made at these works, the processes of refining and puddling, and the manufacture of blooms, bars, slabs, boiler-plates, and forgings, are carried on here in precisely the same manner as at the Lowmoor and Bowling Works.
The Fernley Works produce plates of exceptionally large size. A large rolling-mill designed by Mr. Gillott, and put to work six years ago, has rolls 31 in. diameter and 11 ft. long, in which a number of plates have been rolled, some of them 10 ft. square, and others 10 ft. 8 in. diameter. There is a smaller plate-mill with rolls 24 in. diameter; an 18 in. bar-mill; and an 8-in. guide-mill.
There are nine steam-hammers of large size, and a tyre-mill for the production of weldless tyres.
The engineers' department is provided with tools for finishing the flanged work, executing new work, and doing the whole of the repairs required in the works. In the foundry are made the whole of the castings needed.
Gas furnaces are largely used for heating. Underneath the Better-Bed coal used for smelting is a bed of fire-clay (Plate 50), from 2 ft. to 24 ft. thick, which is workable in most cases when the depth below surface does not exceed 70 yards; and the fire-brick trade at Fernley, with its allied products, is probably of equal importance with the iron manufacture. Sanitary tubes, gas retorts, chimney-pots, fire-bricks and lumps, have been made here for a great number of years; and more recently the manufacture on a large scale of glazed and ornamental bricks has been carried on with great success, the highs quality of the coal and of the clay largely contributing to this result.
The works occupy an area of about sixty acres. From the raising of the raw material to the turning out of the finished bars, plates, forgings, bricks, and earthenware goods, the whole of the processes are carried on at the works; and material found at Farnley is almost exclusively employed.
KIRKSTALL FORGE CO., KIRKSTALL FORGE, NEAR LEEDS.
These ironworks are not far from the ruins of the famous Kirkstall Abbey, founded A.D. 1152 for monks of the Cistercian Order; and are among the oldest ironworks in the country. They were established in the family of the present proprietors, the Messrs. Butler, in 1779.
The works cover an area of about fourteen acres; about a thousand is the full complement of workmen. Here are made railway tyres and axles, crank-axles, forgings, bar iron, angles, &c., of "Best Yorkshire" iron, manufactured solely from cold-blast pig, refined and selected; also merchant iron in different qualities, and steel bars and forgings. The principal speciality is rolled shafting, which has proved a very successful manufacture. This shafting is made from carefully selected pig-iron; and after being worked and rolled in the ordinary manner, is taken while still hot from the rolls, and passed through the patent straightening and planishing machine, which compresses the iron, removes all scale, gives it a smooth finished surface, and leaves it in all essentials equal to ordinary turned iron. The effect of this process on the iron is to add greatly to its strength and rigidity, so that it shows 20 per cent. more elastic torsional strength, and 30 per cent. more elastic flexional strength, than shafting rolled only in the ordinary manner. Another speciality is Butler's frictional coupling, which has been brought out specially for the above-named shafting. It requires no keys, nor any fitter's work, and holds entirely by friction; and as in fixing it closes up concentrically, it ensures true and accurate running of the shafting.
MESSRS. JOHN BARRAN & SONS, WHOLESALE CLOTHING MANUFACTORY, PARK SQUARE, LEEDS.
This firm was established in 1855, for the manufacture of clothing by machinery (see Mr. Meysey-Thompson's paper, ante, p. 272). Its the basement are numerous machines cutting out suits, the motive power being obtained from two of Crossley's silent gas-engines, one of 16 and the other of 8 horse-power; these are also used for driving the hoist and the sewing machines on the top floor of the building. On the first floor is a stock of clothing of all sizes and shapes. On the next floor are the pressing machines, heated by gas. In the top storey are 300 sewing machines, all in one room, which is lighted from above. Intricate designs in braiding are done hero with wonderful precision and speed. The number of work people employed at present is nearly 2000.
MESSRS. J. J. FLITCH & SON, LEATHER AND GLUE FACTORY, BUSLINGTHORPE, LEEDS.
These works, established in 1850, carry on the several processes of unhairing, liming, fleshing, paring, tanning, dyeing, shaving, and finishing most descriptions of leather, more especially the better classes for fancy goods, such as russia, morocco, calf, &c. By the aid of several labour-saving appliances, about one thousand dozen skins are turned out per week, or about half a million per annum. These works were amongst the first to introduce the electrotype process in embossing skivers, which enables an almost endless variety of grains and surface markings to be produced. They import largely russia bides, which are dyed and finished in various colours, to be used principally for binding books and for fancy leather goods.
MESSRS. JOSHUA TETLEY & SON, THE BREWERY, HUNSLET ROAD, LEEDS.
The original brewery was started about half a century ago; and the present one, commenced in 1855, now covers an area of over six acres. Two new cast-iron mash-tuns have been erected by Messrs. Kitson & Co. (in addition to four previously in use): one of these is 17 ft. dim. in a single piece, and the other is 18 ft. diam. iu sections. The total mashing power is 225 quarters per day. There are two largo steam coppers, of 14 and 15 ft. (limn., in addition to four older ones boiled by fire. The fermenting vessels, 141 in number, are all on the Yorkshire square system, most of them of slate, erected by Messrs. Alfred Carter & Co. There are two of Riley's helical refrigerators, capable of cooling 120 and 140 barrels per hour down to within 4° Fahr. of the temperature of the cooling water used.
