Grace's Guide To British Industrial History

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Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 163,199 pages of information and 245,645 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

1862 London Exhibition: Catalogue: Class 7.: J. Whitworth and Co

From Graces Guide
Self-acting Foot Lathe
Self-acting Lathe
Self-acting Break Lathe
Railway-wheel Turning Lathe
Self-acting Planing Machine
Universal Shaping Machine
Self-acting Slotting Machine
Self-acting Compound Slotting Machine
Self-acting Drilling and Boring Machine
Self-acting Radial Drilling and Boring Machine
Slot-drilling Machine
Wheel-cutting Machine
Self-acting Nut-shaping Machine
Punching and Shearing Machine
Improved 'Ryder's' Forging Machine
Bolt and Nut Screwing Machine
Hand Screwing Apparatus
Cylindrical Gauges

1742. WHITWORTH, J., and Co., Charlton Street, Manchester.

Machinery for cutting metals and timber.

SELF-ACTING FOOT LATHES for the use of engineers, amateurs, philosophical-instrument makers.

They are suited for turning plain or ornamental work, for small sliding, screwing, and surfacing, and are made of the several sizes from 5 to 9 in. centres, and with any requisite length of bed. They are sometimes supplied with chucks of various descriptions and overhead motion.

SELF-ACTING LATHES for sliding, screwing, surfacing, and boring.

They are furnished as single or with the patent duplex motion. The latter having two tools, will turn double the quantity of work that the single lathe can, and of a better quality. For sliding shafting, the duplex principle is invaluable, as the lateral strain put upon the shaft by the single tool is neutralised by the additional tool acting opposite to it.

The lathe exhibited is a medium size, with 10-in. centre and bed 10 ft. long. The sizes usually manufactured range from 6 in. to 36 in. in height of centre, and are made with any required length of bed.

SELF-ACTING BREAK LATHES, with geared headstocks, large face plate, with wheel at the back, heavy foundation plate, planed and grooved on its upper surface, extending the entire length and breadth of the lathe.

The bed is movable on the foundation plate by rack and pinion, so as to form a break for admitting work of a large diameter.

These lathes are universal in their application, being suitable for sliding, screwing, surfacing, and boring, and for large and small work. They are made of several sizes, admitting work varying from 4 ft. to 10 ft. diameter, and of any length.

PATENT SELF-ACTING RAILWAY-WHEEL TURNING LATHE, for boring or turning both wheels at once, on or off their axles.

In the patent duplex wheel lathe, four cutting tools are employed which act simultaneously at opposite sides of each wheel. Both wheels are turned at the same time, and the rests are readily removable to allow of the wheels being placed in, and removed from the lathe.

The headstocks are driven independently, and are adjustable apart by means of rack and pinion.

The rests are worked by overhead self-acting motion, and are independent of each other. They are provided with two transverse motions and a swivelling motion, so that they may be set at any required angle. The peculiarity of the lathe consists in the employment of four cutting tools, which enables the work to be produced in halt the time that the ordinary lathe with two tools takes. These lathes are made of several sizes for turning wheels from 3 ft. to 10 ft. diameter.

SELF-ACTING PLANING MACHINES, with grooved table worked by screw, which gives a smooth and even motion; driving pulleys and gear placed at the end of the bed.

These machines have self-acting motions for horizontal, vertical, and angular planing. Two of them are exhibited, namely, one E size, 22 ft. long, 5 ft. 6 in. wide, 5 ft. 6 in. high, provided with 2 reversing tools, each to plane both ways.

The other machine is smaller, being a C size, 9 ft. long, 3 ft. 6 in. wide, 3 ft. 6 in. high, and is provided with one tool holder and planes only one way, the table having its return traverse motion increased to nearly 3 times the cutting traverse.

The sizes manufactured are designated A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I sizes. They vary according to the width and height of the object they will plane, namely from 18 in. by 18 in. up to 14 ft. by 14 ft. In length they are made to suit the work to be planed, and, as a general rule, will plane three-fourths of the length of their bed.

A CRANK PLANING MACHINE is also exhibited, in which the table is worked by a crank and lever, which imparts a uniform motion in cutting and a rapid one in returning.

PATENT UNIVERSAL SHAPING MACHINES, for shaping levers, cranks, connecting rods, and for work in general.

They have adjustable crank motion, self-acting motions for horizontal, verticular, angular, and circular work, and for internal curves. The tool-holder is provided with a segment wheel and worm, to which a self-acting motion is attached.

These machines have two independent tables for holding the work, which are adjustable vertically by means of screws and nuts, and longitudinally by means of racks and pinions. They are attached to the machine in front by bolts sliding in planed T grooves.

