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1954. PEEL, WILLIAMS, and PEEL, Soho Iron Works, Manchester.
Steam engine, hydraulic press, and pumps for beet-root sugar works.
Fig. 1 represents a powerful HYDRAULIC PRESS, having a cylinder of 12 in. diameter, capable of exerting a pressure of 340 tons, with water at a pressure of 3 tons per square in. It is provided with extra large water ways, which facilitate expedition in running down the table. The columns for supporting the top of the press are of wrought-iron, and turned all over perfectly true. The recesses upon which the collars of the columns rest, are planed to one true surface, to insure a uniform bearing upon each corner of the framework.
Such presses are used for expressing the syrup or juice from beet-root, in the sugar manufactories of Southern Russia. The table has a channel along its four sides into which the syrup is collected. These presses are also applicable for a variety of other purposes; in some instances having the tables and under side of the top of the press planed true and smooth all over, for pressing paper, etc. They are also extensively used for packing cloth goods (or hay) tightly into small bales for exportation, etc.
Fig. 2 represents a set of HYDRAULIC-PRESS PUMPS worked by two independent steam engines, on the non-condensing principle of direct action, attached to the same framing, applicable not only to presses such as Fig. 1, but also to every description of hydraulic press.
This set consists of eight pumps, four being 1.75 in. diameter and four 1 in. diameter, all having a stroke of 3 in. Usually one of each size is used to each press, and the arrangement is such, that, by a self-acting apparatus, when a pressure or one ton to the square inch has been reached, the larger pump ceases to act, and the final pressure is obtained by the use of the small pump alone.
The pumps receive motion from eccentrics fixed upon the crank shaft common to both engines. Suitable safety valves and also a much improved stop and let-off valve are attached to this set of pumps. The cylinders of the steam engines are 8 in. diameter and have a stroke of 16 in. and the speed may be safely varied from 80 to 100 revolutions per minute. This set of pumps possesses peculiar advantages, being entire and self-contained, consequently a very small amount of foundation is required. At the same time, the power in the cylinders is amply sufficient to work all the pumps under pressure at the same instant. A self-acting governor is attached, for regulating the velocity when a set or more of the pumps may be suddenly disengaged or otherwise; and the cylinders and all the other parts are arranged with every facility for taking to pieces to clean out, or repair. All the joinings at the junctions of the pipes, etc. are wholly metallic, no leather or other medium being used except round the working plungers. Attention is also directed to the very efficient mode adopted, for compensating the slackness occasioned by the wear of the slide blocks of the engine piston rods, as also the knuckle-joints of the pump rods.
Fig. 3 represents a steam engine, technically known as a "vacuum engine." It is nominally of 16-horse power, and is constructed on the non-condensing principle. It is fitted' with two vacuum pumps 18 in. diameter, and 18 in. stroke, all the valves being of vulcanized india-rubber. The purpose for which this class of engine is employed, is for creating and maintaining a vacuum in the sugar boiling pans, thereby producing ebullition and vaporisation, at a much lower temperature than is usual in vessels used for such pm-poses, when subject to atmospheric pressure, by which means a superior quality and colour of sugar is produced. I t is provided also with two additional pumps, one for supplying cold water to a cistern for general use, and the other for supplying water to the boiler. Either or both of these pumps may be used or dispensed with as circumstances require. The speed of this engine is 50 revolutions per minute, and power may be taken by a broad belt from the periphery of the fly wheel formed for that purpose, or by gearing from the fly wheel shaft. This engine and pumps are not only applicable to the work already referred to, but are also well adapted to sugar refineries, and may be made with the air pumps upon the double-acting principle, thus giving out twice the effect, in which case a cylinder proportionately larger will be necessary; and although the engine exhibited is arranged to work at a speed of 50 revolutions per minute, this may be varied at pleasure to a Considerable extent.