Hydraulic machinery, supplied by Sir William Armstrong & Co., is used for working five piston-hoists and five chain-hoists, for passengers and goods, and five sack-hoists. In the new maltings the grain is distributed by elevators and by an india-rubber carrying band, with discharging appliances; which were also supplied by Sir William Armstrong & Co. There are ten large boilers supplying steam to eleven engines of carious sizes, and of about 200 aggregate nominal horse-power. One engine drives a machine for producing cold by the vaporisation of ether, but none of the past three summers have been sufficiently hot to require its use; the shafting in the brewhouse can also be driven by the same engine.
Steam is also largely used for heating, boiling, and washing purposes. The supply of water for brewing is obtained from a well 90 ft. deep and 25 ft. diam. at the bottom, and greatly resembles the Burton water. The water used for cooling and washing purposes is obtained from two artesian wells, 600 ft. deep. The firm do the principal part of their own malting, and manufacture and repair on the premises their own casks, drays, &c.; and employ altogether over four hundred hands. The casks arc all trashed by machinery, which does away with the necessity of unheading and heading up again.
MESSRS. WILSON WALKER & CO., SHEEPSCAR LEATHER WORKS, LEEDS.
This business was established in 1823 by the late John Wilson, and the present works, built in 1847, give employment to over 350 hands. Calf kid, tanned calf, sealskin for boot purposes, sheepskin, &e., are all made up into the various kinds and qualities of leather; and 3,000 skins per day are easily turned out in the various forms of roans, chamois, &c. The calf-kid department consumes 200,000 skins annually. In the processes of dyeing, shaving, and finishing, many ingenious time-saving appliances are introduced. The bulk of the leather here manufactured is used by upholsterers, coach and carriage builders, bookbinders, shoemakers, &c.
WORKS AT BRADFORD.
MESSRS. THWAITES BROTHERS (late THWAITES & CARBUTT), VULCAN IRON WORKS, THORNTON ROAD, BRADFORD.
These works were established in 1855, and employ about 200 hands. They consist of a turning shop, fitting shop, smithy, storerooms, and pattern shop; and cover a ground area of about two acres.
The turning shop, which is 224 ft. long by 33 ft. wide, is filled with lathes capable of boring out cylinders up to 100 inches diameter; planing machines, of which one, a side planer, can plane to a height of 10 ft.; powerful drilling and slotting machines, &c.; and overhead run powerful travelling cranes, one of which can lift 30 tons.
The fitting shop, which is 152 ft. long by 56 ft. wide, is devoted principally to the fitting and erection of steam-hammers; for this purpose a pit is sunk in it, so as to leave room above for the travelling crane, which is constructed to lift 50 tons, and to pass over the tops of the steam-hammers.
In the smithy, which measures 56 ft. by 42 ft., are eight blacksmiths' fires, supplied with air by a No. 2 Root's blower, a 12-cwt. cast-standard self-acting hammer, and a 6-cwt. single-standard double-framed hammer, also fitted with a self- acting valve-motion; also a punching and shearing machine, &c.
The specialities of this firm consist of steam-hammers, blowers and exhausters, rolling-mill engines, punching and shearing machines, straightening and bending machines, hot saws, and all the plant used in iron and steel works. Of steam-hammers upwards of eight hundred have been turned out, some being of the largest size; such as one of 35 tons, which in 1869 was converted to 50 tons, for [[Admiral Kolokoltzoff|Capt. Kolokoltzoff's Alexandrovna Works, for forging gun-coils; and another of 30 tons supplied to Sir William Armstrong & Co. for the same purpose.
In 1867 was commenced the manufacture of Root's blowers and exhausters, of which upwards of four thousand have been made, to produce a blast of air varying between that from a fan and that from a blowing engine. Some of them are built with a duplex engine, both blower and engine being mounted upon a strong cast-iron bed-plate. In large sizes these machines are arranged as mine ventilators (see Proceedings 1877, p. 92); one of which has been working with great success since 1877 at Chilton Colliery, Ferry Hill, Durham. Air-compressors also have latterly been made here, to run at high speed, which possess several advantages over those of ordinary construction.
MESSRS. LISTER & CO., MANNINGHAM SILK MILLS, BRADFORD.
These mills, re-erected ten years ago, cover an area of nearly twelve acres. The combined driving power for the works is equal to 3260 HP. There are seven engines, namely a pair of high-pressure horizontal compound condensing engines of 1400 IHP.; a pair of beam engines of 1000 IHP.; a horizontal high-pressure compound condensing engine of 400 IHP.; a vertical condensing engine of 300 IHP.; two pairs of high-pressure horizontal engines of 60 IHP. each; and a vertical high-pressure engine of 40 IHP.