There are several sizes of these machines made, viz. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and J sizes. The stroke of the tool varies from 5 in. in the A size to 42 in. in the J size and the lengths of the bed from 3 ft. to 18 ft. respectively.

The two sizes exhibited are B and F.

The larger sizes, viz. C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and J sizes, are sometimes provided with two headstocks adjustable independently, and with independent self-acting motions. In this case three tables are usually provided, and the bed is made of any length, to suit the work to be done. This arrangement is suitable for planing or shaping both ends of connecting rods at the same time, or for general work.

SELF-ACTING SLOTTING AND SHAPING MACHINES, with independent upright framing, continuous vertical slide for tool holder, worked by a crank, table for holding the work fitted with transverse slides and a worm wheel for circular work. In some cases extra transverse slides are used for convenience of chucking and shaping work. Two sizes of this machine are exhibited, an A size, with 6 in. stroke, and a D size, with 18 in. stroke.

The small one exhibited has the extra transverse slides, and is placed on standards to bring it to a convenient height for the workman.

These machines are manufactured of several sizes, which are designated A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I sizes.

The length of stroke varies from 6 in. in the A size, to 48 in. in the I size, and the diameter admitted from 2 ft. in the A to 10 ft. in the I size.

In the machines with stroke above 30 in. long the tool slide is worked by means of a screw with a quick return motion, and in the others by a crank.

SELF-ACTING COMPOUND SLOTTING AND SHAPING MACHINES, with one or more slotting headstocks mounted on the same slide-bed. The bed and tables of these machines are similar to those of the universal shaping machine. The work is fixed to the tables, which have vertical and longitudinal adjustments. The slotting headstocks and tools are made to slide along the bed, each tool having independent self-acting motions for plain and circular work. The several tools may be made to operate at different points of the same object at the same time, and as a general rule the work may be finished, before removal from the machine, with once fixing only.

SELF-ACTING VERTICAL DRILLING AND BORING MACHINES, each with independent hollow framing, foundation plate planed and grooved, on which work may be fixed if too high for the table.

The table is made to radiate or swivel, and also to slide to and from the machine, and has also a vertical slide. The drill spindle works vertically through a tube by self-acting means, and it may be raised or lowered by hand. Several sizes of these machines are exhibited of different capabilities. They are designated A, B, C, D, E, and F sizes. The A size will drill holes up to 1 in. diameter, and will admit objects of 24 in. diameter, and the F size will bore up to 24 in. diameter, and admit objects of 64 in. diameter.

A very small VERTICAL DRILLING MACHINE is exhibited, in which the spindle is constructed like that of a lathe with conical steel bearings, and the table, which has compound slides, is moved vertically by the foot. A stop is provided to give the limit to which the table can be raised, and this stop will act as a guide in cutting mortises or slots, or in milling or shaping light work. This small machine is used for the manufacture of rifles, philosophical instruments and for performing light work in general.

The radial arm, carrying the drill spindle, is movable through an arc of nearly 200°, and is attached to a vertical slide worked by rack and pinion with worm and wheel on the main frame. The drill spindle works through a tube, is adjustable horizontally by screw and nut from one radius to another, has a variable self-acting down motion, and retains its connexion with the driving motion in every position. Several sizes A, B, C, and D, of this machine are manufactured of 4, 6, 8, and 10 ft. radius respectively, and of proportional height and strength to the machine exhibited.

IMPROVED SELF-ACTING SLOT-DRILLING MACHINE for cutting slots or mortises, and for general drilling, boring, and milling, constructed with horizontal slide- bed, grooved in front to receive the several tables used for holding the work, which are movable vertically and longitudinally. The drill spindle revolves in conical case-hardened steel bearings within a tube, which by preference is made octagonal in section, and is adjustable in its bearings, as in the spindle of a turning lathe.

The means for imparting both the rotary and the reciprocating actions, as well as the variable self-acting down motion to the cutter, are all contained within, and carried upon and with the main slide or headstock of the machine, which slides on the upper surface of the bed. These machines are made with one or several drilling headstocks and tables, and of various sizes, according to the class of work to he done by them. Attention is given to the construction of the drill spindle (applicable to drilling, milling, and boring machines in general) which is designed to prevent the cutting tool from having lateral play, and consequently will produce superior work, also to the means provided for adjusting the drill spindle whilst working, both transversely and longitudinally, and for regulating the traverse of the cutter.

Another description of slot-drilling machine is made suitable for cutting slots which do not run in the direction of the length of the object, as for example in the cross head of a steam engine. The main frame carrying the drill spindle is stationary. The crank motion is applied to one of the slides of the table carrying the work, and is so arranged as to give the traverse to the table at any angle according to the direction in which the mortise has to be cut. Compound slides are provided for adjusting the work, so that when several mortises are required to be cut, it is only necessary to fix or chuck once.