The pair of beam engines were built by the Bowling Co. over thirty years ago, for working steam expansively. A vertical driving-shaft of 40 tons weight, running at 112 revolutions per minute on a foot of 13 inches diameter, was tried at first with cast-iron and wrought-iron steps, which proved unsuccessful under such a load; Whitworth compressed-steel and phosphor-bronze were then substituted, and have answered perfectly.
MESSRS. DANIEL ILLINGWORTH & SONS, WHETLEY MILLS, THORNTON ROAD, BRADFORD.
The machinery is all driven by ropes from an engine constructed by Messrs. Hick & Hargreaves, of Bolton, with 40-inch cylinder, 10-feet stroke, and Corliss valves. The driving ropes run on the rim of the fly-wheel, which is 30 ft. diameter and weighs 58 tons. This engine has been at work about two years.
LIST OF WORKS AT HULL THROWN OPEN TO THE INSTITUTION.
[The following particulars as to the gradual development and present position of the Hull Docks have been kindly furnished by Mr. R. A. MARILuEn. Inst. C.E., Docks Engineer.]
The Dock Company leave at present seven docks, the first of which was opened in 1778 and the last in 1880. They have also two timber ponds and a large graving dock. The dates of the construction of the various docks, their dimensions, and areas are as follows:—
[See table on page image]
The docks have altogether a water space of upwards of 8S acres, exclusive of the timber ponds, which are nearly 25 acres in area. Another dock, 10.5acres in area, is in progress, provision being made to extend it to 23 acres when found. necessary. This dock is expected to be opened at the beginning of next year. The total water space with the projected extensions will be nearly 138 acres.
The graving dock, the entrance to which is in the William Wright Dock, is capable of taking in the largest ships coming into the port. Its dimensions are as follows:—
Length from gates to head 501 feet
Length on blocks 460 feet
Width at the top 85 feet
Width of entrance 50 feet
Another graving dock of nearly the same size is now in course of construction, the entrance to which will be in No. 2 New West Dock.
ALEXANDRA DOCK WORKS, HULL.
The Alexandra Dock works are situated to the east of Earle's Shipbuilding yard, and extend over a very large area. Some two thousand men are at present employed, principally in excavating and walling; they are working night and day shifts, and with the assistance of the steam navvies, cranes, &c., are getting out fully 120,000 cubic yards per month. When the works are completed there will be 112- mile of dock walling, and a similar extent of sea wall. The hydraulic engine-house is now complete, and working cranes and a hydraulic navvy. Rails are laid over the whole workings, twenty locomotives being in constant use; and seventy other engines are at work for other purposes, such as driving steam-cranes, pumping, pile-driving, &c. Tile electric light is used at night. The dimensions of the docks are as follows:—Main Dock, 2300 ft. long by 1000 ft. wide, water area 461 acres; Graving Dock, No. 1, 500 ft. long, with 60 ft. width at entrance; No. 2, 550 ft. long, with 65 ft. width at entrance. The main lock is 550 ft. long and 85 ft. wide, with 34 ft. depth on sill at high water of spring tides, and 27 ft. 10 in. at neaps.
These works have been carried on for upwards of thirty years; they cover an area of about thirty acres, and do the whole of the work in connection with the construction of ships and their engines. The yard is situated on the banks of the Humber, here three miles wide, and has a good river frontage with plenty of water, so that the largest ships can be launched without hindrance.
To the west of the yard is the Victoria Dock, and on the east the Alexandra Dock now in course of construction; there is thus water accommodation on three sides. The works possess facilities for executing the most extensive repairs expeditiously, having four slips, two worked by hydraulic gear and two by steam. The last constructed hydraulic slip has only been in use a few months, and is the largest in England, being capable of hauling up a ship of 3500 tons gross register, that is, a dead weight of 2500 tons, in an hour and a half. The other hydraulic slip is adapted to take up ships of 2000 tons dead weight.
HULL HYDRAULIC POWER CO.
The supply of motive power by hydraulic pressure, on the system inaugurated by Sir William G. Armstrong, was commenced here in 1875. About 11 mile of 6-inch mains has been laid through the streets bordering the old harbour, where most of the wharves and warehouses are situated, and hydraulic power is supplied to a large number of premises for various purposes. An important extension now in progress will complete the circuit round the docks, and will enable new connections to be made or repairs to be effected without inconveniencing other consumers.
At the pumping station in Alzehell Street are two pairs of engines, together of 60 horse-power, each pair having cylinders 121 in. diameter by 2 ft. stroke, driving the pumps direct, and delivering into the accumulator 135 gallons of water per minute at the pressure of 700 lbs. per sq. in. The accumulator is 18 in. diameter, with 20 ft. stroke, containing 220 gallons of water, and weighted with 80 tons of slag. Over the engine room is a cast-iron tank containing 44,000 gallons of water, which is pumped from the river Hull at low water by two duplicate 8-in. Appold centrifugal Pimps, driven by a Brotherhood three-cylinder engine—each pump being capable of delivering 48,000 gallons per hour to the height of 35 feet, when running at 800 revolutions per minute.
The Hull Dock Co. have laid a main of their own along the Queen's Dock, and are renting power from the Hydraulic Power Co. for working the cranes and other lifting appliances at that dock.