SELF-ACTING WHEEL-CUTTING MACHINE, to cut the teeth of spur, bevel, and screw wheels (in metal or wood).

Several sizes of this machine, C, D, and E, are made, the D size being exhibited. It will cut wheels up to 10 ft. diameter, and pinions of the smallest diameter required in engineer's wore. Machines of a simple description and smaller sizes, A and B, are made for cutting the teeth of spur-wheels only, in which several wheels or pinions are placed side by side on an arbor, and the cutter is traversed through them by self-acting means, the dividing being accomplished by change-wheels and worm-wheel, as in the large machine exhibited.

SELF-ACTING BOLT HEAD AND NUT SHAPING MACHINE, with two circular cutters for shaping two sides at once, two concentric chucks for holding two objects to be operated upon at the same time. Duplicate compound slide rests, with independent self-acting and self-disengaging motions, are provided to prevent injury from the cutters. The concentric chucks are placed on opposite sides of the circular cutters, by which means the forces are balanced, and double the quantity of work that could be done with only one chuck is produced.

This machine is applicable for shaping and squaring nuts, bolt-heads, ends of shafts, etc. These machines are sometimes made with single cutter and single chuck, but the machine above explained and exhibited will produce the most work.

PUNCHING AND SHEARING MACHINES, constructed with a strong hollow main framing, with large wheel and steel-iron eccentric shaft, and connecting rods for working the slides.

Both the operations of punching and shearing may be regularly going on at the same time without interfering with each other. The large wheel is driven by a pinion placed on a shaft at the top of the machine, at each end of which is keyed a fly-wheel and at one end the driving pulley. An apparatus is provided for raising the punch without stopping the machine. Sometimes "traverse tables," for holding and moving the plates to be punched and sheared, are supplied, the correct division of the holes being secured by screw and change-wheels worked from a cam on the eccentric shaft of the machine. The several sizes of these machines are A, B, C, D, and E, which will punch respectively 4-in. to 2-in. holes through plates of a corresponding thickness, and will shear a similar thickness of plate.

BAR-CUTTING MACHINES are also manufactured of similar design to the above, or with only one slide.

In large machines for punching, shearing, or bar cutting, a steam engine of sufficient power is attached to the main framing to work the pinion and fly-wheel shaft, and the driving pulley is dispensed with. This is convenient for machines that are situated at a remote distance from the main shafting of a workshop.

IMPROVED RYDER'S FORGING MACHINE, with strong compact framing, steel eccentric shaft, for working the upper swages, which are generally four in number.

The upper swages are depressed and raised by the eccentrics, and the springs formerly used (frequently causing inconvenience by breaking) are dispensed with. The lower swages are raised by screws and wheels to the required height, and any one or more of them may be raised during the swaging of a piece of work, so as to form taper work. These machines are applicable to the forging of small articles which are numerous, where the cost of the swages (which in general are made of cast- iron) forms a small item in proportion to the entire cost of the articles to be forged. They are made of two sizes, A and B. The machine exhibited, being the B size, will admit a piece 6 inches square.

SAWING MACHINE FOR HOT IRON. Is a useful machine in connexion with the Ryder's forging machine.

It is arranged with a slide bed, on which the slide carrying the circular saw is movable longitudinally. The iron to be sawn is placed in an angular grooved bed, and the saw is drawn through it by means of a screw and nut.

IMPROVED SCREWING MACHINE for bolts and nuts, with hollow mandril, four radial dies, two on each side of the centre, complete set of dies and taps, with chucking apparatus for bolts and nuts.

The dies are cut by master taps, of double the depth of thread, larger in diameter than the working taps, so that the circle of the dies in contact, is the same size as the screw blank. A perfect guide is thus obtained, and a thread of correct pitch is formed at the commencement. The inner edges of the dies being filed off to an acute angle, they cut with ease without destroying the thread; and by the direction in which the dies are moved, their cutting power is preserved for the full depth of thread. Their action in cutting is similar to that of a chasing tool, which they resemble in form, and may in like manner be sharpened on a grindstone.

HAND SCREWING APPARATUS, with screw stocks, dies, taps, and tap wrenches, are furnished of all sizes to screw from 1/16th in. to 3 in. diameter. The screw threads throughout are uniform in angle and shape.

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CYLINDRICAL GAUGES, being standards of size, are made exact to the measure of the realm and tested by the measuring machine. They are supplied in sets, in boxes, as exhibited.

See Also